Journal of Social Economics Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2312-6264
Print ISSN: 2312-6329
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No. 5

Metered and Unmetered Billing: How Asymmetric are the Phcn Bills?

Pages: 97-107
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Metered and Unmetered Billing: How Asymmetric are the Phcn Bills?

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Citation: 6

C. Chris Ofonyelu , Eguabor, R. E.

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C. Chris Ofonyelu , Eguabor, R. E. (2014). Metered and Unmetered Billing: How Asymmetric are the Phcn Bills?. Journal of Social Economics Research, 1(5): 97-107. DOI:
This study provides evidence on the existence of asymmetries in the metering of electricity by the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) between January 2005 and November, 2013.Using Chiappori-Salanie correlation statistics and data from the response of 720 electricity consumers and 524 PHCN bills within the Benin Electricity Distribution Company, the study observed that the electricity bills were asymmetric. The asymmetries were observed for both the metered and unmetered consumers over the period. For the metered consumers, the asymmetry was more prevalent for the analogue than the prepaid meter users. The asymmetry existed mainly through procurement of meter in the case of the prepaid meter users. The study argues that estimated billings by the PHCN give room for asymmetry and overprices energy consumptions. The study suggests a prepaid metering of all electricity consumers in Nigeria.
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Challenges of Human Rights Abuses in Nigerian Democratic Governance – Which Way Forward ?

Pages: 87-96
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Challenges of Human Rights Abuses in Nigerian Democratic Governance – Which Way Forward ?

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Citation: 1

Adetoro Rasheed Adenrele , Omiyefa Muraina Olugbenga

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Adetoro Rasheed Adenrele , Omiyefa Muraina Olugbenga (2014). Challenges of Human Rights Abuses in Nigerian Democratic Governance – Which Way Forward ?. Journal of Social Economics Research, 1(5): 87-96. DOI:
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was unanimously adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations through the General Assembly Resolution 217A(111) on the 10th of December, 1948. Since its declaration, it has become fashionable for most countries of the world (Nigeria inclusive) to entrench the catalogue of rights in their national constitutions. Regrettably, in Nigeria and indeed in Africa, people are usually subjected to physical and mental torture. The case of accidental discharges, domestic violence, detention without trial, kidnappings, and police brutality are common occurrences. In short, the Nigerian experience has shown the level at which peoples’ integrity and dignity are not respected and protected in the society. It is against this backdrop that this paper examines the challenges of human rights abuses in Nigeria. It also explores some conceptual clarifications and further examines various threats to human rights in Nigerian society. The paper concludes by recommending among others, the strengthening of independence of the judiciary, press freedom, democratic rules/principles, human rights education and public vigilance to curtail human rights abuses and promote good governance in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality