Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

The Economics and Finance Letters

April 2015, Volume 2, 4, pp 35-44

Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013

Vincent Moyo


Alexander Mapfumo

Vincent Moyo 1 Alexander Mapfumo 1 ,

  1. Department of Economics, Faculty of Commerce, Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo, Zimbabwe 1

Pages: 35-44

DOI: 10.18488/journal.29/2015.2.4/

Share :


This study analysed the interconnectedness between economic growth and imports in the short and long run in Zimbabwe from 1975 to 2013. The Zimbabwean economy generally experienced positively associated trend between Gross Domestic Product and imports over the years.  For precise and effective policy formulation, it is therefore necessary to understand the nexus between the two mentioned macroeconomic variables.  Based on the results of the Johansen causality method, there is a short run unidirectional link between Gross Domestic Product and imports, running from imports to Gross Domestic Product.  In the long run no evidence exists for the connection between the two variables according to the Johansen co-integration tests.

Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the relationship between imports and economic growth. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the causal relationship between imports and economic growth in Zimbabwe over a period of 38 years.


Imports, Economic growth, Policy, Johansen causality, VAR analysis, Zimbabwe.



  1. Chiguwisa, L., 2011. Export-led growth hypothesis in Zimbabwe: Does export composition matter? Internal Journal of Economic Resources, 2(4): 111-129.
  2. Frankel, J.A. and D. Romer, 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review, 89(3): 379-399.
  3. Grossman, G.M. and E. Helpman, 1991. Innovation and growth in the global economy. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  4. Gujarati, D.N., 2004. Basic econometrics. 4th Edn., New York: The Mc Grew-Hill Cos.
  5. Hamilton, D., 1994. Time series analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  6. Humpage, O.F., 2000. Do imports hinder or help economic growth? Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Economic Commentary.
  7. Kogid, M., 2011. Does import affect economic growth in Malaysia. Empirical Economics Letters, 10(3): 297-307.
  8. Mafusire, A., 2001. Export –led growth and foreign direct investment: The Zimbabwean experience. The University of Queensland School of Economics Brisbane Qld: Discussion Paper Series, No. 295.
  9. Piazolo, M., 1996. Determinants of Indonesian economic growth, 1965-1992. Seoul Journal of Economics, 9(4): 269-298.
  10. Pomponio, X.Z., 1996. A causality analysis of growth and export performance. Atlantic Economic Journal, 24(2): 168-176.
  11. Riezman, G.R., 1996. The engine of growth or its Handmaiden? A time series assessment of export-led growth. Empirical Economics, 12(1): 77-110.
  12. Samuelson and Nordhau, 2001. Economics. 7th Edn., New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
  13. Saungweme, T., 2013. Trade dynamics in Zimbabwe: 1980-2012. Internal Journal of Economic Resources, 4(5): 29-38.
  14. Thangavelu, S.M. and G. Rajaguru, 2004. Is there an export or import led productivity growth in rapidly developing Asian countries? A multivariate VAR analysis. Applied Economics, 36(10): 1083-1094.
  15. Toda, 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics, 66(1-2): 225-250.
  16. Todaro, P. and S.C. Smith, 2003. Economic development. 8th Edn., Singapore: Addison Wesley.
  17. Tong, J., 1995. Price change of stock and economic running price change of stock and economic running. Tainjin: Nankai University Press.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Long-Run Relationships and Causality Tests Between Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in India
( 2 ) Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013
( 3 ) The Lead-Lag Relationships between Construction Investment and GDP: Granger Causality Tests and Impulse Responses Using Japanese Data
( 4 ) Examining Long Run Relationship between Household Debt and Household Savings in South Africa – An Error Correction Model and Granger Causality
( 5 ) Analysis of Causal Nexus between Defense Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach
( 6 ) Human Capital and Economic Growth in Latin America: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis
( 7 ) Consideration the Relationship Between Information Communications Technology and Economic Growth in Top 10 Economic
( 8 ) Relationships Between Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia
( 9 ) Relationships among Team Trust, Team Cohesion, Team Satisfaction and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia
( 11 ) Study of the Relationship between Economic Growth and Inflation: Application to the Countries of the South Side of the Mediterranean: A Panel Data Approach
( 12 ) Relationships between Financial Development and Economic Growth: A New Approach by Inputs
( 13 ) Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia
( 14 ) Moderating Effects of Project Management Experience, Project Team Size, Project Duration and Project Value Size on the Relationship between Project Manager’s Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness in Malaysia
( 15 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 16 ) An Assessment of the Relationship between Budget Deficit Syndrome and Consumer Welfare in Nigeria (1985 – 2014)
( 18 ) Education and Income Relationship in Turkey
( 19 ) Market Share and Profitability Relationship: A Study of the Banking Sector in Nigeria
( 22 ) The Relationship between Currency Conversions and International Business Transactions: Small Businesses and Travelers
( 23 ) The Moderating Effect of Governance Mechanisms on the Relationship Between Innovation Strategy and the Performance
( 24 ) An Investigation of the Relationship between Manufacturing Output and Economic Growth : Evidence from Nigerias Data Set
( 25 ) The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach
( 26 ) The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia
( 27 ) The Mediating Effect of Financial Self-Efficacy on the Financial Literacy-Behavior Relationship: A Case of Generation Y Professionals
( 28 ) The Relationship between Creative Accounting Risks and Auditing Risks from the Perspective of External Auditors in Saudi Arabia
( 29 ) The Relationship Between Market Share and Profitability of Ghanaian Banks
( 31 ) New Evidence on the Link Between Income Inequality and Misery Index: A Nonlinear Time Series Analysis
( 34 ) The Nexus between Financial Crisis and Household Consumption: Evidence from Emerging Countries
( 37 ) The Interactions between Culture, Global Mindset and Leadership in Global Context
( 38 ) The Association Between Corporate Risk Disclosure and Firm Performance in Emerging Country – The Case of Egypt
( 40 ) Republic of Zimbabwe National Water Policy: A Desk Review of the Gaps between the Policy and Its Implementation
( 43 ) The Correlation Between the Palestinian Civil Society Institutions and the Universities (Status: The Palestine Technical University Kadourie with Tulkarm Institutions)
( 44 ) Measuring the Gap Between the Syrian Accounting Qualifications and the International Accounting Education Based on IES 2 and IES 3
( 46 ) Development of the National Economies and the Foreign Trade Relations between Ukraine and Bulgaria (In the Period 2005-2014)
( 48 ) A Theoretical Analysis Upon the Environmental Health and Justice Issue: A Case Study for a Comparison Between G20s Unitary and Federal Members
( 51 ) Interfaces Between Road Infrastructure and Poverty in Africa: The Case of Malawi, 1994-2013
( 52 ) The Link Between Agricultural Budgetary Allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 55 ) Measuring and Assessing the State of Technological Innovations and the Level of Interaction between Rice Processors and Stakeholders in Rice Processing Industry in Nigeria
( 56 ) The Nexus between Urbanization, Energy Demand and Healthcare in Bangladesh
( 57 ) Correlation between Financial Difficulties and Financing Strategies among Market Stallholders in Batangas City
( 60 ) Problems of Bilateral Trade Deficit between Bangladesh and India: A 2SLS Regression Analysis
( 61 ) Exploring the Asymmetric Linkage between Commodity Prices and Fiscal Performance in Nigeria
( 62 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 65 ) The Contingent Fit between Management Control System and Capabilities on Sustainability Performance
( 66 ) Exploring the Linkages between Remittances, Economic Growth and Poverty: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan
( 70 ) Shifting Global Economic Paradigm
( 71 ) How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region
( 72 ) The Prospects of Accounting and Economic Systems in the Era of Global Knowledge Economy
( 73 ) Labor and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe
( 74 ) The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Evidence from Tunisia Using Star and Stecm Models
( 75 ) Exchange Rate Movements, Import And Economic Growth in Nigeria (1986-2010)
( 76 ) Impact of Food Beverage Price Index and Exchange Rate Volatility on Economic Growth
( 78 ) Public Infrastructure Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) Approach
( 80 ) The Entrepreneurship, Knowledge Spillover and Economic Growth
( 81 ) Corruption’s and Democracy’s Effects on Economic Growth
( 83 ) Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria
( 84 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 85 ) Dividend Policy Relevancy in Theoretical and Practical Economics
( 86 ) Consideration the Effects of Water Sector Investment on Economic Growth in Iran
( 87 ) Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?
( 88 ) Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework
( 89 ) Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria
( 90 ) Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections
( 91 ) Rural - Urban Balance as a Measure of Socio-Economic Development with Special Reference to Iran
( 93 ) The Effect of Access and Quality of Education on Economic Development in Botswana
( 94 ) Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Economic Freedom as Well as Economic Conditions, The Quality of Life, and Public Education Spending on U.S. Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Patterns
( 95 ) Dynamics of Inflation, Economic Growth, Money Supply and Exchange Rate in India: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis
( 96 ) Structural Breaks, Electricity Generation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 97 ) Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 99 ) Financial Deepening, Interest Rate Spread and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Sub-Sahara Africa
( 100 ) China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Analysis of Internal and External Challenges
( 101 ) A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program
( 102 ) Military Regimes and Nigeria’s Economic Development, 1966-1999
( 104 ) Scenario Economic Impact Analysis of Offshore Fishing Tournaments in Ocean City
( 105 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 106 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 107 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 108 ) Impact of Telecommunications Market Liberalization on Labor Productivity in Economic Community of West African States
( 109 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 110 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 111 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 112 ) Uncertainties in Global Economic Policy and Nigerias Export Earnings
( 113 ) Public Health Expenditure, Economic Growth and Health Outcomes in Nigeria
( 114 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 115 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 116 ) The Colonialists & Indigenous Exchange Currency: Tracing the Genesis of Socioeconomic Woes in Postcolonial Nigeria
( 118 ) Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis
( 119 ) The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria
( 121 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 122 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 124 ) Management of The CFA Franc: What are the Fundamentals of the Real Exchange Rate in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)?
( 125 ) Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies
( 127 ) The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Pinterest
( 128 ) The Impact of Economic Growth, Oil Price, and Financial Globalization Uncertainty on Financial Development: Evidence from Selected Leading African Countries
( 129 ) The Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Bank Default: A Case Study in Brazil
( 130 ) Deficit Financing Asymmetry and Nigerias Economic Growth: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
( 131 ) Impact of Savings on Economic Growth in Africa
( 132 ) Does Corruption Grease or Sand the Wheels of Economic Growth in Ghana? An ARDL Bounds Test
( 133 ) Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Assessing Public Policy in Ukraine
( 134 ) Socioeconomic Environment and Obesity on the US West and East Coasts
( 136 ) An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of FDI, Export and Gross Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth in Bangladesh
( 138 ) Human Capital Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach
( 139 ) Contribution of Domestic Direct Investment and Direct Foreign Investment to Economic Growth in Indonesia Era Joko Widodo
( 140 ) Contribution of Ready-Made Garments Industry on the Economic Development of Bangladesh: An Empirical Analysis
( 141 ) The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Global Economy: Emphasis on Poverty Alleviation and Economic Growth
( 142 ) Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan
( 143 ) Financial Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: New Evidence from a Threshold Autoregressive and Asymmetric Analysis
( 144 ) Socioeconomic Determinants of Drug Abuse in the United States
( 145 ) Central Bank Independence and Economic Growth of Ghana: What Inflation and GDP Per Capita Growth Rates Matter?
( 146 ) Investigating the Nexus among Poverty Alleviation, Unemployment, and Economic Development in Nigeria
( 147 ) Economic and Noneconomic Forces on Remittance Receiving: A Panel Analysis of Top Remittance Sending Countries towards Bangladesh
( 148 ) The Role of Social Capital and Social Innovation in Economic Growth
( 149 ) Twin Deficit Hypothesis and Macroeconomic Fundamentals: New Evidence from Nigeria
( 150 ) Nexus of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth: A Study of Ghana
( 164 ) Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria
( 167 ) Bancassurance - Growth Guaranteed in India
( 168 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 169 ) The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Debt, Liquidity, Growth, and Volume of Companies in Palestine Stock Exchange
( 171 ) Empirical Evidence on Municipal Tax Policy and Firm Growth
( 177 ) Public Sector Size and GDP Growth Nexus: Panel Data Estimation
( 181 ) Urban Population Growth and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria
( 184 ) Satisfaction with Applications Fuels the Growth of Mobile Wallet Use in Thailand
( 187 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 192 ) Determinants of Financial Performance and its Impact on the Growth of Islamic Bank Assets on Indonesia