Pennap Gri --- Joshua Ea(2014). Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Jatropha Curcas Oil Using Potassium Zirconate as Heterogeneous Catalyst. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 22. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
Synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts and their application for transesterification is a convenient and non-toxic way for the production of transportation fuel. Potassium zirconate heterogeneous solid base catalyst was prepared by impregnation and was used as a potential catalyst for the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil. Influence of main reaction parameters on the reaction yield such as reaction time, methanol to oil molar ration and catalyst weight were studied under various reaction conditions to obtain the maximum yield. The maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters obtained was 94.19 % for the transesterification reaction over the potassium zirconate catalyst with a catalyst to oil weight percentage of 6 and methanol to oil molar ratio of 12 at 65°C for 3 hours. The biodiesel produced under the optimum reaction condition was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
The Effect of Normal Stress and Shear Stress on Critical Plane in Biaxial Fatigue Loading
S.A.N.Mohamed --- S.Abdullah --- A.Arifin --- A.K.Ariffin (2014). The Effect of Normal Stress and Shear Stress on Critical Plane in Biaxial Fatigue Loading. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 21. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
The critical evaluation of fatigue failure subjected to multiaxial loading is been consider in many engineering automotive components such as axles, crankshafts, and connecting rod. The uniaxial fatigue is different from multiaxial fatigue because of the complex stress acting on activated plane that contribute to the structure failure. In the present study, a detailed analysis of biaxial (tension/torsion) fatigue for medium carbon steel is presented. A new assessment on the critical plane that containing the greatest amount of damage parameter is proposed. Specific attention is given to show the dominant stress acting on the critical plane using the graphical visualization on the Mohr’s circle. A solid smooth specimen is undergo the cyclic fatigue tests under constant amplitude biaxial loading using the servo-hydraulic biaxial fatigue test machine. Different loads from 0.5Su, 0.6Su, 0.7Su,0.8Su, and 0.9Su are applied to find the effect of the loads to the maximum value of principle normal stress and maximum shear stress that acting to the critical plane due to loading and unloading condition. Thus, the relationship showed the increasing of loads applied gives the incremental trend on the maximum principle normal stress from 612 MPa to 767 MPa and maximum shear stress values from 457 MPa to 486 MPa. The results attempt to indicate that the principle normal stress significantly dominant to the biaxial fatigue failure.
Comparison of Several Methods of Sires Evaluation for Total Milk Yield in a Herd of Holstein Cows in Yemen
Firas R. Al-Samarai --- Yehya K. Abdulrahman --- Fatten A. Mohammed --- Falah H. Al-Zaidi --- Nasr N. Al-Anbari (2014). Comparison of Several Methods of Sires Evaluation for Total Milk Yield in a Herd of Holstein Cows in Yemen. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 20. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
A total of 957 lactation records of Holstein cows kept at Kaa Alboon station, Imuran Governorate, Yemen during the period from 1991 to 2003 were used to investigate the effect of some genetic and non-genetic factors (Sire, parity, season of calving, year of calving and age at first calving as covariate) on the Total Milk Yield (TMY), Lactation Length (LL), and Dry Period (DP). Components of variance for the random effects (mixed model) were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) methodology. Sires were evaluated for the TMY by three methods, Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) using Harvey program, Transmitting Ability (TA) according to the Least Square Means of sire progeny (TALSM) and according to Means (TAM). Results showed that TMY and DP were affected significantly (P < 0.01) by all factors except season of calving and age at first calving, while LL was affected significantly (P< 0.01) only by year of calving and parity. The averages of the TMY, LL, and DP were 3919.66 kg, 298.28 days, and 114.13 days respectively. The corresponding estimates of heritability (h²) were 0.35, 0.06, and 0.14 respectively. The highest and lowest BLUP values of sires for the TMY were – 542.44 kg and 402.14 kg, while the corresponding estimates for TALSM and TAM
