J. Johnson, "Incidence of appendicular musculoskeletal disorders in I6 veterinary teaching hospitals from 1980 through 1989," Vet. Comp. Orthopaed Traumatol., vol. 7, pp. 56-69, 1994.
M. C. Rochat, Saunders manual of small animal practice, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2006.
I. R. Phillips, "A survey of bone fractures in the dog and cat," J. Small Anim. Pract., vol. 20, pp. 661–674, 1979.
D. L. Piermattei and K. A. Johnson, Approach to the pelvis and pelvic symphysis, in: An atlas of surgical approaches to the bones and joints of dog and cat, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2004.
P. F. Bookbinder and J. A. Flanders, "Characteristics of pelvic fractures in the cat," Vet. Comp. Orthop. Traumatol., vol. 5, pp. 122–127, 1992.
M. Messmer and P. M. Montavon, "Pelvic fractures in the dog and cat: A classification system and review of 556 cases," Vet. Comp. Orthop. Traumatol., vol. 17, pp. 167–183, 2004.
J. Innes and S. Butterworth, "Decision making in the treatment of pelvic fractures in small animals," In Practice, vol. 18, pp. 215-221, 1996.
H. W. Boothe, "Managing traumatic urethral injuries," Clin. Tech. Small Anim. Pract., vol. 15, pp. 35-39, 2000.
F. Verstraete and N. Lambrechts, "Diagnosis of soft tissue injuries associated with pelvic fractures," Compend Cont. Educ. Small Anim., vol. 14, pp. 92 1 -Y 3 I, 1992.
K. M. Tobias, "Rectal perforation, recto-cutaneous fistula formation, and entero-cutaneous fistula formation after pelvic trauma in a dog," J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., vol. 205, pp. 1292-1296, 1994.
C. E. DeCamp, "Principles of pelvic fracture management," Semin. Vet. Med. Surg. Small Anim., vol. 7, pp. 63–70, 1992.
H. Bragulla, K. D. Budras, C. Cerveny, H. E. Konig, H. G. Liebich, J. Maierl, C. Mulling, S. Reese, J. Ruberte, and J. Sautet, Veterinary anatomy of domestic mammals. Germany: Textbook and Colour Atlas. Schattauer GmbH, Holderiin straße 3, D-70 174 Stuttgart, 2004.
J. A. Butler, C. M. Colles, S. J. Dyson, S. E. Kold, and P. W. Poulos, Clinical radiology of the horse, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2011.
D. Draffan, D. Clements, M. Farrell, J. Heller, D. Bennett, and S. Carmichael, "The role of computed tomography in the classification and management of pelvic fractures," Vet. Comp. Orthop. Traumatol., vol. 22, pp. 190-197, 2009.
S. Ohlerth and G. Scharf, "Computed tomography in small animals – basic principles and state of the art applications," Veterinary Journal, vol. 173, pp. 254–271, 2007.
R. W. Webb, W. Brant, and N. Major, Fundamentals of body Ct, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2005.
M.A. Sadan , K. Amort , M. Kramer (2016). Pelvic Floor Fractures in 55 Dogs and 39 Cats: CT and X- Ray Findings. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 2(1): 1-7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2016.2.1/188.8.131.52
Radiographic examination of the pelvis is the standard diagnostic test for evaluating dogs with suspected pelvic trauma, but because of the complexity of many pelvic floor fractures and the superimposition of bony structures, a precise description of the injury can be difficult to obtain from standard radiographs. Computed tomography (CT) imaging is an important component in the pre-operative assessment and management of pelvic fractures in humans and small animal. The objective of this study was to investigate the benefits of radiographic and CT images in the diagnosis of pelvic floor fractures in dogs and cats. Our hypothesis was that CT would detect the different types of pelvic floor fracture than radiographic examination of these fractures. Radiographic examination and CT scan of 94 traumatized cases of canine and feline pelvic floor fractures were evaluated, where CT images and radiographic assessments were performed on each case. Radiographs and CT images were reviewed on separate occasions and fracture assessments were evaluated. Of the examined 55 dogs and 39 cats, unilateral ischium fractures were the most common detectable fractures in dogs (67.92%) and in cats (72.41%) (Table 1). Different fracture lines (transverse, longitudinal and oblique fractures lines) of ischium and pubic bones were observed, they were more clear in the computed tomography than in plain radiographs. Pelvic floor fractures were associated with unilateral sacroiliac joint luxation, bilateral sacroiliac joint luxation and femur luxation and fractures of sacrum, ilium, acetabulum, femur and tibia (Table 2).
This study contributes by way of showing the benefits of radiographic and CT images in the diagnosis of pelvic floor fractures in dogs and cats. This study documents that CT would detect the different types of canine and feline pelvic floor fracture than radiographic examination of these fractures.