Citations


Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

The Economics and Finance Letters

December 2021, Volume 8, 2, pp 251-265

Nexus of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth: A Study of Ghana

Mary Donkor

,

Yusheng Kong

,

Mohammed Musa

,

Muhammed Hafeez

,

Stephen Kwadwo Antwi

Mary Donkor 1 ,

Yusheng Kong 1 Mohammed Musa 3
Muhammed Hafeez 4
Stephen Kwadwo Antwi 1 
  1. School of Finance and Economics, Jiangsu University, P.R. China. 1

  2. Department of Accounting, Banking and Finance, Ghana Communication Technology University, Ghana. 3

  3. Facultyof Management and Administrative Science, University of Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. 4

Pages: 251-265

DOI: 10.18488/journal.29.2021.82.251.265

Share :

Article History:

Received: 01 July, 2021
Revised: 28 July, 2021
Accepted: 19 August, 2021
Published: 13 September, 2021


Abstract:

The role of monetary policy instruments has not been explored by most researchers in Ghana; hence this study investigates the impact of monetary policy instruments on economic growth using time series data from 1990 to 2019. In testing for stationarity, augmented Dickey–Fuller and Phillips–Perron unit root tests were employed; Johansen cointegration and error correction mechanism were used in estimating the long- and short-run dynamic of the variables. The results obtained from the estimation revealed a positive and significant impact of money supply and exchange rate on economic growth for both long and short run. Moreover, monetary policy rate, interest rate, and inflation significantly affected growth rate negatively. The results also indicated a bidirectional causal linkage between money supply and growth rate. There was, however, a unidirectional relationship between interest rate and growth, between inflation and growth, and between monetary policy rate and growth in the long run. The study recommends that monetary policy authorities and the Bank of Ghana (BoG) introduce structural reforms and policies that will help create a favorable climate for both domestic and foreign investment. Again, BoG should keep interest rates, policy rates, and inflation in check to prevent shrinking of economic activities, since these have a direct influence on growth.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the existing literature on monetary policy and economic growth by considering interest rates, monetary policy rates, and exchange rates in the Ghanaian context. The study checked causal relationships among monetary policy variables and economic growth, which most studies have ignored.

Keywords:

Economic growth, Monetary policy, Cointegration, Vector correction model, Ghana.

Reference:

Abille, A. B., & Mpuure, D. M.-N. (2020). Effect of monetary policy on economic growth in Ghana. Applied Economics Journal, 27(2), 110-124.

Ajisafe, R., & Folorunso, B. (2002). The relative effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policy in macroeconomic management in Nigeria. The African Economic and Business Review, 3(1), 23-40.

Amarasekara, C. A. (2007). The impact of monetary policy on economic growth and inflation in Sri Lanka. Staff Studies, 38(1& 2), 1-44.

Archer, J. D. (2000). Assistant governor reserve bank of New Zealand. Paper presented at the A Presentation to a Seminar on Inflation Targeting, held at the International Monetary Fund, Washington.

Aryeetey, E., & Kanbur, S. R. (2017). The economy of Ghana sixty years after independence: Oxford University Press.

Bank of Ghana. (2003). Annual report. Accra: Bank of Ghana.

Bank of Ghana. (2020). Monetary policy framework. Retrieved from: https://www.bog.gov.gh/monetary-policy/our-monetary-policy-framework/ .

Bondarchuk, V., & Raboshuk, A. (2020). The impact of monetary policy on economic growth in Ukraine. Economist, 1, 94-115.

Cyrus, M. (2014). Monetary and fiscal policy shocks and economic growth in Kenya: VAR econometric approach. Journal of World Economic Research, 3(6), 95.

Davoodi, H., Dixit, S., & Pinter, G. (2013). Monetary transmission mechanism in the East African Community: An empirical investigation. IMF Working Paper, 13/39.

Dickey, D. A., & Fuller, W. A. (1981). Likelihood ratio statistics for autoregressive time series with a unit root. Econometrica, 49(4), 1057–1072. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2307/1912517.

Engle, R. F., & Granger, C. W. (1987). Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 55(2), 251-276. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2307/1913236.

Fasanya, I. O., Onakoya, A. B., & Agboluaje, M. A. (2013). Does monetary policy influence economic growth in Nigeria. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 3(5), 635-646.