Reduced Organ Pathogenesis in Hypervitaminosis a Induced Pregnant Wistar Rats Co-Supplemented with Ascorbic Acid.or Regenerative Potentials Found in Ascorbic Acid Co-Supplementation of Vitamin a Induced Organ Damage in Pregnant Rats
Reduced Organ Pathogenesis in Hypervitaminosis a Induced Pregnant Wistar Rats Co-Supplemented with Ascorbic Acid.or Regenerative Potentials Found in Ascorbic Acid Co-Supplementation of Vitamin a Induced Organ Damage in Pregnant Rats
Obiora Chinedu --- Ibeh Bartholomew O --- Josiah Bitrus Habu --- Obidoa O (2014). Reduced Organ Pathogenesis in Hypervitaminosis a Induced Pregnant Wistar Rats Co-Supplemented with Ascorbic Acid.or Regenerative Potentials Found in Ascorbic Acid Co-Supplementation of Vitamin a Induced Organ Damage in Pregnant Rats. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 19. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
Organ transplantation has been successfully practiced in clinics for liver or kidney failure. Stem cells with the capability of self-renewal, pluripotency and differentiation is a futurist treatment option for diseases such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer, parkinson, spinal cord injury, baldness, blindness, deafness, wound healing, amyotrophic lateral-sclerosis, myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. Current organ regeneration techniques include use of single adult tissue stem cell, a blastocyst complementation system coupled with a specific stem cell niche, decellularization and recellularization of bio-scaffold and a combinatorial approach of tissue engineering and stem cells. At its most elementary level, regeneration is mediated by the molecular processes of DNA synthesis. Vitamin A is a lipid soluble vitamin essential for embryogenesis, growth and epithelial differentiation though teratogenic at high levels. While vitamin C, a hydrophilic free radical scavenger and a singlet oxygen quencher also functions to recycle other antioxidants. Here we demonstrated possible organ regeneration potential of ascorbic acid in a Vitamin A teratogenic induced organ injury without transplantation. Forty (40) adult female Wistar rats of average body weight 139 ±13 were randomly assigned to four groups, groups A-D (n=10) after pregnancy determination. The rats were fed daily with 50,000IU teratogenic dose of vitamin A for twelve days (12) days. However, groups B, C and D were co-administered with 1mg, 5mg + 1mg vitamin E and 30mg of vitamin C respectively while group A had only the vitamin A dosage (Control). Vitamins A and C were determined spectrophotometrically. Pan plug detection of pregnancy was used. Our result shows that group C (5mg supplementation) had a significantly (p<0.05) low vitamin A levels when compared with that of groups B and D. Supplementation with 1mg did not show any significant (p<0.05) reduction in vitamin A levels on comparison with that of group A. Histologic changes observed also showed a reduced liver and lungs pathogenesis at 5mg ascorbic acid + 1mg vitamin E administration (group C). The result of this preliminary study suggests that supplementation at 5mg vitamin C dosage may accelerate organ regeneration of teratogenic effect of vitamin A. It shows the possibility of complete kidney and liver repair using regeneration therapy.
Screening for Cosmetic Preservative from Natural Source
Ann Anni Basik --- Noreha binti Mahidi (2014). Screening for Cosmetic Preservative from Natural Source. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
Many of us may not be attentive to the ingredients in our cosmetic, especially its preservative. This is an important fact as currently there are no natural preservatives and undesired synthetic ones have proven to harmful. Among synthetic cosmetic preservatives that have been introduced into cosmetic products are mercury, borax and titanium oxide and have resulted in blinded cases and even death. Our aim, is to find cosmetic preservative from natural sources in Sarawak. This is not an easy task as many natural compounds are not broad spectrum or effective against the resilient Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From this study, 145 plant and 100 rice extracts were screened against common cosmetic contaminants; E.coli, S.aureus, P.aeruginosa and A.niger. Plant were selected based on its traditional documentation properties including healing of wounds, boil, scabies, and ringworm and as food preservatives. In the secondary screening, 28 plant extracts were able to inhibit all the four tested strains, while none of the rice extracts were active against E.coli. Further study was conducted on an Araceae plant (leaves), traditionally used by the indigenous Iban community for wound healings.
