Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Journal of Future Internet

March 2019, Volume 3, 1, pp 12-19

Analysis of Cyber Attacks on Load Frequency Control in Smart Grid

Md Musabbir Hossain


Fatamatuz Ayasa Khan

Md Musabbir Hossain 1

Fatamatuz Ayasa Khan 2

  1. School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China. 1

  2. Computer Science and Engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia-Jhenaidah, Bangladesh. 2

Pages: 12-19

DOI: 10.18488/journal.102.2019.31.12.19

Share :

Article History:

Received: 20 August, 2019
Revised: 25 September, 2019
Accepted: 28 October, 2019
Published: 03 December, 2019


Smart Grid has gained tremendous technology momentum over the past few years. The data and cyber security of the smart grid face severe challenges and has gained significant importance. This paper addresses the reliability of smart grid by examining their own importance and the effect of cyber-attack during sudden load changes in frequency disturbing aspects. Moreover, it also introduces a solution approach for stabilizing the system. Using the continuous power flow approach with static var compensator (SVC) and static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), maximum load ability of the load buses is determined. The stable limit of speed control for load frequency control (LFC) and integral controller gain for automatic generation control (AGC) is extracted from their characteristic equations to evaluate the effect of cyber-attack on power systems. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the frequency variations and oscillations of the power system, depending on the nature of cyber-attack (positive biased or negative biased attack). Finally, to eliminate these oscillations, a feedback LFC block with a three-input shift is proposed.
Contribution/ Originality
Cybersecurity of the modern power system is becoming a major concern throughout the design and implementation of smart grid applications and technology. Therefore, it is essential to study the impact of cyber attacks on the power system. This paper discusses cyberattacks that induce positive and negative biased attacks and their impact on transient stability. Cyber attacks are launched on measured data for a FACTS device (static var compensator - SVC). Therefore, a new procedure of analyzing power system frequency stability under cyber-attack by static var compensator (SVC) and static synchronous compensator (STATCOM).


LFC, Smart grid security, Cyber attack, Smart grid, Power system stability.


[1]          UN News, "Major milestones reached on renewable energy investments, UN reports, UN News, 25-Mar-2016. [Online]. Retrieved: [Accessed 15-Nov-2019]," 1994.

[2]          N. G. Hingorani, "Flexible AC transmission," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 30, pp. 40-45, 1993.

[3]          K. Prasertwong, N. Mithulananthan, and D. Thakur, "Understanding low-frequency oscillation in power systems," International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, vol. 47, pp. 248-262, 2010.

[4]          D. E. Olivares, A. Mehrizi-Sani, A. H. Etemadi, C. A. Cañizares, R. Iravani, M. Kazerani, A. H. Hajimiragha, O. Gomis-Bellmunt, M. Saeedifard, and R. Palma-Behnke, "Trends in microgrid control," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 5, pp. 1905-1919, 2014.

[5]          M. K. Jalboub, A. M. Ihbal, H. S. Rajamtani, and R. A. Abd-Alhameed, "Determination of static voltage stability margin of the power system prior to voltage collapse," presented at the In Eighth International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices. IEEE, 2011.

[6]          R. Claudia and F. P. Maciel Barbosa, "Indicators for voltage collapse margin," presented at the Asia- Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, 2010.

[7]          A. Atputharajah and T. K. Saha, "Power system blackouts - literature review," presented at the International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, 2009.

[8]          L. Baozhu and L. Bolong, "A novel static voltage stability index based on equilibrium solution region of branch power flow," in In 2008 Third International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies, 2008, pp. 809 – 814.

[9]          J. Zhao, Y. Wang, and P. Xu, "A comprehensive online voltage stability assessment method based on continuation power flow," in In Proceeding IEEE International Conference SUPERGEN, China, 2009, pp. 1-5.

[10]        C. Sharma and M. G. Ganness, "Determination of the applicability of using modal analysis for the prediction of voltage stability," in In Proceedings IEEE International Conference Transmission Distribution, Chicago, 2008, pp. 1-7.

[11]        Y.-H. Moon, H.-S. Ryu, J.-G. Lee, and B. Kim, "Uniqueness of static voltage stability analysis in power systems," in In Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, 2001, pp. 1536-1541.

[12]        L.-J. Cai and I. Erlich, "Power system static voltage stability analysis considering all active and reactive power controls-singular value approach," in 2007 IEEE Lausanne Power Tech, 2007, pp. 367-373.

[13]        M. Mirzaei, J. Jasni, H. Hizam, N. I. A. Wahab, and E. Moazami, "Static voltage stability analysis using generalized regression neural network," in In 2013 IEEE 7th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO). IEEE, 2013, pp. 391-396.

[14]        M. Hassan, "Damping performance enhancement of a power system by STATCOM and its frequency stability consideration," Diss. Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET), Khulna, Banglades, 2016.

[15]        J. Lakkireddy, R. Rastgoufard, I. Leevongwat, and P. Rastgoufard, "Steady state voltage stability enhancement using shunt and series FACTS devices," presented at the In 2015 Clemson University Power Systems Conference (PSC). IEEE, 2015.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Web Pages Categorization Based on Classification & Outlier Analysis through FSVM
( 2 ) Postbuckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams Using Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory
( 3 ) Classification and Identification of Risk Management Techniques for Mitigating Risks with Factor Analysis Technique in Software Risk Management
( 4 ) A Detailed Analysis of Software Cost Estimation Using Cosmic-FFP
( 5 ) Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for CBR Traffic in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
( 6 ) Analysis of Suitable Security Protocols for Apply a Model of Identity in the Civil Registry of Ecuador
( 7 ) Comprehensive Analysis & Performance Comparison of Clustering Algorithms for Big Data
( 8 ) Development and Performance Analysis of Bisection Method-Based Optimal Path Length Algorithm for Terrestrial Microwave Link
( 9 ) Network Traffic Analysis Using Queuing Model and Regression Technique
( 10 ) Stability Analysis of Type-2 Fuzzy Process Control Using LMI
( 11 ) A Survey on Sentiment Analysis Algorithms and Datasets
( 12 ) Analysis of Cyber Attacks on Load Frequency Control in Smart Grid
( 13 ) Design and Analysis of Compact Microstrip Circular Resonator with Slotted in Ground Plane as a Grain Moisture Sensor
( 14 ) Study and Comparative Analysis of Programming Languages Used for Big Data
( 15 ) Cyber-Crime and its Effects on E-Commerce Technologies
( 18 ) Real-Time Workload Scheduling (RTWS) Algorithm for Cloud
( 21 ) Shortcomings in Traffic Control Devices on Rural Highways of Pakistan and their Rectifications