Adebakin, M., & Raimi, L. (2012). National security challengesand sustainable economic development: Evidence from Nigeria. Journal of Studies in Social Sciences, 1(1), 1-30.
Alexander, W. R. J. (1990). The impact of defense spending on economic growth: A multi sectoral approach on defense spending and economic growth with evidence from developed economies. Defense Economics, 2(1), 39-55.Available at: htttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10430719008404677.
Amjad, A., & Muhammad, A. (2014). Impact of defense expenditure on economic growth: Time series evidence from Pakistan. A Global Journal of Management and Business Research: B Economics and Commerce. Retrieved from: http://creativecomms.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ .
Benoit, E. (1973). Defense and economic growth in developing countries (pp. 335-346). Lexington, M. A.: Lexington Books.
Benoit, E. (1978). Growth and defense in developing countries. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 26(2), 271-280.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1086/451015.
Benoit, E., Dorfman, R., & Hagen, E. E. (1972). Growth effects of defense in developing countries.
Biswas, B., & Ram, R. (1986). Military expenditures and economic growth in less developed countries: An augmented model and further evidence. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 34(2), 361-372.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1086/451533.
Chang, R., Kaltani, L., & Loayza, N. V. (2009). Openness can be good for growth: The role of policy complementarities. Journal of Development Economics, 90(1), 33-49.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2008.06.011.
Chen, C. H. (1993). Causality between defense spending and economic growth; the case of Mainland China. Journal of Economic Studies, 20(6), 37.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/01443589310048145.
Dakurah, A. H., Davies, S. P., & Sampath, R. K. (2006). Defense spending and economic growth in developing countries: A causality analysis. Journal of Policy Modeling, 23(6), 651-658.
Dunne, J. P., & Perlo-Freeman, S. (2003). The demand for military spending in developing countries: A dynamic panel analysis. Defense and Peace Economics, 14(6), 461-474.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1024269032000085224.
Dunne., J. P., & Uye, M. (2014). Military expenditure, economic growth and structural instability: A case study of South Africa. Defense and Peace Economics, 25(6), 619-633.
Granger, C., & Newbold, P. (1974). Spurious regression in econometrics-science direct. Journal of Econometrics, 2(2), 111-120.
Hatemi, J. A., Chang, T., Chen, W.-Y., Lin, F.-L., & Gupta, R. (2017). Asymmetric causality between military expenditures and economic growth in top six defense spenders. Springer Science, 52(3), 1193-1207.
Heo, U. (1999). Defense spending and economic growth in South Korea: The indirect link. Journal of Peace Research, 36(6), 699-708.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343399036006006.
Kalyoneu, H., & Yucel, F. (2005). An analytical approach to defense expenditure and economic growth: The case of Turkey and Greece. MPRA Paper No.4262.
Kollias, C., Manolas, G., & Paleologou, S.-M. (2004). Defense expenditure and economic growth in the European union: A causality analysis. Journal of Policy Modeling, 26(5), 553-569.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2004.03.013.
Kollias, C., Mylonidis, N., & Paleologou, S. (2007). A panel data analysis of the nexus between defense spending and growth in European union. Defense and Peace Economics, 18(1), 75-85.
Kusi, N. K. (1994). Economic growth and defense spending in developing countries: A causal analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 38(1), 152-159.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002794038001009.
Manamperi, N. (2016). Does military expenditure hinder economic growth? Evidence from Greece and Turkey. Journal of Policy Modeling, 38(6), 1171-1193.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2016.04.003.
Masih, Z. N. (2017). Causality between defense spending and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence on a controversial empirical issue. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 7(5), 169-177.
Mavrotas, G., & Kelly, R. (2001). Old wine in new bottles: Testing causality between savings and growth. The Manchester School, 69, 97-105.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9957.69.s1.6.
Muhammed, A. U., & Abusufian, A. (2014). Economic growth defense expenditure and threats in Nigeria 1980-2013: Bound co-integration analysis. Journal of International Business Management, 9(5), 784-790.
Olofin, O. P. (2012). Defense spending and poverty reduction in Nigeria. American Journal of Economics, 2(6), 122-127.Available at: https://doi.org/10.5923/j.economics.20120206.05.
Pan, C. T., & Chang, T. (2014). Military spending and economic growth in the Middle East countries: Bootstrap panel causality test (pp. 1-14). Defense and Peace Economics (Ahead-of-print).
Payne, J. E., & Ross, K. L. (1992). Defense spending and the macroeconomy. Defense Economics, 3(2), 161-168.
Perlo-Freeman, S., Solmirano, C., & Wilandh, H. (2013). Military expenditure and arms production. SIPRI YEARBOOK 2014, Armaments, Disarmament and International Security.
Safdari, M. (2011). The relationship between military expenditure and economic growth in four Asian countries. Chinese Business Review, 10(2), 112-118.
SIPRI. (2016). Military expenditure database 2016. https;//www.sipri.org/datdbase/milex and The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), The Military Balance, 2016.
Solow, R. M. (1956). A contribution to the theory of economic growth. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70(1), 65-94.
Tiwari, A. K., & Tiwari, A. P. (2010). Military expenditure and economic growth: Evidence from India. Journal of Cambridge Studies, 5(2), 117-131.
Toda, H. Y., & Yamamoto, T. (1995). Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics, 66(1-2), 225-250.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4076(94)01616-8.
Topeu, M., & Aras, I. (2015). Economic impact of military expenditures: A comparative analysis on superpowers of the world. Actual Problems of Economics, 142(4), 495-506.
Ward, M. D., & Davis, D. R. (1992). Sizing up the peace dividend: Economic growth and military spending in the United States, 1948–1996. American Political Science Review, 86(3), 748-755.Available at: https://doi.org/10.2307/1964136.
This study received no specific financial support.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.