Optimizing the Energy Consumption of Tomato Production in Khouzestan Province, Iran
Zinat Abdollahi Arpanahi --- Afshin Marzban --- Mohammad Amin Asoodar --- Abbas Abdshahi (2014). Optimizing the Energy Consumption of Tomato Production in Khouzestan Province, Iran. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 17. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
In this study a non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis was used to estimate the energy efficiencies of tomato production in open-field system based on nine inputs concluding fertilizer, farmyard manure, chemicals, human labor, diesel fuel, machinery, electricity, irrigation water and seed also with single output of yield. Data were collected from 63 tomato farmers through random sampling method in Khuzestan province, Iran. Results revealed that total energy consumption and output energy in open-field tomato production system was 38307.9 and 32584.13 MJ/ha. The Highest share of total energy in open-field tomato system was assigned for fertilizer whit 30%. Also the results of DEA application showed that, The average of technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies for were calculated 0.81, 0.90 and 0.90 respectively. Energy saving target ratio was calculated 29.9%, indicating that by following the recommendations resulted from this study, about 38307.9 MJ/ha of total input energy could be saved while holding the constant level of tomato yield.
Use of Castration in genetic flock improvement in goats, Capra hircus, in Gombe, Nigeria, West Africa
Tahir Ibrahim --- Ahmad Jibril Nayaya --- Abubakar Abba Maigari (2014). Use of Castration in genetic flock improvement in goats, Capra hircus, in Gombe, Nigeria, West Africa. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 16. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
The study was conducted to determine the extent to which castration is being used as a support tool for genetic improvement of goats among flock owners. A single stage cluster sampling was conducted among available goat breed in the study area. The Red Sokoto breed was the only breed found to be reared. The average flock size ranged from 7.82±0.29 to 8.36±0.45 individuals in Herwagana and Kumbiya-kumbiya wards respectively. With the exception of intact males, the wards did not differ significantly for all other subclasses of flock. Out of the 83 castrations recorded, 62 (74.7%) were conducted during the early rainy season while 21 (25.3%) were done in the late rainy season. The age at castration ranged fro 4-7 months. All the 200 flock owners surveyed agreed to have practiced castration. Majority of the flock owners surveyed (94%) were ignorant of genetic improvement of flock while only a few (6%) were aware. Of the latter, 7(58.3%) had informal knowledge about controlled breeding, 3(25%) got their awareness from extension agents and 1(8.3%) each heard from the media and seminar. A large proportion of the respondents did not consider quality of bucks or prevention of inbreeding as reason for castration. Rather, reduction of goaty smell of meat, improvement of carcass quality, increase in weight and temperament control were the their major reasons. The study has shown that genetic improvement of flocks by castration of inferior bucks or closely related males is not popular among farmers in Gombe metropolis. There is therefore the need to educate flock owners to consider the bucks quality and level of inbreeding in their flocks before castration. This is to avoid the loss of desirable genetic materials or the passing of undesirable genes or the consequences of inbreeding, such as poor growth, reduced fertility or genetic defects.