Folawewo, A. O., & Osinubi, T. S. (2006). Monetary policy and macroeconomic instability in Nigeria: A rational expectation approach. Journal of Social Sciences, 12(2), 93-100. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2006.11978375.

Fridman, M. (1968). The role of monetary policy. American Economic Review, 58(1), 1-17.

Ganev, G., Krisztina, M., Krzysztof, R., & Prsemyslaw, W. (2002). Transmission mechanism of monetary policy in Central and Eastern Europe. Centre for Social and Economic Research (CASE)(Report No. 52).

Hasanov, M., & Omay, T. (2011). The relationship between inflation, output growth, and their uncertainties: Evidence from selected CEE countries. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 47(sup3), 5-20. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2753/ree1540-496x4704s301.

Havi, E. D. K., & Enu, P. (2014). The effect of fiscal policy and monetary policy on Ghana’s economic growth: Which policy is more potent. International Journal of Empirical Finance, 3(2), 61-75.

Ivrendi, M., & Yildirim, Z. (2013). Monetary policy shocks and macroeconomic variables: Evidence from fast growing emerging economies (No. 2013-61). Economics Discussion Papers.

Kamaan, C. K. (2014). The effect of monetary policy on economic growth in Kenya. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 3(8), 11-24.

Khabo, V. S. (2002). The impact of monetary policy of the economic growth of a small and open economy: The case of South Africa: Department of Economics, University of Pretoria.

Laopodis, N. T. (2013). Monetary policy and stock market dynamics across monetary regimes. Journal of International Money and Finance, 33, 381-406. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jimonfin.2012.09.004.

Lashkary, M., & Kashani, B. H. (2011). The impact of monetary variables on economic growth in Iran: A monetarists’ approach. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(3), 449-456.

Mallik, G., & Chowdhury, A. (2001). Inflation and economic growth: Evidence from four South Asian countries. Asia-Pacific Development Journal, 8(1), 123-135.

Mankiw, N. G. (2002). Macroeconomics (5th ed.): Worth Publishers.

McCallum, J. (1991). Credit rationing and the monetary transmission mechanism, American economic association. American Economic Review, 81(4), 946-951.

McDermott, J., & Williams, R. (2018). Inflation targeting in New Zealand: An experience in evolution. Paper presented at the Conference–2018.

Mugableh, M. I. (2019). Does monetary policy affect economic growth in Jordan? Evidence from ordinary least square models. International Business Research, 12(1), 27-34.

Mukhtarov, S., Selcuk, H., & Mammadov, E. (2016). Monetary transmission mechanisms: The case of Azerbaijan. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478), 5(2), 16-33.

Musah, M., Kong, Y., Mensah, I. A., Li, K., Vo, X. V., Bawuah, J., & Donkor, M. (2021). Trade openness and CO2 emanations: A heterogeneous analysis on the developing eight (D8) countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(32), 44200-44215. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13816-7.

Nouri, M., & Samimi, A. J. (2011). The impact of monetary policy on economic growth in Iran. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 9(6), 740-743.

Onyeiwu, C. (2012). Monetary policy and economic growth of Nigeria. Journal of Economics and Sustainable development, 3(7), 62-70.

Phillips, P. C. B., & Perron, P. (1988). Testing for a unit root in time series regression. Biometrika, 75(2), 335–346. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/75.2.335.

Precious, C., & Makhetha-Kosi, P. (2014). Impact of monetary policy on economic growth: A case study of South Africa. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(15), 76-76. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n15p76.

Rasheed, M. A. (2011). The relationship between money and real variables: Pakistan’s experience. Pakistan Business Review, 7(1), 715-724.

Saunders, A., & Schumacher, L. (2000). The determinants of bank interest rate margins: An international study. Journal of International Money and Finance, 19(6), 813-832. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0261-5606(00)00033-4.

Sowa, N. K., & Abradu-Otoo, P. (2007). Inflation management in Ghana – the output factor. Paper presented at the Bank of England/Cornell University Workshop on New Developments in Monetary Policy in Emerging Economies, London, 17–18 July.

Starr, M. (2005). Does money matter in the cis? Effects of monetary policy on output and prices. Journal of Comparative Economics, 33(3), 441-461. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jce.2005.05.006.

