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The Economics and Finance Letters

June 2021, Volume 8, 1, pp 104-116

Central Bank Independence and Economic Growth of Ghana: What Inflation and GDP Per Capita Growth Rates Matter?

Guoping Ding


Prince Asare Vitenu-Sackey

Guoping Ding 1 Prince Asare Vitenu-Sackey 1 ,

  1. Jiangsu University, School of Finance and Economics, Jiangsu Province, P. R. China. 1

Pages: 104-116

DOI: 10.18488/journal.29.2021.81.104.116

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Article History:

Received: 14 January, 2021
Revised: 05 March, 2021
Accepted: 26 March, 2021
Published: 12 April, 2021


The study analyzed data from the World Bank's World Development Indicators, Worldwide Governance Indicators, and Heritage Foundation's Monetary freedom index from 1996 to 2017 to determine the GDP per capita growth and inflation rates require total independence of the central bank of Ghana with threshold regression method. Per the analysis, it was observed that the impact of central bank independence is positively related to economic growth when the inflation threshold is less than 26.1% at a significance level of 5% with an elasticity coefficient of 0.07. On the other hand, when the inflation threshold is greater than or equal to 26.1% with an elasticity coefficient of 0.142 at a significance level of 1%, central bank independence is positively related to economic growth. Nonetheless, the GDP per capita (PPP) growth rate witnessed a decline from 5.8% in 2017 to 4.1% in 2018 and 4.0 in 2019, respectively. Evidently, the regression threshold was pegged at 5.8% or above to significantly impact economic growth when central bank independence is relatively improved. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between inflation variability, economic growth variability, and central bank independence. The earnest responsibility of politicians is to persistently safeguard, protect and ensure the implementation of central bank independence over time; perhaps the able requirement of government and politicians is to understand and explain ultimate reasons regarding the entrustment of power and authority to an independent monetary body to see to the well-being of forthcoming generations and present ones as well.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature but presents fresh evidence regarding the threshold analysis of inflation and GDP per capita in the central bank independence and economic growth nexus in Ghana. Moreover, the study on the backdrop of the political agency theory of central bank independence presents empirical analysis.


Central bank independence economic growth, Inflation threshold,GDP per capita growth threshold, Inflation and Real GDP growth variability, Ghana.


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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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