The Importance of Creativity in Children (4 to 7 Years) and Effective Factors in Creativity Training
Hossein Bamdadi --- Batool Sokhansanj (2014). The Importance of Creativity in Children (4 to 7 Years) and Effective Factors in Creativity Training. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 15. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
One of the basic and constructive features of human is creativity, That has an effective role in development of individual and human civilization and childhood is the beginning of the formation of creativity thinking process. Creativity as a process can be associated with finding new ways to solve problems and perform well. It is an iterative process that involves thinking and practice and receives feedback, Experiments and suggests new ways to do things, rather than rely on habit or behavior and automating repetitive. Creativity can be classified into different levels. Tyler has done this category there are 5 different levels of quality and creativity: 1- Demonstrate creativity 2- Creative production 3- Creativity and invention 4-Innovative creativity 5- Intuitive creativity The importance of early childhood education, creativity training A component of development in each country, an efficient manpower and the best way to foster human resources, investment in children’s education. Childhood education, creativity, and the base is made from 4 to 7 years. The developed countries are called healthy children and creatively as national wealth. The famous psychiatrist Eric Berne believed our birth, we begin our story with the main points of the story about four years to be determined, And his important story with all details will be completed in about seven years. Adults over time and examine the main themes of the story, or the promise of Bern "Run the Show Success factors of creativity Training in children 1- Information role in creativity 2- Motivation and Creativity 3- Creativity and level of Susceptibility 4- Imagination and creativity 5- Family and creativity 6- Teacher and creativity
Software Quality Model for Determining the Success of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Based on Management’s Perspective
Asadullah Tareen --- Jamaiah Yahaya (2014). Software Quality Model for Determining the Success of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Based on Management’s Perspective. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 14. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
Nowadays, the enterprises including small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) are critically dependent on software. Software is crucial for obtaining the enterprise’s objectives and to maintain survivability and sustainability. Consequently, there is growing concern for ensuring that software products meet certain quality criteria. In the context of software engineering, software quality is associated with two related but distinct notions that exist wherever quality is defined in a business context: Software functional quality reflects how well it complies with or conforms to a given design, based on functional requirements or specifications. Software structural quality refers to how it meets non-functional requirements that support the delivery of the functional requirements, such as robustness or maintainability, the degree to which the software was produced correctly. Hence advances in the definition as well as implementation of standards set the desirable attributes of quality software while pattern and methodologies emerging for quality assessment is required. However, although some studies on the software quality assessment have been reported, regarding the SMEs’ management perspective of software quality, there is a lack, and currently, there is no specific quality attributes and model that is based on management perspective. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, to determine the management’s perspective in relation to the impact of software quality assessment for SMEs, second, to identify the factors related to software quality that cast its impact on productivity of SMEs, and third, to devise and develop a software quality model based on management perspective for SMEs. This study is conducted in four main phases. The first phase is the theoretical study and the second phase is the empirical study which involves survey of SMEs management. The third phase is data analysis which deals with descriptive and inferential statistics. The fourth phase is the model development. Scope of this research is for SMEs industries. The important contribution of this research is the quality model which is based on management’s perspective of software quality for SMEs. It can be used as a standard and guideline for choosing appropriate software technology to run the business productively and profitably
Development of Instrumented Motorcycle for Road Safety Study
Kharudin Ali --- Ahmad Saifizul Abdullah --- Mohammed Rehan Karim (2014). Development of Instrumented Motorcycle for Road Safety Study. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
Instrumented vehicles have a number of advantages over driving simulators for conducting research on driving behaviour. This paper presents an instrumented motorcycle designed to investigate real life driving behaviours of other vehicles. The instrumented motorcycle is equipped with a stand-alone data recorder with specialized software to record information. The accuracy test gathered was divided into three parts; speed, distance and angle test. The results show that the velocity measurementwas more accurate and respons faster even in a small change of velocity.
A.Hosseini (2014). Generalized Centralizers on Semiprime Rings. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
The main purpose of this article is to prove the following result: Let R be a 2-torsion free semiprime ring and (T, β): R→R be a Jordan generalized left centralizer. If β is an l-semi Hochschild 2-cocycle, then T is a generalized left centralizer. As application, we present several corollaries concerning Jordan σ-derivation, Jordan generalized σ-derivation and Jordan (σ, τ)-derivation.
Solution of Burgers Equation in a One-Dimensional Groundwater Recharge by Spreading Using Q-Homotopy Analysis Method
Kunjan Shah --- Twinkle Singh (2014). Solution of Burgers Equation in a One-Dimensional Groundwater Recharge by Spreading Using Q-Homotopy Analysis Method. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
The ground water is recharged by spreading of the water in downward direction and the moisture content of soil increases. The mathematical formulation of the phenomena leads to the governing equation, which is a nonlinear partial differential equation in the form of Burger’s equation which has been solved by using q-homotopy analysis method with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The average diffusivity coefficient over the whole range of moisture content is regarded as constant. It is concluded that the moisture content of soil increases with the depth Z and increasing time T. The numerical solutions of the governing equation have been obtained in the form of tables and graphs by using Mathematica coding. The numerical solution represents moisture content distribution in the vertically downward direction at any depth Z for time T > 0 . This type of problems appears particularly in soil mechanics, hydrology, ceramic engi-neering and petroleum technology.