Suhaibu, I., Harvey, S. K., & Amidu, M. (2017). The impact of monetary policy on stock market performance: Evidence from twelve (12) African countries. Research in International Business and Finance, 42, 1372-1382. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ribaf.2017.07.075.

Twinoburyo, E. N., & Odhiambo, N. M. (2018). Monetary policy and economic growth: A review of international literature. Journal of Central Banking Theory and Practice, 7(2), 123-137.

Vincent, O. O. (1979). Twenty-one years of monetary and fiscal policies in Nigeria (1958- 1979): A comment. Paper presented at the 20lh Anniversary Bullion, Central Bank of Nigeria, Lagos July.

Wassell, C. S., & Saunders, P. J. (2000). Time series evidence on social security and private saving: The issue revisited. Unpublished Manuscript, Department of Economics, Central Washington University.

Statistics:

Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor

Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) The Nexus between Financial Crisis and Household Consumption: Evidence from Emerging Countries
( 2 ) Public Sector Size and GDP Growth Nexus: Panel Data Estimation
( 3 ) The Nexus between Urbanization, Energy Demand and Healthcare in Bangladesh
( 4 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 5 ) Analysis of Causal Nexus between Defense Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach
( 6 ) Nexus among Foreign Exchange Reserve, Remittance and Trade Openness: An Empirical Investigation in the Case of Bangladeshi Economy
( 7 ) Money Supply & Growth Nexus: Evidence from Nigeria
( 8 ) Investigating the Nexus among Poverty Alleviation, Unemployment, and Economic Development in Nigeria
( 9 ) Nexus of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth: A Study of Ghana
( 10 ) Natural Resource Rents-Capital Flight Nexus in Selected ECOWAS Countries: Evidence from Non-Linear ARDL Approach
( 11 ) Interest Rate–Economic Growth Nexus Under Currency Board Operations
( 12 ) Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia
( 13 ) The Role of Bank Loans in Monetary Policy Transmission in Malaysia
( 14 ) Credibility and Monetary Policy under Inflation Targeting
( 15 ) Management of The CFA Franc: What are the Fundamentals of the Real Exchange Rate in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)?
( 16 ) Inflation, Oil Revenue, and Monetary Policy Mix in an Oil-Dependent Economy: Empirical Insights from the Case of Nigeria
( 18 ) NGO Programming and Policy Advocacy in the Land Sector in Zimbabwe
( 19 ) The Impact of Investment Climate Reforms on the Development of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Nigeria: A Policy Brief
( 20 ) Institutionalising and Mainstreaming Policy Analysis Culture in African Environments
( 21 ) Social Security; A Public Policy for Good Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Nigerian Legislature
( 22 ) An Essay on the Political Economy of Fiscal Policy Making in Pakistan
( 23 ) National Urban Development Policy and the Unanswered Development Question of Slum in Nigeria
( 24 ) Dividend Policy Relevancy in Theoretical and Practical Economics
( 26 ) The Impact of Dividend Policy on Shareholders’ Wealth before and After Financial Melt down: Evidence from FMCG Sector in India
( 27 ) The Wider Vision of Social Policy: Exploring the Ways of Curbing Violence against Women in Four Wards of Shamva North Constituency (Zimbabwe)
( 29 ) Compliance Behaviour in State-Run Fisheries: Situating Lake Chivero in a Policy Perspective
( 30 ) Republic of Zimbabwe National Water Policy: A Desk Review of the Gaps between the Policy and Its Implementation
( 31 ) A Review on EU Transportation Projects within the Case of Turkey for European Union Regional Development Policy
( 32 ) Empirical Evidence on Municipal Tax Policy and Firm Growth
( 33 ) Technological Innovation in Central and Eastern Europe: What’s the Contribution of Innovation Policy?
( 34 ) Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries
( 35 ) Uncertainties in Global Economic Policy and Nigerias Export Earnings
( 37 ) Productive Welfare Policy: An Innovative Way in Social Safety Net in Malaysia
( 38 ) Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Assessing Public Policy in Ukraine
( 39 ) A Qualitative Analysis of the Impediments to Business Innovation and Information Management in Nigeria: A Policy Stance
( 40 ) The Financial Decentralization Policy for Local Development in Cameroon: An Econometric Analysis
( 41 ) Local Governments and the Conundrum of Service Delivery in Nigeria: What Policy Implications?
( 43 ) Consideration the Relationship Between Information Communications Technology and Economic Growth in Top 10 Economic
( 44 ) Shifting Global Economic Paradigm
( 45 ) How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region
( 46 ) The Prospects of Accounting and Economic Systems in the Era of Global Knowledge Economy
( 47 ) Labor and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe
( 48 ) The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Evidence from Tunisia Using Star and Stecm Models
( 49 ) Exchange Rate Movements, Import And Economic Growth in Nigeria (1986-2010)
( 50 ) Impact of Food Beverage Price Index and Exchange Rate Volatility on Economic Growth
( 51 ) Long-Run Relationships and Causality Tests Between Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in India
( 52 ) Public Infrastructure Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) Approach
( 53 ) Study of the Relationship between Economic Growth and Inflation: Application to the Countries of the South Side of the Mediterranean: A Panel Data Approach
( 54 ) The Entrepreneurship, Knowledge Spillover and Economic Growth
( 55 ) Corruption’s and Democracy’s Effects on Economic Growth
( 56 ) Relationships between Financial Development and Economic Growth: A New Approach by Inputs
( 57 ) Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria
( 58 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 60 ) Consideration the Effects of Water Sector Investment on Economic Growth in Iran
( 61 ) Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?
( 62 ) Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework
( 63 ) Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria
( 64 ) Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections
( 65 ) Rural - Urban Balance as a Measure of Socio-Economic Development with Special Reference to Iran
( 66 ) Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013
( 67 ) The Effect of Access and Quality of Education on Economic Development in Botswana
( 68 ) Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Economic Freedom as Well as Economic Conditions, The Quality of Life, and Public Education Spending on U.S. Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Patterns
( 69 ) Dynamics of Inflation, Economic Growth, Money Supply and Exchange Rate in India: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis
( 70 ) Structural Breaks, Electricity Generation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 71 ) Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 72 ) The Link Between Agricultural Budgetary Allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 73 ) Financial Deepening, Interest Rate Spread and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Sub-Sahara Africa
( 74 ) China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Analysis of Internal and External Challenges
( 75 ) A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program
( 76 ) Military Regimes and Nigeria’s Economic Development, 1966-1999
( 77 ) An Investigation of the Relationship between Manufacturing Output and Economic Growth : Evidence from Nigerias Data Set
( 78 ) Scenario Economic Impact Analysis of Offshore Fishing Tournaments in Ocean City
( 79 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 80 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 81 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 82 ) Impact of Telecommunications Market Liberalization on Labor Productivity in Economic Community of West African States
( 83 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 84 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 85 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 87 ) Public Health Expenditure, Economic Growth and Health Outcomes in Nigeria
( 88 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 89 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 90 ) The Colonialists & Indigenous Exchange Currency: Tracing the Genesis of Socioeconomic Woes in Postcolonial Nigeria
( 91 ) The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach
( 92 ) Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis
( 93 ) The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria
( 94 ) The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia
( 95 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 96 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 99 ) Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies
( 101 ) The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Pinterest
( 102 ) The Impact of Economic Growth, Oil Price, and Financial Globalization Uncertainty on Financial Development: Evidence from Selected Leading African Countries
( 103 ) The Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Bank Default: A Case Study in Brazil
( 104 ) Deficit Financing Asymmetry and Nigerias Economic Growth: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
( 105 ) Impact of Savings on Economic Growth in Africa
( 106 ) Does Corruption Grease or Sand the Wheels of Economic Growth in Ghana? An ARDL Bounds Test
( 108 ) Socioeconomic Environment and Obesity on the US West and East Coasts
( 109 ) Human Capital and Economic Growth in Latin America: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis
( 110 ) An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of FDI, Export and Gross Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth in Bangladesh
