Citations


Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

The Economics and Finance Letters

June 2021, Volume 8, 1, pp 104-116

Central Bank Independence and Economic Growth of Ghana: What Inflation and GDP Per Capita Growth Rates Matter?

Guoping Ding

,

Prince Asare Vitenu-Sackey

Guoping Ding 1 Prince Asare Vitenu-Sackey 1 ,
;

  1. Jiangsu University, School of Finance and Economics, Jiangsu Province, P. R. China. 1

Pages: 104-116

DOI: 10.18488/journal.29.2021.81.104.116

Share :

Article History:

Received: 14 January, 2021
Revised: 05 March, 2021
Accepted: 26 March, 2021
Published: 12 April, 2021


Abstract:

The study analyzed data from the World Bank's World Development Indicators, Worldwide Governance Indicators, and Heritage Foundation's Monetary freedom index from 1996 to 2017 to determine the GDP per capita growth and inflation rates require total independence of the central bank of Ghana with threshold regression method. Per the analysis, it was observed that the impact of central bank independence is positively related to economic growth when the inflation threshold is less than 26.1% at a significance level of 5% with an elasticity coefficient of 0.07. On the other hand, when the inflation threshold is greater than or equal to 26.1% with an elasticity coefficient of 0.142 at a significance level of 1%, central bank independence is positively related to economic growth. Nonetheless, the GDP per capita (PPP) growth rate witnessed a decline from 5.8% in 2017 to 4.1% in 2018 and 4.0 in 2019, respectively. Evidently, the regression threshold was pegged at 5.8% or above to significantly impact economic growth when central bank independence is relatively improved. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between inflation variability, economic growth variability, and central bank independence. The earnest responsibility of politicians is to persistently safeguard, protect and ensure the implementation of central bank independence over time; perhaps the able requirement of government and politicians is to understand and explain ultimate reasons regarding the entrustment of power and authority to an independent monetary body to see to the well-being of forthcoming generations and present ones as well.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature but presents fresh evidence regarding the threshold analysis of inflation and GDP per capita in the central bank independence and economic growth nexus in Ghana. Moreover, the study on the backdrop of the political agency theory of central bank independence presents empirical analysis.

Keywords:

Central bank independence economic growth, Inflation threshold,GDP per capita growth threshold, Inflation and Real GDP growth variability, Ghana.

Reference:

Adel, B. (2020). Central bank independence, economic growth and inflation: Theories and empirical validations. International Journal of Applied Economics, Finance and Accounting, 6(1), 11-21.Available at: 10.33094/8.2017.2020.61.11.21.

Akhand, H. A. (1998). Central bank independence and growth: A sensitivity analysis. The Canadian Journal of Economics, 31(2), 303-317.

Alesina, A., & Summers, L. H. (1993). Central bank independence and macroeconomic performance: Some comparative evidence. Journal of Money, credit and Banking, 25(2), 151-162.

Arnone, M., & Romelli, D. (2013). Dynamic central bank independence indices and inflation rate:  A new empirical exploration. Journal of Financial Stability, 9(3), 385-398.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfs.2013.03.002.

Athanasios, A. (2009). Central bank independence and economic performance. Cyprus Economic Policy Review, 3(1), 123-156.

Banaian, K., & Luksetich, W. A. (2001). Central bank independence, economic freedom, and inflation rates. Economic Inquiry, 39(1), 149-161.

Behrooz, G. (2019). Central bank independence and economic growth. DOC Research Institute. Retrieved from: https://doc-research.org/2019/03/central-bank-independence-economic-growth/.

Behrooz, G. (2020). Inflation threshold and economic growth: Does central bank independence matter? DOC Research Institute. Retrieved from: https://doc-research.org/2020/01/inflation-threshold-economic-growth-cbi-matter/.

Blinder, A. (1998). Central banking in theory and practice. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Chortareas, G. E., Stasavage, D., & Sterne, G. (2001). Does it play to be transparent? International evidence from central bank forecasts. Bank of England Working Paper No: 143.

Chu, A. C., Cozzi, G., Furukawa, Y., & Liao, C.-H. (2017). Inflation and economic growth in a schumpeterian model with endogenous entry of heterogeneous firms. European Economic Review, 98, 392-409.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2017.07.006.

Crosby, M. (1998). Central bank independence and output variability. Economics Letters, 60(1), 67-75.

Crowe, C., & Meade, E. E. (2007). The evolution of central bank governance around the world. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(4), 69-90.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.21.4.69.

Cukierman, A., Kalaitzidakis, P., Summers, L. H., & Webb, S. B. (1993). Central bank independence, growth, investment, and real rates. Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, 39(12), 95-140.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2231(93)90005-H.

De Haan, J., Amtenbrink, F., & Eijffinger, S. C. W. (1999). Accountability of central banks: Aspects and quantification. Banca Nationale Del Lavoro Quarterly Review, 52(209), 169-193.

De Haan., J., & Kooi, W. J. (2000). Does central bank independence really matter? New evidence for developing countries using a new indicator. Journal of Banking & Finance, 24(4), 643-664.

Demertzis, M., & Hallett, A. H. (2007). Central bank transparency in theory and practice. Journal of Macroeconomics, 29(4), 760-789.

Eijffinger, S. C. W., & Hoeberichts, M. (2002). Central bank accountability and transparency: Theory and some evidence. International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, 5(1), 73-96.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2362.00088.

Eijffinger, S. C. W., Schaling, E., & Hoeberichts, M. (1998). Central bank independence: A Sensitivity analysis. European Journal of Political Economy, 14(1), 73-88.

Eijjfinger, S., & De Haan, J. (1996). The political economy of central bank independence. Princeton Special Papers in International Economics. New Jersey: Princeton University.

Fischer, S. (1995). Central-bank independence revisited. The American Economic Review, 85(2), 201-206.

Friedman, M., & Schwartz, A. J. (1963). A monetary history of the United States. USA: Princeton University Press.

Gauti, E., & Eric, L. B. (2004). A political agency theory of central bank independence. Washington DC, USA: International Monetary Fund.

Goodman, J. B. (1991). The politics of central bank independence. Comparative Politics, 23(3), 329-349.

Grilli, V., Masciandaro, D., & Tabellini, G. (1991). Political and monetary institutions and public financial policies in the industrial countries. Economic Policy, 6(13), 341-392.

Heritage Foundation. (2020). Economic freedom index. Retrieved from: https://www.heritage.org/index/?version=101 .

Hermes, N., & Lensink, R. (2000). Financial system development in transition economies. Journal of Banking & Finance, 24(4), 507-524.

International Monetary Fund. (2020). Ghana: Request for disbursement under the rapid credit facility—press release; staff report; and statement by the executive director for Ghana (pp. 3). IMF Country Report No. 20/110. Washington, United States.

Ismihan, M., & Ozkan, F. G. (2004). Does central bank independence lower inflation? Economics Letters, 84(3), 305-309.

Klomp, J., & De Haan, J. (2009). Central bank independence and financial instability. Journal of Financial Stability, 5(4), 321-338.

Lorenzo, B. S. (2007). Central bank independence: From theory to practice. Paper presented at the Good Governance and Effective Partnership Conference. Budapest, Hungarian National Assembly, 19 April 2007.

Loungani, P., & Sheets, N. (1997). Central bank independence, inflation, and growth in transition economies. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 29(3), 381-399.

McCallum, B. T. (1995). Two fallacies concerning central-cank independence. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 85, 207-211.

Merter, A., Gönül, Y. A., & Omer, Y. (2015). The relationship between central bank independence, financial freedom, and economic growth: A panel ARDL bounds testing approach. Central Bank Review, 15(3), 1-14.

Posen, A. (1995). Declarations are not enough: Financial sector sources of central bank independence. In: B. Bernanke and J. Rotemberg, eds. NBER Macroeconomics Annual. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Vickers, J. (1998). Inflation targeting in practice: The UK experience. Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, 38(11), 368-375.

Wray, L. R. (2007). A post keynesian view of central bank independence, policy targets, and the rules versus discretion debate. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 30(1), 119-141.