Assessment of Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Soybean under Deficit Irrigation
Meysam Abedinpour (2014). Assessment of Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Soybean under Deficit Irrigation. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
Water limitation is the main challenge for crop production in a semi-arid environment. Deficit irrigation is a strategy that allows a crop to sustain some degree of water deficit in order to reduce costs and potentially increase income. For this goal, a field experimental carried out at Asrieh fields of Gorgan city in the north of Iran, during summer season 2011. The treatments imposed were different irrigation water regimes (i.e. W1:70, W2:80, W3:90 and W4:100) per cent of field capacity (FC). The results showed that there was Significant difference between the yield and (WUE) under different levels of irrigation, excepting of soil moisture content at field capacity (W4) and 90% of field capacity (W3) on yield and water use efficiency (WUE). The seasonal irrigation water applied were (i.e. 375, 338, 300 and 263 mm ha-1) under different irrigation water treatments (100, 90, 80, 80 and 70%) of FC, respectively. Grain yield productions under treatments were 4180, 3955, 3640, and 3355 (kg ha-1) respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that water use efficiency (WUE) at different treatments were 7.67, 7.79, 7.74 and 7.75 Kg mm ha-1 for (100, 90, 80 and 70) per cent of field capacity, therefore the 90 % of FC treatment (W3) is recommended for Soybean irrigation for water saving. Furthermore, the result showed that the treatment of 90 % of filed capacity (W3) seemed to be better adapted to product a high crop yield with acceptable yield coupling with water use efficiency in Golestan province.
Parallelization Clonal Selection Algorithm with Message Passing Model and MPJ Express Case Study: Traveling Salesman Problem
Ayi Purbasari --- Iping Supriana Suwardi --- Oerip S. Santoso --- Rila Mandala (2014). Parallelization Clonal Selection Algorithm with Message Passing Model and MPJ Express Case Study: Traveling Salesman Problem. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
This paper exploits the available parallelism potential on Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA) as parallel-metaheuristic algorithm, due the lack of explanation detail of the stages of designing parallel algorithms. To parallelizing population-based algorithms, we need to exploit and define their granularity for each stage; do data or functional partition; and choose communication model. Using library for message passing model, such us MPJExpress, we define appropriate methods to implement process communication. This research results pseudo-code for two communication message passing model, using MPJExpress. This pseudo-code can be implemented using Java Language with dataset from Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), and then compare their parallel performances.
Ergonomic Assessment of Manual Harvesting of Date Palm
A. Marzban --- A. Hayati (2014). Ergonomic Assessment of Manual Harvesting of Date Palm. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is major horticultural crop in Middle East region. Production of dates needs plenty of different and specific cultural operations on this plant. Most of crop is harvested manually. Manual date palm harvesting is a labor-intensive and human power demanding work despite developing agricultural mechanization. Tedious and onerous nature of traditional cultural operations like harvesting would cause a serious depression in date palm production. Therefore, for a sustainable production it is vital to improve occupational safety and health of workers. Because of information limitation in this area, an ergonomic study was conducted to investigate postural workload, workers pain and discomfort, cardiorespiratory stresses and human energy demanding during manual date palm harvesting. Manual date palm harvesting included upper-trunk operations (UTOs) and bottom-trunk operations (BTOs).Results revealed in UTOs upper body was shown in bent up to 70% of cycle time (except to trunk which was in neutral) and in contrast, in BTOs lower body was shown in neutral 100% of cycle time (except to trunk which was in bent). Neutral posture for trunk (cum pressure in back-and-belt), bent for upper legs and twisted for feet (cum pressure in feet sole-and-tree’ trunk) necessitated to worker’s balancing in UTOs which caused pain and discomfort in back and feet sole. Pain and discomfort was reported in back and feet sole by workers of UTOs. Pains for back and feet sole were “medium” and “high”. Workers of BTOs reported pain only in back which was “medium. Stooped posture in BTOs increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders in back. Cardiorespiratory evaluation revealed that heart rate in UTOs with 119.64 beats per min was significantly higher than BTOs about 29%. Human-expended energy evaluation also demonstrated energy expenditure rate (EE) at UTOs (45.06 kJ/min) was higher than relative quantity for BTOs about 89%. Cardiorespiratory stresses and human energy demanding were lower in BTOs, because in these operations workers worked longer time and more steady under tree shade. UTOs need more mobility and more hardship for gravity force dominance. UTO and BTO were respectively classified in “heavy work” and “moderate work. Manual date palm harvesting was placed in “heavy work” class. This study addressed ergonomic interventions in manual date palm harvesting.
Pareto Optimization of Genetic Algorithm for Mh370 Mointoring from Satellite Data
Maged Marghany (2014). Pareto Optimization of Genetic Algorithm for Mh370 Mointoring from Satellite Data. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
This study utilized Genetic Algorithm for automatic detection and simulation of location of MH370 flight and its debris. Multi-remote sensing data based object detection are also used. The altimeter data provided information regarding the water circulation in Indian ocean. The study shows that the The significant wave height in this Indian ocean during surveying MH370 flight is around 3.5 m with a northeast direction of 25 deg. The wavelength is around 80 m. Further, the sea surface current is 0.5 m/s. This current forms a large anticlockwise gyre over water depth of 8000 m. The Genetic Algorithm suggested that objects are existed on satellite data are not MH370 flight. In addition, Genetic Algorithm suggested that the difficulties to acquire the exact location of MH370 flight in Indian ocean due to complicated hydrodynamic movements.
Four-Dimensional Hologram Interferometry for Urban Slum Reconstruction
Maged Marghany (2014). Four-Dimensional Hologram Interferometry for Urban Slum Reconstruction. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 6. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
In this study, hologram interferometric with 3D phase unwrapping is used to reconstruct fourth-dimensional urban slum in Cairo city,Egypt. The data are used that involved two ENVISAT ASAR data, with SRTM digital elevation model (DEM). The results show that the hologram Interferometric an excellent tool for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of hologram Interferometric, DEM, time changes, then used to reconstruct 4-D of urban slum. Hologram interferometric shows a great overlapping between high class area with urban slum with every and less than 4 m. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. In conclusion, that the hologram Interferometric is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic 4-D urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR data.
Slip Effects on Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow of Nanofluids Past a Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation
Nor Azian Aini Mat --- Norihan Md. Arifin --- Roslinda Nazar --- Fudziah Ismail --- Norfifah Bachok(2014). Slip Effects on Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow of Nanofluids Past a Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 5. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
In this paper, the slip effects on free convection boundary layer flow of nanofluids past a stretching sheet in the presence of heat generation is considered. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, and then solved numerically using shooting technique. Numerical results are obtained for the reduced Nusselt number (i.e. dimensionless heat transfer rate), the reduced Sherwood number (i.e. dimensionless concentration rate) as well as the temperature and concentration profiles for some values of the governing parameters. Comparisons with the previous result show very good agreement. The results of the present paper show the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number are influenced by the thermal slip parameter and the heat generation parameter.
Characterization of the Mineralization of the Chemora Water Table (Eastern Algeria) by Geochemical and Statistical Methods
Abderrahmane BOUDOUKHA --- Messaoud GHODBANE(2014). Characterization of the Mineralization of the Chemora Water Table (Eastern Algeria) by Geochemical and Statistical Methods. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 4. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
The Chemora region situated in the Eastern Algerian is characterized by a semi-arid climate and been a part of a region where the resource in groundwater constitutes the main source of supply. These resources are distributed between the surface water table of Mio-Plio-Quaternary and confined aquifer located in the Aptian carbonate formations. The water in the shallow aquifer is more easily accessible with wells not exceeding 50 m in depth. Therefore, the exploitation of this aquifer has been steadily increasing and levies become superior to regulatory resources. Therefore we see an average drop of groundwater level 1 m.an-1 in wells. The climate of the region is semi-arid, characterized by annual rainfall of about 270 mm and an annual average temperature of 13.2 ° C. Hydrogeochemical processes have a significant influence on the evolution of groundwater chemistry. A survey was conducted to evaluate this hydrochemical typology in a superficial aquifer located between carbonated formations and salt lake in the Chemora region being in eastern Algeria. The use of binary diagrams, thermodynamics and statistical tools was used to analyze the chemistry of this groundwater. We used chemical data of 25 water samples taken in wells drilled in this aquifer. The results indicate that the water of this aquifer is characterized by a dominant facies sulfated acquired especially by the alteration of the pyrite. The calculation of the saturation index of stability showed that groundwater becomes saturated in calcite and dolomite from one pH = 6.9 and that the latter evolves proportionally with carbonates further to the alkalinity produced in the middle. To understand the links between the geochemical and hydrogeological processes intervener in the waters of this aquifer, the samples were grouped according to their salinity into three groups in accord with the flow that allows the concentration of elements in the rows and lines of underground flow.The application of the principal components analysis showed that the acquisition of the groundwater chemistry follows two processes in the dissolution of evaporate and carbonate minerals followed by a pollution by water of irrigation.
Effect of Fiber Loading and Chemical Treatment on Properties of Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Biocomposites
Md. E. Ali --- Ching Y. Chee --- Chuah C. Hock (2014). Effect of Fiber Loading and Chemical Treatment on Properties of Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Biocomposites. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 3. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
Present study investigates the effect of fiber loading and potassium chromium (III) sulfate treatment on morphological, mechanical and water uptake properties of lignocellulosic kenaf fiber reinforced polyvinyl alcohol biocomposites. Kenaf fiber was chemically treated with potassium chromium (III) sulfate in two stage treatment procedures in order to improve the adhesion and compatibility between the kenaf fiber and PVA matrix. Both untreated and treated kenaf samples at different mixing ratios (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) were utilized to prepare the composites using solution casting technique. Morphological analyses, mechanical and moisture uptake tests were subsequently conducted. Scanning electron microscopic analysis on the surface of composites indicates that chemical treatment improved the uniform distribution of kenaf fiber within the PVA matrix. Mechanical properties of the biocomposites prepared from treated kenaf fiber were better compared to those of untreated biocomposites. The tensile strength decreased, while the Young’s modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus increased with fiber loading for both untreated and treated kenaf-PVA biocomposites. Additionally, chemically treated samples had better moisture barrier characteristics than those of untreated ones.
Linear and Nonlinear System Identification of Debutanizer Column
Nasser Mohamad Ramli --- Razlan Md Radzi (2014). Linear and Nonlinear System Identification of Debutanizer Column. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 2. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
Debutanizer column is one of the common unit operation in a chemical industry. The column is complex and unpredictable in nature, making them difficult to be handled. Hence, system identification is used in identifying and estimate mathematical models of dynamic systems of the debutanizer column from open loop step test surrounding the column. The identification was done to achieve stability of the debutanizer column through simulation by obtaining linear and non-linear process models using System Identification Toolbox in MATLAB. In this simulation, process model or polynomial model tool will be used to identify linear system and as for nonlinear system, nonlinear arx-model is the tool of choice. Based on results obtained from linear system identification, the system is unstable under linear condition. As for nonlinear system identification, the system is stable for certain parameter and unstable for the rest.
Note on the Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Diffusion –Convection Model Arising In Ground Water Recharge Problem by Spreading In Fluid Flow through Porous Media
T. R. Singh --- R.K. Singh (2014). Note on the Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Diffusion –Convection Model Arising In Ground Water Recharge Problem by Spreading In Fluid Flow through Porous Media. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1: 1. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2014.1/1001.1
The solution of non-linear equation of Fokker Planck diffusion-convection equation has been converted into the Burger’s equation with appropriate value of the constant and it has been solved by appropriate conditions. Its graphs are given for vs. x for different time t. The solution represents the volumetric soil water content at different downward depth.