Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

June 2020, Volume 5, 1, pp 14-22

Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria

Bob-Manuel, R.B


Egbecho, E


Zakka, U

Bob-Manuel, R.B 1 Egbecho, E 1 Zakka, U 3

  1. Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 1

  2. Department of Crop and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 3

Pages: 14-22

DOI: 10.18488/journal.106.2020.51.14.22

Share :

Article History:

Received: 20 January, 2020
Revised: 25 February, 2020
Accepted: 30 March, 2020
Published: 27 April, 2020


Pesticide residues in cured fish from selected markets in Rivers State, Nigeria were determined to compare their residues content with FAO/WHO MRLs. The research was carried out at Ignatius Ajuru University of Education and Austino Research Laboratories, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples of cured fish were collected from different major markets in Rivers State, Nigeria. Each product was purchased from three different traders and kept in an air tight Ziploc envelope containing general information. Some of the samples were kept in 250 g plastic containers and kept on a laboratory bench for a period of 45 days to observe insect emergence while the other lots were taken to Austino Research Laboratory for pesticide residue analysis. The result shows varying degrees of damage ranging from slightly to undamaged and mean number of D. maculatus emergence was higher in smoked fish samples obtained at Rumuokwuta. The result also shows that in all the cured fish sampled, DDT, Captan, Hexazinone, and Tecnazene were found above the FAO/WHO MRLs and few compounds were below the MRLs. Conclusively, relevant authorities and agencies needs to increase surveillance and monitoring to check and control the illegal importation, sale and use of such compounds especially in controlling stored pests of cured fish. This could reduce cases of pesticide toxicity and food poisoning and other health implications due to its ingestion in such contaminated cured fish.
Contribution/ Originality
The objective of this research therefore was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in cured fish sold in selected markets in Rivers State Nigeria and to compare their residues content with FAO/WHO MRLs.


Dermestes maculatus, Infestation, Cured fish, MRL, Pesticide, Toxicity.


[1]          Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), The State of food insecurity in the world 2014. Rome Strengthening the Enabling Environment for Food Security and Nutrition, 2014.

[2]          U. Zakka and L. C. Nwosu, "Global war on hunger and current research on the roles of world entomologists in enhancing food security," Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, vol. 5, pp. 15-25, 2019.

[3]          United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP ), Africa environment outlook: Past, present and future perspectives. Nairobi: UNEP, 2002.

[4]          J. A. Wahedi and M. Kefas, "Investigation of insect pests on three species of smoked fish in Mubi North-Eastern Nigeria," Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Science, vol. 2, pp. 103-105, 2013.

[5]          M. J. Boland, A. N. Rae, J. M. Vereijken, M. P. M. Meuwissen, A. R. H. Fischer, M. A. J. S. van Boekel, and W. H. Hendriks, "Thefuturesupplyofanimal-derived protein forhumanconsumption," Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 29, pp. 62–73, 2013.

[6]          T. Cashion, F. Le Manach, D. Zeller, and D. Pauly, "Most fish destined for fishmeal production are food-grade fish," Fish and Fisheries, vol. 18, pp. 837-844, 2017. Available at:

[7]          F. A. Ajayi, S. B. Audu, U. D.M., I. R. Keke, and E. Omorgie, "Effect of insect infestation on nutritional quality of some smoked fish species in Jos, Nigeria," Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 2, pp. 26-30, 2006. Available at:

[8]          O. Guizani, E. l. Salma, and M. Nizar, "Atlantic mackerel amino acids and mineral contents from the Tunisian middle eastern coast," International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research, vol. 3, pp. 77–83, 2015.

[9]          S. K. Raatz, J. T. Silverstein, L. Jahns, and M. J. Picklo, "Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction," Nutrients, vol. 5, pp. 1081-1097, 2013. Available at:

[10]        N. J.M., G. I., T. F., Y. N. J.H., N. D.T., C. Y. Fomogne-Fodjo, and F. J. Schweigert, "Proximate composition, mineral content and fatty acid profile of two marine fishes from Cameroonian coast: Pseudotolithus typus (Bleeker, 1863) and Pseudotolithuse longatus (Bowdich, 1825)," NFS Journal, vol. 4, pp. 27-31, 2016.

[11]        D. Mendil, Z. Demirci, M. Tuzen, and M. Soylak, "Seasonal investigation of trace  element contents in commercially valuable fish species from the Black Sea, Turkey," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, pp. 865–870, 2010.

[12]        M. Shiv, S. M. Singh, S. Siddhnath, R. Bharti, A. Aziz, S. Pradhan, B. Chhaba, and N. Kaur, "Insect infestation in dried fishes," Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2018, vol. 6, pp. 2720-2725, 2018.

[13]        A. Amusan and T. Okorie, "The use of Piper guineense fruit oil (PFO) as protectant of dried fish against dermestes maculatus (Degeer) infestation," Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, vol. 8, pp. 197-202, 2002. Available at:

[14]        F. O. Akinwumi, E. A. Fasakin, and C. O. Adedire, "Toxic and repellence activities of four plant extracts to Dermestes maculatus Degeer on smoked African mud catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell," Journal of Entomology, vol. 4, pp. 149-154, 2007.

[15]        A. G. R., "Traditional and modern post-harvest technologies for increased food and supply from Island fisheries in Africa," in In Proceeding of Symposium of Post-Harvest Fish Technology Cairo, Egypt. Technical Paper, 1992, pp. 11 – 17.

[16]        O. J. Abolagba, J. O. Igene, and C. O. Usifoh, "Studies of pesticide residues in smoked catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) in Nigeria: Some health implications," Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 496-502, 2011.

[17]        FAO, "The prevention of losses in cured fish," FAO Fisheries Technical paper 219 FAO of the United nations, Rome Italy, vol. 87, pp. 70-76, 1981.

[18]        U. Zakka, J. N. Ayertey, and M. A. Cobblah, "Development of dermestes maculatus (DeGeer, 1774) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) on different fish substrates," Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 5 - 10, 2012.

[19]        J. O. Akinneye, A. O. Alabadan, F. P. Adesina, O. A. Adeleye, and M. I. Akinyemi, "Quantification of organochlorine residue on stored grains in Ondo State," Nigeria European J. Biomed and Pharm.l Sci, vol. 6, pp. 54-61, 2018.

[20]        E. Egbecho, R. B. Bob-Manuel, and U. Zakka, "GC-MS analysis of pesticide residues in stored grain legumes and cereals from selected markets in Rivers State Nigeria," Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, vol. 5, pp. 195-204, 2019.

[21]        D. Akunyili and M. F. A. Ivbijaro, Pesticide regulations and implementation in Nigeria. In Ivbijaro M.F.A. and Akintola F. (editors) (2012) Sustainable Environmental Management in Nigeria, 2nd ed. Ibadan, Nigeria: Book Builders Pub, 2012.

[22]        FAO/WHO, Food safety risk analysis, Part II, case studies, food and agricultural organization of the United Nations (FAO). Rome Italy: World Health Organization (WHO), 2005.

[23]        A. Özkara, D. Akyıl, and M. Konuk, "Pesticides, environmental pollution, and health, environmental health risk - Hazardous factors to living species," Marcelo L. Larramendy and Sonia Soloneski, IntechOpen, 2016. Available at: 10.5772/63094.

[24]        O. Alabi, O. O. Banwo, and S. O. Alabi, "Crop pest management and food security in Nigerian agriculture," Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, vol. 39, pp. 1-8, 2006.

[25]        U. Zakka, J. Ayertey, and M. Cobblah, "Suitability of four smoked fish species to Dermestes maculatus (De Geer)(Coleoptera: Dermestidae)," Nigerian Journal of Entomology, vol. 26, pp. 35-39, 2009.

[26]        F. N. Eke, N. E. Ekechukwu, and I. Onah, "Arthropod pests of dried fish and fish by product in a tropical urban community market," Animal Research International, vol. 5, pp. 900-903, 2008. Available at:

[27]        C. P. Haines and D. P. Rees, "Dermestes spp. A field guide to the types of insects and Mites Infesting Cured Fish," FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 303, FAO, Rome, p. 33, 1989.

[28]        F. A. E. and A. B. A., "Effects of some pulverized plant materials on the developmental stages of fish beetle dermestes maculatus (Degeer) in Smoked Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) During Storage," Nature Science, vol. 6, pp. 1-5, 2002.

[29]        O. Odeyemi, R. Owoade, and R. Akinkurolere, "Toxicity and population suppression effects of Parkia clappertoniana on dried fish pests,(Dermestes maculatus and Necrobia rufipes)," Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 191-195, 2000. Available at:

[30]        M. Ogunkoya and T. Ofuya, "Damage to cowpea by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in a humid tropical environment in Nigeria," App Trop Agric, vol. 6, pp. 45-50, 2001.

[31]        M. Aslam, K. A. Khan, and M. Bajwa, "Potency of some spices against Callosobruchus chinensis Linnaeus," OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 449-452, 2002. Available at:

[32]        J. Ogendo, A. Deng, S. Belmain, D. Walker, and A. Musandu, "Effect of insecticidal plant materials, Lantana camara L. and Tephrosia vogelii Hook, on the quality parameters of stored maize grains," Journal of Food Technology in Africa, vol. 9, pp. 29-35, 2004.

[33]        C. O. Ogah, T. J., H. B. Coker, and A. A. Adepoju-Bello, "Analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in beans from markets in Lagos State, Nigeria," West African Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 23, pp. 60 – 68, 2012.

[34]        M. Manzoor, H. Ali, S. Hahzada, H. Khalid, A. Idrees, and M. Arif, "Potential of moringa (Moringa oleifera: Moringaceae) as plant growth regulator and bio-Pesticide against wheat aphids on wheat crop (Triticum aestivum; Poaceae). ," Journal of Biopesticides, vol. 8, pp. 120-127, 2015.

[35]        I. Atif, M. Qasim, H. Ali, Z. A. Qadir, A. Idrees, M. H. Bashir, and J. Qinge, "Acaricidal potential of some botanicals against the stored grain mites, Rhizoglyphus tritici," Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, vol. 4, pp. 611-661, 2016.

[36]        J. S. Anzene, R. L. Tyohemba, U. J. Ahile, and K. S. A. Emezi, "Organochlorine pesticide residues analysis of postharvest cereal grains in Nasarawa State," International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research, vol. 5, pp. 59-64, 2014.

[37]        N. Bakore, P. John, and P. Bhatnagar, "Organochlorine pesticide residues in wheat and drinking water samples from Jaipur, Rajasthan, India," Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 98, pp. 381-389, 2004. Available at:

[38]        U. Riaz, I. Sajid, A. B. Parwai, B. Abbas, and A. Akhlaq, "Gas chromatographic multi-residue pesticide determination method for cereal grains," American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental, vol. 15, pp. 1617-1624, 2015.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria
( 4 ) Status of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in Southwestern Nigeria
( 5 ) Assessment of Government Feeding Programme on Improved Nutritional Health Status of Secondary School Students in Maiduguri, Borno State
( 6 ) Agronomic Practices of Maize and Farm Nutrient Status in Bako Tibe District, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia: Lesson from Agronomic Panel Survey
( 8 ) Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria
( 9 ) Tree Diversity, Conservation Status and Utilization Potentials of Shasha Rainforest Reserve, Southwestern, Nigeria
( 10 ) Vegetable Farmers Knowledge and Safety Practices towards Pesticides: Results from Field Observation in Southeastern DR Congo
( 12 ) Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt
( 15 ) Nutritional Properties of Some Novel Selected Fish Species in Khuzestan Province, Iran
( 16 ) The Effect of Steaming Process on Fat Soluble Vitamins Content and Fatty Acid Profile in Bluefish and Rainbow Trout Fillets
( 17 ) Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad
( 18 ) Analysis of Fresh Fish Marketing in Ngaski Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria
( 19 ) Utilization of Fish and Mango Wastes on Biological Silage Production
( 21 ) Quality Characteristics of High-Oleic Sunflower Oil Extracted from Some Hybrids Cultivated Under Egyptian Conditions
( 22 ) Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite
( 24 ) Effect of Fungi and Manure on Cadmium Content and Biomass of Maize Grown In Cadmium Contaminated Tailing from Bangka Indonesia
( 25 ) Climate Relevant Emissions from Animal Production and Reduction Potentials
( 26 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 27 ) Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf
( 28 ) Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State: Evidence from Fadama Ii & Iii in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria
( 29 ) Bioaccumulation of Hydrocarbon, Heavy Metals and Minerals in Tympanotonus Fuscatus from Coastal Region of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
( 30 ) Microbiological Profile, Shelf Stability and Some Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Flour from Different Sweet Potato Cultivars
( 31 ) The Particle Size and Thermal Properties of Flour from three Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars Grown in Nigeria
( 32 ) Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology
( 33 ) Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil
( 34 ) Occurrence and Anti-Fungal Sensitivity Testing of Candida Species Isolated from Canine Conjunctivitis
( 35 ) The Evaluation of Some Dietary Fiber Rich by-Products in Ice Creams Made from the Traditional Pudding - Kesme Muhallebi
( 36 ) Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old
( 37 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 38 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 39 ) Sooty Mold on Lemon Trees - First Recording from El-Beida City, Libya
( 40 ) Isolation and Screening of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) on Andisols
( 41 ) Edible Films and Coatings: A Good Idea From Past to Future Technology
( 43 ) Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia
( 44 ) Traditional Technologies and Probiotic Properties of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Kawal -A Chad Traditional Fermented Food Condiment
( 47 ) Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk
( 48 ) Proximate and Sensory Properties of Moi-Moi Developed from Cowpea and Avocado Pear Seed Flour Blends
( 49 ) Economic Benefits of Waste Management Based on Cocoa Farming System in Rural Area: Evidence from East Kolaka District of Southeast Sulawesi Province
( 50 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 51 ) Quality Evaluation of Instant Mosa (A Fried Maize Based Snack) Produced from Fermented Maize and Sorghum Flour
( 52 ) Development of an Effective Biocatalyzed Organic Fertilizer Derived from Gliricidia Sepium Stem Biochar
( 53 ) Comparative Analysis of Thermal Retention Capacity of Ice Chest Wood Cooler Stands Made from Pinus Caribeae and Nauclea Diderichii
( 55 ) Blood Picture and Selected Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosoma Evansi
( 56 ) Determination of Milk Composition, Bacteriology and Selected Blood Parameters of Dairy Goats Under Different Feeding Systems
( 57 ) Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition
( 58 ) Assessment of Potassium Leaching Behaviour in Selected Soils of Southeastern Nigeria
( 59 ) The Value of Selected Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya
( 60 ) Contextual Estimation of Marketable and Marketed Surplus of Selected Seasonal Fruits: A Study Based on Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh
( 61 ) Adoption Impact of Improved Cowpea Variety in Selected Areas of Chattogram District of Bangladesh
( 62 ) An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality
( 64 ) Carbon Sequestration Assessment of Selected Campus Champion Trees
( 65 ) Production and Value Chain Analysis of Lentil in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
( 66 ) Ovitrap Surveillance of the Dengue Vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Selected Endemic Areas in Sandakan, Sabah
( 67 ) Socio Economic Determinant and Profitability of Bari Mungbean Variety in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
( 68 ) Antifungal Activities of Selected Plant Extracts in In-Vitro Control of Anthracnose and Root Rot Diseases on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus B.)
( 69 ) Management of Fusarium Wilt Disease of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Using Selected Plant Extracts
( 71 ) Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion
( 72 ) Essential and Toxic Metals Determination in Imported and Fresh Beef Cattle Meat Sold in Erbil Markets
( 75 ) GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia
( 76 ) An Assessment of the Level of Awareness of Climate Change and Variability among Rural Farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria
( 77 ) Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
( 78 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 79 ) Ethnomedicinal Survey of Plants Used In Treating Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Abia State, Nigeria
( 80 ) Economics of Sheep Production in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State Nigeria
( 81 ) Analysis of Determinants of Demand and Supply of Maize in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 83 ) Assessment of Human Capital Attributes Influencing Occupational Diversification among Rural Women in Anambra State, Nigeria
( 84 ) Ingessana Goats Phenotype, Carcass and Wholesale Cuts Characteristics in Fadamia, Bao Locality, Blue Nile State, Sudan
( 85 ) Profitability of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Production and Marketing in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State: A Case for Honey
( 86 ) Assessment of Veterinary Inspection Practices on Quality of Beef Produced In Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 87 ) Constraints to Brood and Sell Poultry Production among Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria
( 89 ) Stover Yield and Chemical Composition in Some Sorghum Varieties in Gadarif State, Sudan
( 90 ) Effects of Ebola (EVD) Outbreak on Bush Meat Marketing and Consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 91 ) Effects of Dried Rumen Contents Level in Rations on the Performance of Shugor Desert Sheep in Halfa Elgadeda, Kassala State, Sudan
( 93 ) Gender Issues of Labour Participation in Vegetable Production in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State
( 94 ) Analysis of Climate Change Effects among Rice Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 95 ) Analysis of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 96 ) Technical Efficiency of Swamp Rice Farmers in Ebonyi South Agricultural Zone, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 97 ) Productivity of Farmland Values in Food Crop Production in the Natural Disasters Prone Areas of Imo State, Nigeria
( 98 ) Perception of Kogi State University Agricultural Students on Farming as a Career
( 99 ) Microscopic Detection of Haemoparasites in Muscovy Ducks (Anas Platyrynchos) in Gombe State, Nigeria
( 100 ) An Assessment of the Market Structure of Sesame among Farmers, Wholesalers and Retailers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria
( 101 ) Determinants of Farmers' Use of Land Reclamation Practices in Oil Producing Areas of Imo State, Nigeria: Application of Multivariate Logistic Analysis
( 102 ) Perception of Cassava Farmers of Climate Change on Cassava Production in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 103 ) A Tobit Analysis of Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology among Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria
( 104 ) Prospects of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 107 ) Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria
( 108 ) Investigating Constraints to Poultry Management Practices among Smallholder Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 109 ) Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies: Farmers Perception in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 110 ) Climate Variability, Incidences and Mitigation Strategies among Poultry Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria
( 111 ) Gender Differentials in Labour Market Participation of Rural Households in Non-Farm Activities in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 112 ) Effects of Community Financing Institutions on Cassava Farmers Income in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 113 ) Attitude of Youth to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
( 114 ) Attitude of Youths to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
( 115 ) Ectoparasitosis in Domesticated Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) in Jere Area, Borno State, Nigeria
( 116 ) Comparative Larvicidal Efficacy of Carica Papaya Leaves and Seed Extract on Mosquito Larval Population in Rice Fields in Bida Metropolis, Niger State
( 117 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 118 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 120 ) Youth Participation in Sesame Production in Gwer West Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria
( 121 ) Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State