Statistics:

Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor

Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Fiscal Decentralization and Poverty Reduction: Citizens View
( 2 ) Technological Innovation in Central and Eastern Europe: What’s the Contribution of Innovation Policy?
( 3 ) Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries
( 4 ) An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Decentralization on Poverty in Cameroon
( 5 ) Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Assessing Public Policy in Ukraine
( 6 ) The Financial Decentralization Policy for Local Development in Cameroon: An Econometric Analysis
( 7 ) Central Bank Independence and Economic Growth of Ghana: What Inflation and GDP Per Capita Growth Rates Matter?
( 8 ) The Role of Bank Loans in Monetary Policy Transmission in Malaysia
( 9 ) Attributes Influencing Strategic Alignment in the Service Sector: An Indonesian Banking Sector Case Study
( 10 ) Micro-Credits and Poverty Reduction in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania: A Case Study of Dar-Es-Salaam Commercial Bank
( 11 ) Profit And Loss Sharing As an Offshoot for Bank Stability: A Comparative Analysis
( 12 ) The Total Factor Productivity of Libyan Banks, 2004 – 2010
( 13 ) The Effects of Changes in Accounting Standards on Value Relevance of Financial Statement Information of Malaysia and Nigeria Banks
( 14 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 15 ) Measuring the Quality of Islamic Banks Services and Its Impact on Customers Satisfaction A Survey Study on the Islamic Banks Customers in Lattakia-Syria
( 16 ) Investigating the Demand of Small Hotel and Restaurant Businesses for Bank Financing: The Case of Turkey
( 17 ) Measuring Efficiency in Banks: A Brief Survey on Non – Parametric Technique (Data Envelopment Analysis)
( 18 ) Appointment of Directors and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Sub Saharan Africa: Do We Need More Executive or Non-Executive Directors?
( 19 ) Acquisition of Personal Assets Through Loan Bank and Commercial Credit: What’s the Best Option?
( 20 ) Market Share and Profitability Relationship: A Study of the Banking Sector in Nigeria
( 21 ) The Effect of Personal Factors on the Customer Rating of the Quality of Services of the Islamic Banks Operating in the Syrian Coast
( 22 ) Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria
( 23 ) Financial Tables Reports Gaps in Jordanian Islamic Banks
( 24 ) Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa
( 25 ) What Drives Banking Stability? Empirical Evidence from ECOWAS Countries
( 26 ) Electronic Banking Innovations and Selected Banks Performance in Nigeria
( 27 ) The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Companies on Profitability and its Implications on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks
( 28 ) Depositors Confidence and Mergers and Acquisitions: The Nigerian Banking Sector Experience
( 29 ) Sectoral Credit Allocation of Deposit Money Banks and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria
( 30 ) Profitability of Commercial Bank on Interest Rate Deregulation
( 31 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 32 ) Analysis of Effect of Profitability, Capital, Risk Financing, the Sharia Supervisory Board and Capabilities Zakat in Islamic Perspective with Circular Approach Causastion on Islamic Banks in Indonesia
( 33 ) Analyzing the Financial Soundness of Kuwaiti Banks Using CAMELS Framework
( 34 ) Consumers’ Behavioural Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa Using an Extension of Technology Acceptance Model: Lessons from Zimbabwe
( 35 ) What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?
( 36 ) Determinants of Financial Performance and its Impact on the Growth of Islamic Bank Assets on Indonesia
( 37 ) Financial Inclusion and Poverty Alleviation: The Contribution of Commercial Banks in West Africa
( 38 ) Interest Rate Ceilings and Financial Exclusion in Kenya: Evidence from Commercial Banks’ Sectoral Credit Distribution
( 39 ) The Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Bank Default: A Case Study in Brazil
( 40 ) Change Management and Firm Performance of Selected Deposit Money Banks in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
( 41 ) Financial Risks in Turkish Banking Industry: A Panel Data Analaysis on Istanbul Stock Exchange
( 42 ) Factors Influencing Profitability of Commercial Banks in Tanzania: A Case Study of CRDB Bank Plc
( 44 ) On the OCC Announcement Allowing US Banks to Use Stablecoins and the Immediate Impact on Cryptocurrency Valuations
( 45 ) The Relationship Between Market Share and Profitability of Ghanaian Banks
( 46 ) Facing the Challenges of Covid-19 in the Egyptian Banking Sector: The Role of Bricoleurs in Achieving Organizational Innovations via Learning through Improvisation
( 48 ) Consideration the Relationship Between Information Communications Technology and Economic Growth in Top 10 Economic
( 49 ) Shifting Global Economic Paradigm
( 50 ) How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region
( 51 ) The Prospects of Accounting and Economic Systems in the Era of Global Knowledge Economy
( 52 ) Labor and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe
( 53 ) The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Evidence from Tunisia Using Star and Stecm Models
( 54 ) Exchange Rate Movements, Import And Economic Growth in Nigeria (1986-2010)
( 55 ) Impact of Food Beverage Price Index and Exchange Rate Volatility on Economic Growth
( 56 ) Long-Run Relationships and Causality Tests Between Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in India
( 57 ) Public Infrastructure Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) Approach
( 58 ) Study of the Relationship between Economic Growth and Inflation: Application to the Countries of the South Side of the Mediterranean: A Panel Data Approach
( 59 ) The Entrepreneurship, Knowledge Spillover and Economic Growth
( 60 ) Corruption’s and Democracy’s Effects on Economic Growth
( 61 ) Relationships between Financial Development and Economic Growth: A New Approach by Inputs
( 62 ) Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria
( 63 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 64 ) Dividend Policy Relevancy in Theoretical and Practical Economics
( 65 ) Consideration the Effects of Water Sector Investment on Economic Growth in Iran
( 66 ) Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?
( 67 ) Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework
( 68 ) Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria
( 69 ) Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections
( 70 ) Rural - Urban Balance as a Measure of Socio-Economic Development with Special Reference to Iran
( 71 ) Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013
( 72 ) The Effect of Access and Quality of Education on Economic Development in Botswana
( 73 ) Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Economic Freedom as Well as Economic Conditions, The Quality of Life, and Public Education Spending on U.S. Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Patterns
( 74 ) Dynamics of Inflation, Economic Growth, Money Supply and Exchange Rate in India: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis
( 75 ) Structural Breaks, Electricity Generation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 76 ) Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 77 ) The Link Between Agricultural Budgetary Allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 78 ) Financial Deepening, Interest Rate Spread and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Sub-Sahara Africa
( 79 ) China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Analysis of Internal and External Challenges
( 80 ) A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program
( 81 ) Military Regimes and Nigeria’s Economic Development, 1966-1999
( 82 ) An Investigation of the Relationship between Manufacturing Output and Economic Growth : Evidence from Nigerias Data Set
( 83 ) Scenario Economic Impact Analysis of Offshore Fishing Tournaments in Ocean City
( 84 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 85 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 86 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 87 ) Impact of Telecommunications Market Liberalization on Labor Productivity in Economic Community of West African States
( 88 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 89 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 90 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 91 ) Uncertainties in Global Economic Policy and Nigerias Export Earnings
( 92 ) Public Health Expenditure, Economic Growth and Health Outcomes in Nigeria
( 93 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 94 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 95 ) The Colonialists & Indigenous Exchange Currency: Tracing the Genesis of Socioeconomic Woes in Postcolonial Nigeria
( 96 ) The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach
( 97 ) Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis
( 98 ) The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria
( 99 ) The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia
( 100 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 101 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 102 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 103 ) Management of The CFA Franc: What are the Fundamentals of the Real Exchange Rate in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)?
( 104 ) Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies
( 105 ) Analysis of Causal Nexus between Defense Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach
( 106 ) The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Pinterest
( 107 ) The Impact of Economic Growth, Oil Price, and Financial Globalization Uncertainty on Financial Development: Evidence from Selected Leading African Countries
( 109 ) Deficit Financing Asymmetry and Nigerias Economic Growth: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
( 110 ) Impact of Savings on Economic Growth in Africa
( 111 ) Does Corruption Grease or Sand the Wheels of Economic Growth in Ghana? An ARDL Bounds Test
( 113 ) Socioeconomic Environment and Obesity on the US West and East Coasts
( 114 ) Human Capital and Economic Growth in Latin America: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis
( 115 ) An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of FDI, Export and Gross Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth in Bangladesh
( 116 ) Exploring the Linkages between Remittances, Economic Growth and Poverty: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan
( 117 ) Human Capital Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach
( 118 ) Contribution of Domestic Direct Investment and Direct Foreign Investment to Economic Growth in Indonesia Era Joko Widodo
( 119 ) Contribution of Ready-Made Garments Industry on the Economic Development of Bangladesh: An Empirical Analysis
( 120 ) The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Global Economy: Emphasis on Poverty Alleviation and Economic Growth
( 121 ) Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan
( 122 ) Financial Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: New Evidence from a Threshold Autoregressive and Asymmetric Analysis
( 123 ) Socioeconomic Determinants of Drug Abuse in the United States
( 125 ) Investigating the Nexus among Poverty Alleviation, Unemployment, and Economic Development in Nigeria
( 126 ) Economic and Noneconomic Forces on Remittance Receiving: A Panel Analysis of Top Remittance Sending Countries towards Bangladesh
( 127 ) The Role of Social Capital and Social Innovation in Economic Growth
( 128 ) Twin Deficit Hypothesis and Macroeconomic Fundamentals: New Evidence from Nigeria
( 129 ) Nexus of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth: A Study of Ghana
( 143 ) Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria
( 146 ) Bancassurance - Growth Guaranteed in India
( 147 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 148 ) The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Debt, Liquidity, Growth, and Volume of Companies in Palestine Stock Exchange
( 150 ) Empirical Evidence on Municipal Tax Policy and Firm Growth
( 156 ) Public Sector Size and GDP Growth Nexus: Panel Data Estimation
( 160 ) Urban Population Growth and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria
( 163 ) Satisfaction with Applications Fuels the Growth of Mobile Wallet Use in Thailand
( 166 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 177 ) Export- Led Growth Hypothesis for Ghana: A TVAR & TVECM Analysis
( 191 ) Money Supply & Growth Nexus: Evidence from Nigeria
( 193 ) External Debt Dynamics and Sustainable Growth in Nigeria
( 198 ) Contracting Out: What Works, What Doesn’t and Why?
( 204 ) What Explains the Overwhelmingly Positive Perception towards Microfinance Institutions? Application of Firth’s Logistic Regression in a Small Sample
( 206 ) Local Governments and the Conundrum of Service Delivery in Nigeria: What Policy Implications?
( 207 ) Taylor Rule in The Context of Inflation Targeting: The Case of Tunisia
( 209 ) Credibility and Monetary Policy under Inflation Targeting
( 210 ) Impact of Inflation on Per Capita Income in Emerging Economies: Evidence from BRICS Nations
( 212 ) On the Prediction of the Inflation Crises of South Africa Using Markov-Switching Bayesian Vector Autoregressive and Logistic Regression Models
( 213 ) Impact of Network Finance Development on Inflation: Evidence from Chinese Market
( 215 ) Issues of Unemployment in Nigeria: Effect of Real Exchange Rate and Inflation Interaction
( 216 ) Inflation, Oil Revenue, and Monetary Policy Mix in an Oil-Dependent Economy: Empirical Insights from the Case of Nigeria
( 218 ) Inflationary Rate in Nigeria: Impact of Foreign Capital Inflows
( 219 ) Does the Mena Countries May Converge in GDP to Southern European One? The Effects of International Trade
( 220 ) The Lead-Lag Relationships between Construction Investment and GDP: Granger Causality Tests and Impulse Responses Using Japanese Data
( 223 ) Relationships Between Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia
( 224 ) Relationships among Team Trust, Team Cohesion, Team Satisfaction and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia
( 225 ) Improved Performance Through Empowerment of Small Industry
( 226 ) Teachers Characteristics and Students’ Performance Level in Senior Secondary School Financial Accounting
( 227 ) Conceptual Framework of Green Infrastructure Performance Evaluation for Local Authority
( 228 ) A Multidimensional Structure of Shopping Centre Visit Objectives - An European Consumers Perspective
( 229 ) The Association Between Corporate Risk Disclosure and Firm Performance in Emerging Country – The Case of Egypt
( 230 ) Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia
( 231 ) The Impact of Rice Production, Consumption and Importation in Nigeria: The Political Economy Perspectives
( 232 ) A Model of Strategic Thinking: Islamic and Iranian Perspective
( 234 ) The Influence of Information Technology and Communication Supply Chain Management Performance for Greater SME Manufacturing in Aguascalientes
( 235 ) Climate Change Adaptation in Semi-Arid Dodoma: An Experience from Eco-Village
( 236 ) Awareness and Perception of Muslim Consumers on Halal Cosmetics and Personal Care Products
( 237 ) Emergent Behavior of “Rational” Agents in Some Forgotten N-Person Games
( 238 ) Leveraging Telematics for Optimal Fleet Performance
( 239 ) Moderating Effects of Project Management Experience, Project Team Size, Project Duration and Project Value Size on the Relationship between Project Manager’s Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness in Malaysia
( 240 ) An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) On the Administration of Public Records: A Case Study of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana-West Africa
( 241 ) Compliance Behaviour in State-Run Fisheries: Situating Lake Chivero in a Policy Perspective
( 242 ) Share Options, Share Award and Firm’s Performance: Evidence from Malaysian Public Listed Companies