( 111 ) Exploring the Linkages between Remittances, Economic Growth and Poverty: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan
( 112 ) Human Capital Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach
( 113 ) Contribution of Domestic Direct Investment and Direct Foreign Investment to Economic Growth in Indonesia Era Joko Widodo
( 114 ) Contribution of Ready-Made Garments Industry on the Economic Development of Bangladesh: An Empirical Analysis
( 115 ) The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Global Economy: Emphasis on Poverty Alleviation and Economic Growth
( 116 ) Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan
( 117 ) Financial Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: New Evidence from a Threshold Autoregressive and Asymmetric Analysis
( 118 ) Socioeconomic Determinants of Drug Abuse in the United States
( 119 ) Central Bank Independence and Economic Growth of Ghana: What Inflation and GDP Per Capita Growth Rates Matter?
( 121 ) Economic and Noneconomic Forces on Remittance Receiving: A Panel Analysis of Top Remittance Sending Countries towards Bangladesh
( 122 ) The Role of Social Capital and Social Innovation in Economic Growth
( 123 ) Twin Deficit Hypothesis and Macroeconomic Fundamentals: New Evidence from Nigeria
( 126 ) Do Petroleum Product Pump Prices Influence Economic Growth in Nigeria? An Empirical Analysis
( 138 ) Study on Environment and Energy Using Belonging Materials
( 139 ) Kashmir Peasant Economy under Dogra’s: A Case Study of Agrarian Produce and Livestock 1885-1925 A.D
( 140 ) Driving Role of Institutional Investors in the Indian Stock Market in Short and Long-Run – An Empirical Study
( 141 ) Promoting Entrepreneurship through Open and Distance Education in Zimbabwe. A Case Study of the Zimbabwe Open University Students at Masvingo Regional Campus
( 142 ) Geographical Starting Points the Analysis of Current Rural Problems in Montenegro: Case Study of Rural Local Community Kralje
( 144 ) A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style
( 146 ) The Recruitment of Migrant Workers in the Food Service Industry in Malaysia. A Study of Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam
( 147 ) Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare
( 148 ) A Mixed-Methods Study to Explore Stage of Readiness and Intention of Micro and Small Enterprises to Adopt Mobile Money in Indonesia
( 149 ) Attributes Influencing Strategic Alignment in the Service Sector: An Indonesian Banking Sector Case Study
( 150 ) Micro-Credits and Poverty Reduction in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania: A Case Study of Dar-Es-Salaam Commercial Bank
( 151 ) An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) On the Administration of Public Records: A Case Study of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana-West Africa
( 152 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 153 ) Opinion of Parents about Child Labour and Their Education – A Study
( 154 ) Measuring the Quality of Islamic Banks Services and Its Impact on Customers Satisfaction A Survey Study on the Islamic Banks Customers in Lattakia-Syria
( 155 ) The Internal Branding Process: Customer Reprofiling and Brand Positioning (Empirical Study on Traditional Snack Food in Bandung-Indonesia)
( 156 ) Managerial Judgement Versus Financial Techniques in Strategic Investment Decisions: An Empirical Study on the Syrian Coastal Region Firms
( 157 ) Confirming the Mediation Effect of A Structural Model By Using Bootstrap Approach: A Case Study of Malaysian 8th Grade Students’ Mathematics Achievement
( 158 ) Studying the Integration of Damascus Securities Exchange with Selected Stock Markets
( 159 ) Market Share and Profitability Relationship: A Study of the Banking Sector in Nigeria
( 160 ) The Effect of Public Debt on Domestic Product and Unemployment (An Empirical Study on the Palestinian Economy)
( 161 ) A Theoretical Analysis Upon the Environmental Health and Justice Issue: A Case Study for a Comparison Between G20s Unitary and Federal Members
( 162 ) A Factor Analysis Approach Towards a Study of the Factors Affecting Students’ Choice of Higher Education Institution: A Case Study of a Private Institution (Twintech International University College of Technology)
( 163 ) Effects of Environmental Satisfaction on Family Displacement Case Study: Gohar Dasht Region, Karaj City
( 164 ) Measuring the Quality of Health Services in Lattakia Province Patients' Perspective (Field Study of Health Centers in Jableh City)
( 165 ) Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State
( 166 ) Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector
( 167 ) Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa
( 169 ) Under-Utilization of Female Capital: A Quantitative Study in Pakistani Perspective
( 170 ) Does Gold Price Lead or Lags Islamic Stock Market and Strategy Commodity Price? A Study from Malaysia
( 171 ) Investigate Airport Service Quality- A Case Study of Airports in Shanghai
( 172 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe