Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation

Kan Tao


Yiying Chao

Kan Tao 1 Yiying Chao 1 ,

  1. Transportation Planning and Management, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China. 1

on Google Scholar
on PubMed

Pages: 51-61

DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.81.51.61

Share :

Article History:

Received: 10 June, 2019
Revised: 16 July, 2019
Accepted: 21 August, 2019
Published: 27 September, 2019


As a modern port, its roles have been endowed with many new functions. Extant literatures in transportation industry view port as an individual economic entity to improve its competition or evaluate its performance. By focusing on port original concept as node in transportation, its critical role as providing service to related industry shouldn't be largely change or forget. Under this perspective, port is not as commercial organization, is transport corridor to contribute to public welfare. Hence, creating synergistic effects in a research system which can be regard as symbiotic. Our case study on the China-Railway Express (CR Express) hub-port construction in the background of China-Europe trade transportation address research question as how to construct China-Europe transport corridor. In order to achieve a complete and comprehensive understanding of the under-explored topic, we use a mixed methods, including semi-structured interview and establish symbiotic model as symbiotic transport capacity growth model and clock model. Generally, we conclude that trade and each transportation pattern can be regard as a symbiotic system and more importantly, port as public infrastructure, its service providing and transport corridor are significant contribute to the symbiotic system. Contributions and managerial implications are provided at the final section of our research which not only have guidance value on China, but also the ports whose located country is one of ‘One Belt and One Road’ countries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by using new estimation methodology as symbiont transport growth model and clock model to provide appropriate estimation when an innovation implication in transport, especially a new pattern in practice. Also, as an interdiscipline subject, the symbiosis theory that mention in the study can be apply in transportation and provide theoretical guidance.


China-Europe trade, Transportation, Transport corridor construction, CR express, Port role, Symbiosis theory.



Alizadeh, A.H., 2013. Trading volume and volatility in the shipping forward freight market. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 49(1): 250-265.Available at:

Álvarez-SanJaime, Ó., P. Cantos-Sánchez, R. Moner-Colonques and J.J. Sempere-Monerris, 2015. The impact on port competition of the integration of port and inland transport services. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 80: 291-302.Available at:

Brooks, M.R., K.P. Cullinane and A.A. Pallis, 2017. Revisiting port governance and port reform: A multi-country examination. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 100(22): 1-10.Available at:

Chang, V. and B. Tovar, 2017. Metafrontier analysis on productivity for West Coast of South Pacific terminals. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 103: 118-134.Available at:

Chen, M., 2016. Research on infrastructure connectivity under the background of "one belt and one road" -- a case study of CR-express operation. Administrative Assets and Finance, 26: 22-23.

Ernest, L., J. Nichols and B. Robert, 2002. Handfield. Supply chain redesign. England: FT Press. pp: 190-230.

Ha, M.-H., Z. Yang and J.S.L. Lam, 2019. Port performance in container transport logistics: A multi-stakeholder perspective. Transport Policy, 73: 25-40.Available at:

Haiyan, W. and Z. Jiao, 2018. How to ease the embarrassing flight return of China-Europe railway? Foreign Economic and Trade Practice, 1: 38-41.

Hummels, D., V. Lugovskyy and A. Skiba, 2009. The trade reducing effects of market power in international shipping. Journal of Development Economics, 89(1): 84-97.Available at:

Jiao, X., 2016. Research on value added of multimodal transport -- based on container transport practice. Beijing: China Social Science Press. pp: 170-200.

Knatz, G., 2017. How competition is driving change in port governance, strategic decision-making and government policy in the United States. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 22: 67-77.Available at:

Liu, C. and C. Ho, 2018. 21st century maritime silk road' maritime network space pattern and its complexity research. World Geography Research, 3(27): 11-18.

Marsden, G. and L. Reardon, 2017. Questions of governance: Rethinking the study of transportation policy. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 101: 238-251.Available at:

Meersman, H., E. Van de Voorde and T. Vanelslander, 2016. Port competitiveness now and in the future: What are the issues and challenges? Research in Transportation Business & Management, 19: 1-3.Available at:

Panayides, P.M., F. Parola and J.S.L. Lam, 2015. The effect of institutional factors on public–private partnership success in ports. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 71: 110-127.Available at:

State Railway Administration, 2016. CR express construction and development plan (2016-2020). Available from [Accessed 2019.4.2].

Suárez-Alemán, A., J.M. Sarriera, T. Serebrisky and L. Trujillo, 2016. When it comes to container port efficiency, are all developing regions equal? Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 86: 56-77.Available at:

Wang, Y., 2018. The multimodal transport field advance will hold in Wuhan. Available from [Accessed 2019.4.2].

Xiong, G., 2017. Research on optimization modeling and algorithm of international multimodal transport. Chengdu: Southwest Jiaotong University Press. pp: 100-130.

Xu, G., 2007. Research on enterprise strategic performance evaluation based on symbiosis theory. Beijing: Economic Science Press, 2: 80-90

Yuen, C.-l.A., A. Zhang and W. Cheung, 2012. Port competitiveness from the users' perspective: An analysis of major container ports in China and its neighboring countries. Research in Transportation Economics, 35(1): 34-40.Available at:

Zhang, N., 2018. CR express under the "one belt and one road" initiative: Issues and prospects. Journal of Russian Studies, 2: 90-104.

Zhao, J., 2018. A study on the competitiveness and complementarity of China-European service trade. Shandong Social Sciences, 8: 166-170.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation
( 2 ) Contemporary Approach to Enhanced Road Transport System in Nigeria Through the Application of It-Based (Online) Bus Ticketing and Payment System
( 3 ) Impact of Labour, Capital and Human Resources in Productivity of Transport Firms in Nigeria
( 4 ) Importance of Corporate Governance Quality and Voluntary Disclosures of Corporate Governance Information in Listed Malaysian Family Controlled Businesses
( 5 ) The Effects of Exchange Rate Liberalization in Kenya on French Beans Exports
( 6 ) Exchange Rate Movements, Import And Economic Growth in Nigeria (1986-2010)
( 7 ) S-Dimensional Assets Portfolio Evaluation
( 8 ) The Impact of Rice Production, Consumption and Importation in Nigeria: The Political Economy Perspectives
( 9 ) Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013
( 10 ) A Review on EU Transportation Projects within the Case of Turkey for European Union Regional Development Policy
( 11 ) Determinants of Import Demand Functions of Pakistan: An ARDL Bound Testing Approach
( 12 ) Quality of Accounting Reporting After the IFRS Adoption in Nigeria
( 13 ) Effect of Media Transportation and Advertising Transportation on Customers Responsiveness
( 14 ) Pollution Tax Under Imperfect Competition and Air Transport in a Domestic Economy
( 15 ) Financial Tables Reports Gaps in Jordanian Islamic Banks
( 16 ) Employee Loyalty and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Port Harcourt Area Command of the Nigeria Police Force
( 17 ) The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3
( 18 ) Forecasting Prices of Three Important Agricultural Crops in Bangladesh
( 19 ) Uncertainties in Global Economic Policy and Nigerias Export Earnings
( 20 ) Investigate Airport Service Quality- A Case Study of Airports in Shanghai
( 21 ) Foreign Direct Investment in Zimbabwe: The Role of Uncertainty, Exports, Cost of Capital, Corruption and Market Size
( 22 ) Optimal Stock Portfolio Issuers of Building Construction Registered in LQ45 Based on the Markowitz Approach
( 24 ) Challenges and Opportunities of Investment to the People of Sebeta Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
( 25 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 26 ) Innovations Dissemination Approaches among Government Co-Operative Supporting Organisations in Tanzania
( 27 ) Effect of Brand Enhancement on Buying Behavior towards the Sport Sponsorship Companies in Riyadh, KSA
( 28 ) Export- Led Growth Hypothesis for Ghana: A TVAR & TVECM Analysis
( 29 ) Ethical Context of Organization and Turnover Intention of Women Employees: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support
( 30 ) International Financial Reporting Standards Adoption and Earnings Management: The Fundamental Effect Framework
( 31 ) An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of FDI, Export and Gross Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth in Bangladesh
( 32 ) Research on the Construction and Application of Chinese Enterprises Overseas Port Investment Confidence Index Based on D-S Evidence Theory
( 33 ) A Study on Financial Performance of Transport & Warehouses Firms Listed on the Hanoi Stock Exchange
( 34 ) Child Support Enforcement and Infants Health Outcomes
( 35 ) Making Poverty A History in Africa: The Role of the G8
( 36 ) Relationships Between Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia
( 37 ) Driving Role of Institutional Investors in the Indian Stock Market in Short and Long-Run – An Empirical Study
( 38 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 39 ) Social Security; A Public Policy for Good Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Nigerian Legislature
( 40 ) The Role of Bank Loans in Monetary Policy Transmission in Malaysia
( 41 ) Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections
( 42 ) Role of Foreign Investment and External Debt in Determination of Exchange Rate
( 43 ) Moderating Effects of Project Management Experience, Project Team Size, Project Duration and Project Value Size on the Relationship between Project Manager’s Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness in Malaysia
( 44 ) The Role of Strategic Planning on the Management of Organizational Change
( 45 ) The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Pakistan and its Impact on Economy
( 46 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 47 ) The Roles of Labour Union in Nigeria Industrial Harmony and Development
( 49 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 51 ) The Role of Social Security Program for Enhancing Seniors Longevity
( 52 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector
( 54 ) The Role of Women in Rural Development in Enugu State, Nigeria
( 55 ) International Business Expansion: The Roles of Affiliation and Ownership
( 56 ) Role of Talent Development on Talent Engagement and Self-Efficacy: A Structural Model
( 57 ) The Role of Social Capital and Social Innovation in Economic Growth
( 58 ) Effects of Green Human Resource Management on Employee Green Behavior: Moderating Role of Employee Environmental Knowledge
( 59 ) Facing the Challenges of Covid-19 in the Egyptian Banking Sector: The Role of Bricoleurs in Achieving Organizational Innovations via Learning through Improvisation
( 60 ) The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Project Success, Mediated by the Management of Conflict, Communication and Trust
( 61 ) Do Petroleum Product Pump Prices Influence Economic Growth in Nigeria? An Empirical Analysis
( 63 ) The Development of Participated Environmental Education Model for Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management on Eastern Part of Thailand
( 64 ) The Technical Efficiency of Collective Irrigation Schemes in South-Eastern of Tunisia
( 66 ) Relationships among Team Trust, Team Cohesion, Team Satisfaction and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia
( 67 ) Kashmir Peasant Economy under Dogra’s: A Case Study of Agrarian Produce and Livestock 1885-1925 A.D
( 68 ) A Review on Criteria for Green Infrastructure to be Adopted by Local Authorities
( 69 ) Promoting Entrepreneurship through Open and Distance Education in Zimbabwe. A Case Study of the Zimbabwe Open University Students at Masvingo Regional Campus
( 70 ) Taylor Rule in The Context of Inflation Targeting: The Case of Tunisia
( 71 ) Geographical Starting Points the Analysis of Current Rural Problems in Montenegro: Case Study of Rural Local Community Kralje
( 72 ) Metered and Unmetered Billing: How Asymmetric are the Phcn Bills?
( 73 ) Reminiscing Stock Splits Announcement: A Malaysian Case
( 74 ) The Sustainable Livelihoods Index: A Tool To Assess the Ability and Preparedness of the Rural Poor in Receiving Entrepreneurial Project
( 75 ) Public Infrastructure Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) Approach
( 76 ) Ensuring Quality Provision of Education for All: Discovering Challenges Faced by Teachers of Students with Learning Disabilities in Regular Primary Schools in Masvingo District
( 77 ) Testing the Random Walk: The Case of Hong Kong Stock Exchange
( 78 ) Conceptual Framework of Green Infrastructure Performance Evaluation for Local Authority
( 79 ) Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Employment: A Case of Province of Punjab, Pakistan
( 80 ) Rate of Return Would Not Increase To the Extent of Annuity Saving Discount
( 82 ) The Association Between Corporate Risk Disclosure and Firm Performance in Emerging Country – The Case of Egypt
( 83 ) Local Governance and Service Delivery in Zimbabwean Local Authorities: The Case of Harare and Masvingo Urban Municipalities
( 84 ) Influence Internship Learning Effect in Business Service Sector: Using Internship Self-Efficacy as the Mediator Variable
( 85 ) Green Products Purchasing Among Malaysian Consumers
( 86 ) Promoting Local Acceptability of International Oil Companies (IOCS) Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): The Case of Tullow Oil in Ghana
( 87 ) Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare
( 88 ) Beyond Marxist Economism and Entrepreneurial Essentialism: Post-Colonial Politics of Empire in Chinua Achebe’s And Linus Asong’s Writings
( 89 ) The Influence of Information Technology and Communication Supply Chain Management Performance for Greater SME Manufacturing in Aguascalientes
( 90 ) Bancassurance - Growth Guaranteed in India
( 91 ) Attributes Influencing Strategic Alignment in the Service Sector: An Indonesian Banking Sector Case Study
( 92 ) Micro-Credits and Poverty Reduction in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania: A Case Study of Dar-Es-Salaam Commercial Bank
( 93 ) Income Elasticity of Poverty: Estimates for South Asian Countries
( 94 ) Profit And Loss Sharing As an Offshoot for Bank Stability: A Comparative Analysis
( 95 ) An Empirical Test on Effect of Intra-Product Trade on Regional Income Distribution: The Case of Liaoning, China
( 96 ) Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Insect Pests Management in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 97 ) Effects of Advertising on Consumer Behavior in Low Density Houses: The Case of Marlborough, Zimbabwe
( 98 ) Exploration of Suitability of Situational Leadership in the Oil and Gas Sector
( 99 ) An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) On the Administration of Public Records: A Case Study of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana-West Africa
( 100 ) Estimating Value at Risk for Sukuk Market Using Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models
( 101 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 102 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Milk Production Systems in Uasin Gishu County of Kenya
( 103 ) Agent-Based Simulation of Contribution Games
( 104 ) An Analysis of Purchase Behavior of Generation Y in Kenya
( 105 ) The Effect of Outsourcing on Anglogold Ashanti Obuasi Mines Performance
( 106 ) Milk or Wine: Are Critical Infrastructure Protection Architectures Improving with Age?
( 107 ) An Assessment of the Relationship between Budget Deficit Syndrome and Consumer Welfare in Nigeria (1985 – 2014)
( 108 ) Various International Experiences in Waste Management - Useful Lessons for Algeria
( 109 ) Measuring the Gap Between the Syrian Accounting Qualifications and the International Accounting Education Based on IES 2 and IES 3
( 110 ) Rural - Urban Balance as a Measure of Socio-Economic Development with Special Reference to Iran
( 111 ) Teaching Hypothesis Test in an Easy Way
( 112 ) Measuring the Quality of Islamic Banks Services and Its Impact on Customers Satisfaction A Survey Study on the Islamic Banks Customers in Lattakia-Syria
( 113 ) Managerial Judgement Versus Financial Techniques in Strategic Investment Decisions: An Empirical Study on the Syrian Coastal Region Firms
( 114 ) Investigating the Demand of Small Hotel and Restaurant Businesses for Bank Financing: The Case of Turkey
( 116 ) Confirming the Mediation Effect of A Structural Model By Using Bootstrap Approach: A Case Study of Malaysian 8th Grade Students’ Mathematics Achievement
( 117 ) Measuring Efficiency in Banks: A Brief Survey on Non – Parametric Technique (Data Envelopment Analysis)
( 118 ) Acquisition of Personal Assets Through Loan Bank and Commercial Credit: What’s the Best Option?
( 119 ) Does Managerial Emotional Biases Affect Debt Maturity Preference? Bayesian Network Method: Evidence from Tunisia
( 120 ) Studying the Integration of Damascus Securities Exchange with Selected Stock Markets
( 121 ) Forecasting-Based Carry Trade Using Pegged Currency: A Case of Omani Rial
( 122 ) The Effect of Personal Factors on the Customer Rating of the Quality of Services of the Islamic Banks Operating in the Syrian Coast
( 123 ) A Theoretical Analysis Upon the Environmental Health and Justice Issue: A Case Study for a Comparison Between G20s Unitary and Federal Members
( 124 ) A Factor Analysis Approach Towards a Study of the Factors Affecting Students’ Choice of Higher Education Institution: A Case Study of a Private Institution (Twintech International University College of Technology)
( 125 ) Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Economic Freedom as Well as Economic Conditions, The Quality of Life, and Public Education Spending on U.S. Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Patterns
( 126 ) Ambient Particulate Matter (PM) Evaluation in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 127 ) Purchasing Power Parity Hold in Major SAARC Countries? Panel Cointegration Analysis
( 128 ) Effects of Environmental Satisfaction on Family Displacement Case Study: Gohar Dasht Region, Karaj City
( 129 ) Measuring the Quality of Health Services in Lattakia Province Patients' Perspective (Field Study of Health Centers in Jableh City)
( 130 ) Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State
( 131 ) Investment Climate Rating Evaluation: The Case of Ukrainian Economy
( 132 ) Interfaces Between Road Infrastructure and Poverty in Africa: The Case of Malawi, 1994-2013
( 133 ) Food Security Amongst Small Grains and Long Grains Smallholder Farmers of Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe
( 134 ) Effect of Budget Defict on Private Investment in East African Community for the Period 1981-2015: A Panel Data Analysis
( 135 ) Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 136 ) National Security and Democratization in Nigeria: The Case of Insurgence
( 137 ) An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change
( 138 ) Technological Innovation in Central and Eastern Europe: What’s the Contribution of Innovation Policy?
( 139 ) Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector
( 140 ) Rural Roads Infrastructure and Agricultural Products Distribution: A Focus on Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria
( 141 ) What Drives Banking Stability? Empirical Evidence from ECOWAS Countries
( 142 ) The Profitability of Momentum Strategies: Empirical Evidence from Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE)
( 143 ) Determinants of Rural Residential Solid Waste Collection Services in Lagos State
( 144 ) A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program
( 145 ) An Investigation of the Relationship between Manufacturing Output and Economic Growth : Evidence from Nigerias Data Set
( 146 ) Public-Private Partnership as a Strategy for E-Governance Funding in Africa: The Gains and the Pains
( 147 ) Measuring and Assessing the State of Technological Innovations and the Level of Interaction between Rice Processors and Stakeholders in Rice Processing Industry in Nigeria
( 148 ) An Evaluation of Effectiveness of Oversight Committees: A Case of City of Johannesburg, Section 79 Committees
( 149 ) An Investigation into the Causes of Failures in Railway Infrastructure at Transnet Freight Rail - A Case of the Steel and Cement Business Unit
( 150 ) Social Protection and Agricultural Production in ECOWAS: The Youth Unemployment Question
( 151 ) Financial Market Predictions with Factorization Machines: Trading the Opening Hour Based on Overnight Social Media Data
( 152 ) An Analysis of Chinas Poverty Research Based on CiteSpace
( 153 ) Forecasting Equity Index Volatility: Empirical Evidence from Japan, UK and USA Data
( 154 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 155 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 156 ) Conceptualisation of Lack of Discipline and Probity as the Main Cause towards Good Governance Practice
( 159 ) Decision-Making on Working Capital Management, Based on Industry Differences
( 161 ) An Entrepreneurship Research in Singapore: Basic Psychological Needs and Motivation
( 162 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe
( 163 ) An Empirical Assessment of the Impact of Access to Credit on Farm Output: A Case Study of Sefwi-Wiawso Municipality Ghana
( 164 ) Dutch Disease: Myth or Reality? An Analysis of the ARDL Model
( 166 ) Impact of Asymmetric Government Spending on Real Balances Demand
( 167 ) Investigating the Impact of Business Alignment on Job Gratification in an Organization: The Case of a University in Egypt
( 168 ) Migration as a Livelihood Strategy: The Case of Internal Migration in Ghana
( 169 ) Profitability Behavior of Plastic Industries in Indonesia
( 170 ) An Empirical Evaluation of Cashless Systems Implementation in Ghana
( 171 ) Correlation between Financial Difficulties and Financing Strategies among Market Stallholders in Batangas City
( 173 ) The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region
( 174 ) Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs
( 175 ) The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia
( 176 ) The Mediating Effect of Financial Self-Efficacy on the Financial Literacy-Behavior Relationship: A Case of Generation Y Professionals
( 177 ) Exploring the Asymmetric Linkage between Commodity Prices and Fiscal Performance in Nigeria
( 178 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 179 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 180 ) Analysis of Effect of Profitability, Capital, Risk Financing, the Sharia Supervisory Board and Capabilities Zakat in Islamic Perspective with Circular Approach Causastion on Islamic Banks in Indonesia
( 182 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 183 ) The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis
( 184 ) Exchange Rate Volatility, Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Asymmetric Preferences
( 185 ) Seasonal Assessment of Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature and CO2 Concentration Level in School Buildings of Kigali-Rwanda
( 186 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 187 ) What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?
( 188 ) Determinants of Financial Performance and its Impact on the Growth of Islamic Bank Assets on Indonesia
( 189 ) Externality Effects of Sachet and Plastic Bottled Water Consumption on the Environment: Evidence from Benin City and Okada in Nigeria
( 190 ) Re-Engineering Nigerian Economy through Human Capital Development: A Case of Manufacturing Firms In Southern Part of Nigeria
( 191 ) Analysis of Traffic Accident Occurrence at Hazardous Road Locations: A Case Study in Tunisia
( 192 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 193 ) Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAPM and APT for Risk Measuring and Assets Pricing
( 194 ) Innovation Strategy and Sustainability of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in South East Nigeria
( 195 ) Do Derivative Instruments Increase Firm Risk for Indonesia Non-Financial Companies?
( 196 ) Inflation, Oil Revenue, and Monetary Policy Mix in an Oil-Dependent Economy: Empirical Insights from the Case of Nigeria
( 197 ) Factors Influencing on Human Resources Development in SMEs Service Enterprises in Industry 4.0: The Case of Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam
( 198 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 199 ) The Effects of Visual Merchandising and Price Sensitivity on Impulse Purchase Behaviour among Young Apparel Shoppers in Bangladesh
( 200 ) Fraud Auditing Law Implications in the Case of Jiwasraya Insurance in Indonesia
( 201 ) Determinants of Profitability and its Implications on Corporate Values (Studies at Ceramic, Porcelain and Glass Sub Sector Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, 2009 - 2018)
( 202 ) Towards a Proposal of a Local Authority Model Based on the Systemic Approach
( 203 ) Up or Down! House Management and Public Finance Theory from America’s Era of Hastert
( 204 ) The Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Bank Default: A Case Study in Brazil
( 205 ) Infrastructure Development, Capacity Utilization and Manufacturing Value Added in Nigeria
( 206 ) Deficit Financing Asymmetry and Nigerias Economic Growth: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
( 207 ) Does Corruption Grease or Sand the Wheels of Economic Growth in Ghana? An ARDL Bounds Test
( 208 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 209 ) Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Assessing Public Policy in Ukraine
( 210 ) The Impact of Merger and Acquisition on the Financial Performance of the Nasdaq Listed Small Size Technology Companies
( 211 ) Socioeconomic Environment and Obesity on the US West and East Coasts
( 212 ) Panel Data Estimators in the Presence of Serial and Spatial Correlation with Panel Heteroscedasticity: A Simulation Study
( 213 ) The Impact of Data Frequency on the Level of Exchange Rate Pass-through to Consumer Prices in Nigeria
( 214 ) The Problem of Distribution of Food Products and their Influence on the Decision of Purchasing in the Consumer a Case Study of Milk Products in the South, Algeria
( 215 ) The Reasons Behind the Shift of Patients from Public to Private Hospitals: Evidence from Public Hospitals in Cumilla City Corporation
( 216 ) Assessment of Mental Health of Undergraduate Students Based on Age: A Bayesian Ordinal Quantile Regression Approach
( 218 ) Assessing Access to Comprehensive HIV Treatment Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in the Bamenda Health District
( 219 ) The Promise and Reality of Public Sector Reform – A Case Study of the Implementation of Trinidad and Tobagos Health Sector Reform
( 220 ) The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Global Economy: Emphasis on Poverty Alleviation and Economic Growth
( 221 ) Modelling Stock Returns Volatility and Asymmetric News Effect: A Global Perspective
( 222 ) IT Governance as Drivers of Dynamic Capabilities to Gain Corporate Performance Under the Effects of Environmental Dynamism
( 223 ) Financial Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: New Evidence from a Threshold Autoregressive and Asymmetric Analysis
( 224 ) The Influence of Institutional Voids in the Institutionalization of Bitcoins as a Currency
( 225 ) Factors Influencing Profitability of Commercial Banks in Tanzania: A Case Study of CRDB Bank Plc
( 226 ) Nexus among Foreign Exchange Reserve, Remittance and Trade Openness: An Empirical Investigation in the Case of Bangladeshi Economy
( 227 ) The Impact of Fundamental Factors on the Share Price of Micro-Sized Nasdaq Listed Technology Companies
( 228 ) An Analyses of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Case of SANE Countries
( 229 ) The Influence of Organizational Culture, Communication and Work Satisfaction on Organizational Commitments: A Case Study of Lecturers at Yayasan Pendidikan Borobudur
( 230 ) Econometric Analysis of Dutch Disease Implication of China-Africa Trade
( 231 ) Natural Resource Rents-Capital Flight Nexus in Selected ECOWAS Countries: Evidence from Non-Linear ARDL Approach
( 232 ) Localised Initiatives: Households Contribution to Infrastructure Development in Ondo State, Nigeria
( 233 ) Identifying Combinations of Individual Governance Indicators Essential for Attracting International Capital Flows to Asian Economies
( 234 ) Performance Evaluation of Chinese Commercial Banks Based on the Malmquist Index
( 242 ) China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Analysis of Internal and External Challenges
( 246 ) Study on Environment and Energy Using Belonging Materials
( 251 ) Study of the Relationship between Economic Growth and Inflation: Application to the Countries of the South Side of the Mediterranean: A Panel Data Approach
( 252 ) A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style
( 253 ) Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria