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Listing 44 - 20 of 2005 results.

Lactic Acid as Spacer between Poly Acrylic Acid and 4-Aminoantipyrine

Research Article
Author(s): Fiyral Mohammad Ali, Taghreed Hashim. AL-Noor, Saif Mohsin Ali
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
 Due to many problems associated with drug release and side effects, we could design a novel drug delivery system through modification of poly acrylic acid (AA) with Lactic acid as a spacer between the polymer and 4-aminoantipyrine. In vitro drug release had been conducted successfully in basic medium in pH 7.4 and acidic medium in pH 1.1 at 37?. The prepared prodrug polymer was characterized by FTIR and 1H?NMR spectra. Physical properties and intrinsic viscosity of drug polymer were determined. The good results were obtained in the presence of spacer unit with comparing without spacer unit. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature Synthesized compound from lactic acid as spacer between poly acrylic acid and 4-aminoantipyrine. This study uses new estimation methodology several physical tools .This study originates new formula.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 6

Spectrum of Morphological Changes and Prevalence of “P53 Signatures” In Tubal Fimbrial Epithelium in General Population and In Patients with Pelvic Serous Carcinomas

Research Article
Author(s): Gayatri Ravikumar, Julian Crasta
Journal: Cancers Review

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Abstract
Aim: Pelvic serous carcinomas (PSCs) are very aggressive malignancies and   present at advanced stage. A paradigm shift in the origin and pathogenesis of PSCs occurred when precursor lesions were found in the Fallopian tube fimbria in the prophylactic bilateral salphingo-ophorectomy (PBSO) specimens from BRCA positive patients. The knowledge of various benign and reactive alterations in the Fallopian tube is mandatory to distinguish these lesions from the true neoplastic changes. The study therefore aims to see the spectrum of morphological changes in the Fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) and to know the incidence of the various precursor lesions and p53 signatures in the tubal fimbria. Method: The study included 102 Fallopian tubes from patients undergoing salphingo – oophorectomies for gynaecological indications. The fimbrial end along with one cross section was embedded and examined for stromal and architectural changes, epithelial features and inflammatory infiltrates.  IHC for p53 and Ki67 was done to assess the presence of precursor lesions. Results: The mean age of patients’ was 49.9yrs. Family history of breast/ovarian cancer was present in 5 cases. Histopathology showed fibrosis (30%), Walthard nest (36%) , Wolfian duct remnants(14.7%), pigmentosis tubae(1%) , infiltration by metastatic carcinoma(7%),reactive atypia(6%), metaplasia(16%), tufting(46%),lymphocytes (9%) and plasma cells (2%). SCOUTS were seen in 12%, p53 signature and STIC in 6% and 4% respectively. Tuboperitoneal junction was identified in 15 cases and showed transitional metaplasia. Conclusion: The study describes the different morphological changes in the Fallopian tube in our population. The prevalence of cytological and molecular alterations leading to malignancy was low in general population. 
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that completely sampling the tubal fimbria with one cross section is a good practice to identify early precursor lesions which may otherwise go undetected. Knowledge of reactive /benign cellular proliferations is mandatory to help distinguish them from these precursor lesions.
Medical Sciences » Cancers Review » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Share Options, Share Award and Firm’s Performance: Evidence from Malaysian Public Listed Companies

Research Article
Author(s): Nur Azizah Mohamad Parij, Wan Mohammad Taufik Wan Abdullah
Journal: Financial Risk and Management Reviews

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Abstract
The main intention of this paper is to examine the impact on firm’s performance once the directors are granted with the share options and share award. This study also intends to briefly identify the Shariah compliance impact towards the performance of firms that have granted the share options and share award. Earnings per share (EPS), Operating Cash Flow over Total Assets (OCFTA) and Tobin’s q used to examine seven hypotheses in this paper. The results exhibit share award presented better results in EPS and OCFTA. On the other hand the share options and the share award revealed significant relationship with Tobin’s q when Shariah compliance was included in the regression analysis model.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the share-based compensation as an important component in the directors’ compensation package and how it can boost the performance of the firms. Besides, this study contributes in the existing Islamic perspective literature by taking into consideration the implication of Shariah-compliance status. 
Economics » Financial Risk and Management Reviews » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Kinetics and Mechanisms of Cadmium (Ii) Ion Sorption Using Carbonized and Modified Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Hull of Two Pore Sizes (CMSH 150µm and 250µm)

Research Article
Author(s): C. Imaga, Abia A.A
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
Aim of this study was to investigate the use of modified and carbonized Sorghum Hull of two different pore sizes (150µm and 250µm) in the removal of Cadmium (II) ion from aqueous solution. The effect of contact time (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100) minutes were investigated, reported and analysed accordingly. The maximum adsorption for 150µm and 250µm were at 80th and 40th minutes, respectively (54.895mg/l and 58.874mg/l). Kinetic modeling of the results of Cadmium (II) ion of both pore sizes were also investigated, reported and analysed. These results showed that Pseudo second order kinetic model best described the sorption process. The Mechanism of sorption showed that CMSH 150µm and 250µm, respectively were particle diffusion controlled. This will serve as parameters to consider in the design of treatment plants for heavy metal detoxification using biosorbents of different pore sizes.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated on Sorghum Hull and its use in the adsorption of Cadmium (II) ion from aqueous solution (synthetic wastewater). It documents the kinetics and mechanism of adsorption process; design pattern for wastewater treatment plant construction using a novel adsorbent.
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Effect of Temperature and Drying Time on the Synthesis of Stable K2FeO4 By Wet Method

Research Article
Author(s): Abdellatif El Maghraoui, Abdelaziz Zerouale, Mustapha Ijjaali
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
Fe (VI) as an oxidant has a higher oxidation potential than ozone, hydrogen peroxide, permanganate or chlorine.Demanding environmental regulations encourage the use of ferrate as a decontaminating agent of choice. Thus, the purpose of this work is to identify and optimize the time and drying temperature of stable to ambient K2FeO4 by wet means facilitating their storage and transport. Wet synthesis is performed by attacking ferric sulfate FeSO4, 7H2O by ClO- hypochlorite with a chlorometric degree of 50 ° F in a concentrated medium KOH, at a temperature of 55 ° C. The drying time is of the order of 12 hours at a temperature of 120 ° C. The obtained result was characterized by UV spectrophotometer by measuring the optical density at a wavelength of  507 nm.
Contribution/ Originality


Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 05-2015 Issue: 5

A Study of the Binding of Anionic Mordant Red7 in Two Different Cationic Solutions Using Absorption Spectroscopy

Research Article
Author(s): Abdelmeneim El-Dali, Ashraf El-Hashani, Khaled M. Elsherif, Sabrin Alsherkcy
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
The interactions of anionic dye, Mordant Red7 with two different cationic ligands (ethanol amine and tallow amine) were studied in acidic aqueous solution using UV–VIS absorption spectroscopy. The dye interacts strongly with oppositely charged ligands. The results have shown that the maximum absorbance of the dye decreased gradually after addition of opposite charge ligand, and also shows the emergence a new absorption band. The new peak was attributed to the formation of dye aggregation by intermolecular forces such as hydrophobic forces attraction, Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. The binding constant (Kc) values of the dye to cationic ligands have been determined by means of Benesi–Hildebrand equation. The magnitude of Kc is large for tallow amine 43.05 x 103mol-1 L compared to ethanol amine 1.245 mol-1 L. This is because; tallow amine able to self-assemble into micelles (surfactant) at a specific concentration called the critical micelle concentration (CMC), thereby, the dye binding to micelle of tallow amine surfactant. On the other hand “ethanol amine does not form micelles”. The standard free energy change ΔG◦ for ethanol amine and tallow amine for the complexation process have also been determined.
Contribution/ Originality
The interactions between dyes and ligands are an important in many industrial applications such as detergency, emulsion polymerization, enhanced oil recovery, drug delivery and textile dyeing and subjects of numerous investigations. The purpose is to define physical interactions and focusing on the influence of ligand structure on aggregation of dyes. However, until more recently, an understanding of the nature of molecular interactions between dyes in solution lacked much clarity. The main objective of this project was to study the effects of chemical structure and concentration of ligand (surfactant) on the solubilization and aggregation of dyes in aqueous solution. For this reason, the interactions of anionic Mordant Red7 with two different cationic solutions were investigated spectrophotometrically and optimization conditions of aggregations and calculate the binding constant and standard free energy.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 6

A Study on Whether Assistive Devices Are Needed for Dementia Elderly in Dementia Day Care Centre

Research Article
Author(s): Nur Balqis Ahmad Safawi, Asiah Abdul Rahim, Ismawi Zen
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to seek whether there is a current or future need for the devices to be used in dementia day care centre based on the Malaysian context. This is due to the community has not yet familiarize with such devices for cognitive use as there is limitation in terms of reaching the product itself in the local market. Moreover, there are few research studies linking the needs of dementia, people and their acknowledgement of utilizing the gadgets. Dementia is a mental illness that demonstrates a decrease in cognitive capacity and memory, which generally affects the seniors. Studies show that the number of elderly affected with dementia keep rising and this phenomenon has grabbed a lot of people’s attention. Due to this matter, there are a lot of experimental and exploration researches being conducted that are correlated with assistive devices for this cohort. For this research, observations, checklist and interview session were used as instruments for data collection. Two of the dementia day care centers were selected as the case studies. Assistive device is a tool designed to facilitate and enhance human capabilities for everyday use basis. Its existence is proven to bring tremendous help for people with disability to help them to be independent and carry on with their daily routine, analyze the collected data of the study regarding whether there are needs for the devices to be included in the dementia day care center program. Suggestions and recommendations for future research were given in the end based on the conclusions achieved.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding information on suitable types of assistive devices to be used in the dementia day care center in Malaysia. These facilities are important to assist the dementia and in most cases they are also disabled persons, to help them to be independent and carry on with their daily routine.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Active Tectonics of Hamedan Area, West Iran

Research Article
Author(s): Atefeh Chegini, Ali Sorbi, Mehran Arian
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Hamedan area has located in the Sanandaj-Sirjan belt in the west Iran. Geomorphic indices of active tectonics are useful tools to analyze the influence of active tectonics. These indices have the advantage of being calculate from Arc GIS and remote sensing packages over large area as a reconnaissance tool to identify geomorphic anomalies possibly related to active tectonics. This is particularly valuable in where relatively little work on active tectonics based on this method was done, so this method is new and useful. Six geomorphic indices were calculated in the study area. Through averaging these indices we obtain index of active tectonics (Iat). The values of the index were divided into classes to define the degree of active tectonics. Therefore, relative tectonic activity was calculated and their values were classified and analyzed in three groups. The low class of Iat is mainly in the sub-basins of 1,7,10,11,16,22,24, 27&28 While the rest of the study area has moderate active tectonics in the sub-basins of  2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ,8 ,9 ,12 ,13,14,15,17,18,20,21,23,25,26 and high in the sub-basins of 19. Our results show that the moderate value has located along faulted area, which shows 3 class of relative tectonic activity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents active tectonics of Hamedan area, west Iran, for the first time.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 6

Calcareous Nannofossils Events of Nephrolithus Frequens Zone to Markalius Inversus Zone in Section of Kazerun, Zagros (Iran)

Research Article
Author(s): Saeedeh Senemari
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
One of the most complete Late Maastrichtian to Early Danian sequences contains the Kazerun section of West Fars Province, Zagros basin of Southwestern Iran. The present investigation identifies index species, 15 Genera and 22 Species of nannofossils in this boundary. Calcareous nannofossils, which observe in Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary strata, are believed to be appropriate means for biostratigraphical study. The majority of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (K/Pg) strata are made up of grey shale and then purple shale, respectively. The acquired nannofossils show continuity in K/Pg boundary in Western part of Fars Province. This agrees with the existence of Nephrolithus frequens zone, which predicts the age of late Late Maastrichtian and Markalius inversus zone which describes the age of Early Paleocene (Early Danian). Also, the examination of calcareous nannofossils of the Kazerun section at Zagros basin enabled us to recognize standard biozones defined in Mediterranean regions, especially Tethysian domain.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated based on calcareous nannofossils in Zagros. Stratification Cretaceous-Paleogene series indicate the samples in relation to Neotethys basin. Also, the environmental conditions of succession that are a part of Neotethys indicate marine and tropical environment in intervals of K/Pg at low latitudes.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 07-2015 Issue: 7

Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Milk Production Systems in Uasin Gishu County of Kenya

Research Article
Author(s): Michael B. Kibiego, Job K. Lagat, Bockline O. Bebe
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
In Uasin Gishu County the rapidly declining household land sizes are a pre-requisite to increased intensification in dairy production. Although the three dairy production pathways are used by farmers in the County, it has not been established which one of them would be comparatively competitive to enhance commercialization process and lead to attractive returns to smallholders investing in milk production. The objective of this paper was to determine the economic efficiency of smallholder milk production under different intensification methods. A sample size of 246 smallholder dairy farmers was selected in Uasin Gishu County using stratified random sampling method. Using both primary and secondary data, economic efficiencies were evaluated utilizing Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production function. The result of the analysis indicate that presence of technical inefficiencies had effects in milk production as depicted by the significant estimated gamma coefficient of each model, the generalized likelihood ratio test and the predicted economic efficiencies within the dairy farms. Technical efficiency increased with the level of intensification of milk production with open grazing, semi-zero grazing and zero grazing recording a mean score of 0.54, 0.57 and 0.81 respectively. The maximum likelihood estimates for technical efficiency was an increasing function of cost of feeds and equipment in the three production systems with statistical significance of 5%. Market access condition the technical efficiency of milk production especially for this highly perishable product. Educational opportunities for farmers lead to initiative, innovation and improvements. There is need to increase the level of intensification in milk production to enhance technical efficiency.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on competitiveness. It uses new estimation methodology for estimating technical efficiency. It is one of very few studies which have investigated livestock performance. The paper contributes the first logical analysis of   efficiency and this increased with intensification. This study documents milk production efficiency.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 6

Impact of Inflation on Per Capita Income in Emerging Economies: Evidence from BRICS Nations

Research Article
Author(s): Khalid Ashraf Chisti, Khursheed Ali, Mohi-ud-din Sangmi
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
In this paper an attempt has been made to analyse the impact of Inflation on per capita income of emerging economies. In order to achieve the objective of the study the researchers have taken five major emerging countries of the world which are the members of BRICS. For the purpose of analysis the data related to thirteen years have been taken from 1999 to 20011. After employing the regression model, the results confirm that independent variable (inflation) do not statistically influence the dependent variable (Per Capita Income) in the three countries which are India, Brazil and South Africa. However, in the other two countries (China and Russia) the findings affirm the independent variable (Inflation) do statistically influence the dependent variable (Per Capita Income).Therefore, it can be concluded that a change in the inflation can not necessarily bring a change in the  per capita income of  the country.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Marketing Strategies And Students’ Enrolment in Private Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Uchendu, Chika C., Nwafor, Innocent A., Nwaneri, Mary G.
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The study investigated marketing strategies and students’ enrolment in private secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. One research question was raised and two null hypotheses formulated to guide the study. Thirty two (32) school administrators in 32 private secondary schools in the study area constitute the study population and were used intact as the study subjects. Data were collected using a 30-item research questionnaire titled “Marketing Strategies and Students’ Enrolment Questionnaire (MSSEQ). The obtained data were analyzed using Mean, Population T-Test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The results revealed some marketing strategies that can be used in private secondary schools to boost students’ enrolment in their order of perceived effectiveness. It also indicated that the extent private secondary school administrators adopt marketing strategies in enhancing students enrolment is significantly low in most of the studied school. The results further showed that there is significant relationship between marketing strategies adoption and student enrolment. Based on the findings, it was concluded that adopting effective marketing strategies in private secondary schools can enhance increase enrolment which will expand school income opportunity for sustainability and quality service delivery of the organization. It is therefore recommended that marketing strategies such as school website/social media, quality school programmes, infrastructural development, media adverts should be used to boost enrolment since it is a modern means of awareness creation and communicating values of the institution to the prospects. This will serve to increase enrolment rate, thereby increasing literate populace in the country for social and economic well-being.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding of some marketing strategies that can be adopted by private school administrators to facilitate students’ enrolment. Its implementation will afford the absorption of admission left over from public schools. This will enable reduction in number of admission seekers and help increase literate populace in Nigeria. Private schools can also generate more income from enrollees for sustainability.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 05-2015 Issue: 5

Availability and Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Primary Schools in Nandi North District, Kenya

Research Article
Author(s): Hilda Ng’etich Tuimur, Bernard Chemwei
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This paper examines the availability and use of instructional resources necessary for teaching Conflict and Conflict Resolution as a topic in Social Studies subject in primary schools in Nandi North District in Kenya. The study was carried out through descriptive survey. The study population included Social Studies teachers in Kosirai Division of Nandi North District. From this population, a sample of 45 standard seven Social Studies teachers was drawn using purposive sampling. The instruments used for data collection were: a questionnaire, document analysis and classroom observation checklist. Descriptive statistics namely: frequencies and percentages were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study showed that many of the primary school Social Studies teachers had not attended any in-service courses to induct them on how to teach emerging issues like Conflict and Conflict Resolution in the current primary curriculum. The teachers also lacked sufficient instructional materials for effective teaching of the topic. The conclusion drawn from the study was that the current preparation of teachers to teach Conflict and Conflict Resolution is inadequate with regards to their ability to design relevant teaching and learning resources and effectively use them in the teaching and learning process. In addition the available instructional materials in the sampled schools were insufficient. The study recommended the need for Social Studies teachers to be retrained and sensitized on the appropriate instructional materials for teaching Conflict and Conflict Resolution.
Contribution/ Originality
Learning occurs best when a multiplicity of senses are involved, other than overreliance on verbal communication alone. Instructional materials are quite important for effective teaching of conflict and conflict resolution. As such, this study contributes in the existing literature of instructional technology because there exist a lot of constraints in the effective teaching of Social Studies and by implication conflict and conflict resolution in Kenyan schools. This study will be useful to teachers who will carefully select and skillfully handle the resources to make their teaching effective. Besides they will be able to know the criteria for selecting and evaluating resources. This study provides information to Ministry of Education on the prevalent practices/approaches regarding the implementation of the topic (being an emerging issue) in the primary Social Studies curriculum. It will also provide information on instructional materials to publishers so that they can prepare relevant teaching/learning materials.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 6

The Eigenfrequencies of a Real Structure Excited By an Internal Noise

Research Article
Author(s): Boufeldja Benabdelkader, Mohammed Elmir, Abdelhamid Touhami
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
This research work attempts to present an experimental study on the structure of the former laboratory of vibration and structural dynamics in the technological hall that belong to Bechar University. This study tries to determinate the real behavior of this structure. The structure is exited by background noise generated by a vibrating table compacting concrete, placed inside the laboratory, after we simulate this noise with an electrodynamics shaker. The response of the structure was captured   by a tri-axial accelerometer. The experimental results are presented under an auto spectrum, for determining the eigenfrequencies of the structure, this values are compared with those obtund from a numerical simulation bases on the finite elements method.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the determination of the real behavior of a structure, the background noise is used as excitation (real noise), so it has several advantages those conventional excitations, such as:
- The experimental time is reduced
- The absence of excitation material
- The cost of the measures is very low compared to other solicitations 


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 05-2015 Issue: 5

Agent-Based Simulation of Contribution Games

Research Article
Author(s): Miklos N. Szilagyi
Journal: Games Review

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Abstract
Agent-based simulation was performed for various contribution games. The amount of contribution can be constant or variable and the first few contributions are less, more, or equally important than the last few. We found that the results strongly depend on the participating agents’ personalities. Two types of personalities were investigated: Pavlovian and greedy. Our simple formula (Equation 2) provides valuable information about the outcomes of N-person games for Pavlovian agents.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses a new approach to the study of contribution games and provides new results.
Economics » Games Review » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 1

Determining the Optimal Density of Neka Using Fractal Method and the Study of Its Geological Situation

Research Article
Author(s): Azadeh Hamzei, Asghar Teymoorian
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
In discovery geophysics, the primary aim is to determine the density of the studied targets which have definite density difference from host rocks. In this study, we express a method to determine the density of Bouguer plane, called fractal method. This method is based on minimization of surface roughness of Bouguer anomaly. From fractal dimension, the surface is used as a roughness criterion of Bouguer anomaly. Using this method, we can determine the optimum density of Neka region to use for modifications and monitoring the results in isostatic situation of region.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 08-2015 Issue: 8

Motivation and Medium of Information Affecting Behavioural Patterns of Film Viewers in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Diana Hassan, Noraini Abdullah, Zainodin H.J., Suhaimi Salleh
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This paper is aimed to identify the key factors on behavioural patterns that affect audiences in making decision to watch films by using the techniques in multiple regressions (MR). The success of a country’s film industry is determined by the collaboration between film producers and audiences. Audiences are a major contributor that will determine the success of a film, while producers is the main supplier to provide films to the audiences. Mathematical modelling concept is used in the methodology where two categorical variables, selected after factor analysis, are transformed into dummies. The search for significant factors would involve data cleaning, factor analysis, dummy transformation and four-phase model building. The model-building phases will incorporate the procedures of selecting the best model involving multicollinearity test using the variance-based approach (VIF) below 5. Results revealed that the best model obtained consists of factors on interest, family, friends, the internet and printed medium of posters and brochures which are influential in attracting audiences. This study has therefore extended our knowledge to build bridges between two different fields, that is scientific and non scientific through the concept and methodology of modelling, and consequently, help in advertising and marketing of the film industry by influencing the perceptions of audiences towards cinemas.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology in Social Sciences where significant factors in real-world problems are identified; in this paper, behavioral patterns of film viewers in Malaysia. The mathematical modelling approach with multicollinearity removals and elimination of insignificant factors, besides other statistical procedures and tests are incorporated for model’s robustness. 
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2015 Issue: 3

A Study on Gravimeteric Situation in East of Uromieh Lake Region with Determination of Suitable Bouguer Density

Research Article
Author(s): Maryam Bayat, Asghar Teymoorian
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
In this paper, the optimal density determined using fractal geometry to Urmia region in this way trying to minimize the topography of the region. Using this method, we can obtain the Bouguer anomaly optimum density east of Uromieh Lake and turn to the regional gravitation.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 09-2015 Issue: 9

Time Dependent Advection Diffusion Equation in Two Dimensions

Research Article
Author(s): Khaled S. M. Essa, Sawsan E. M. Elsaid, Fawzia Mubarak
Journal: Journal of Atmosphere

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Abstract
In this work, the advection diffusion equation is solved in two dimensional space (x, z) which depends on time using Laplace transform technique to evaluate crosswind integrated of pollutant concentration per emission rate. Two schemes of the eddy diffusivities to get two models (1&2) were applied to evaluate crosswind integrated concentration per emission rate according to boundary layer parameterization. Terabassi et al model was taken as a reference model.  Comparison between these two models, reference model and observed data were carried out. The observed Copenhagen data set is composed of SF6 tracer due to dispersion experiments carried out in Northern Copenhagen, 20 minutes averaged measured concentrations were used.One finds all models were inside a factor of two. Model 2 and reference model were better when compared with the observed data than model 1 with respect to NMSE. The two models are better with respect to FB than reference model. All models were good with respect to the correlation coefficient except model 1.Finally, we can conclude that predicted (Cp) crosswind-integrated concentration normalized with the emission source rate for all models were inside a factor of two with observed data (Co).  Crosswind- integrated concentration normalized with the emission source rate for all models were good when compared with observed data via downwind distances.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature with solving the advection diffusion equation in two dimensional spaces (x, z) which depends on time using Laplace transform technique to evaluate crosswind integrated of pollutant concentration per emission rate. Two schemes of the eddy diffusivities to get two models (1&2) were applied to evaluate crosswind integrated concentration per emission rate according to boundary layer parameterization. Terabassi et al model was taken as a reference model.  Comparison between these two models, reference model and observed data were carried out. This study uses new modeling proposal for estimation of crosswind-integrated concentration normalized with the emission source rate.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Journal of Atmosphere » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 1

Enhancement of Pyrolysis Yield Distribution and Particulate Emission of Empty Fruit Bunches by Washing Pre-Treatment

Research Article
Author(s): Aizuddin Abdul Rahman, Fauziah Sulaiman, Nurhayati Abdullah
Journal: Journal of Atmosphere

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Abstract
Empty fruit bunches (EFB) are treated with distilled water at different washing medium temperature. The effects on the yield distribution of pyrolysis products and its particulate emission released are studied via feedstock behaviours analysis and the effectiveness of washing pre-treatment. Room temperature washing medium is considered as the optimum washing medium condition of pre-treatment in order to provide better qualities of feedstock for pyrolysis work. The feedstock are possessed  with minimal weight percentage of ash content, and acquired great amount of volatiles matter and energy value of 87.63 wt% and 18.04 MJ/kg, respectively. Furthermore, yield distribution of EFB pyrolysis products are enhanced to around 40.98 wt% of bio-char, 55.08 wt% of pyrolysis liquid and 3.93 wt% of gas. Particulate emissions of EFB feedstock are described accordingly by three combustion phases of pyrolysis process. The raw/untreated EFB was revealed to release higher amount of particulate emission along the pyrolysis activity as compared to the treated EFB feedstock.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the properties of empty fruit bunches are improved by the employment of water washing pre-treatment. Better feedstock behaviours will promoting positive influence towards the yield distribution of pyrolysis products at minimal release of the particulate emission during burning activity.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Journal of Atmosphere » Month: 12-2015 Issue: 2