Augustine O. Olusola --- Matthew O. Akanbi (2016). Effect of Plasmodium Falciparum on Liver Function Parameters of Children in Akoko Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 22. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
Background: Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, primarily affecting children under five years of age. The highest death burden occurs in young children who have not yet developed protective immune mechanisms against the parasite. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Plasmodium falciparum infection on liver function in malaria patients in Ikare Akoko, Ondo State Nigeria. Methods: Blood samples taken from 101 patients (children between the ages of 6 months – 5years) at the State Specialist Hospital Ikare Akoko Ondo State Nigeria between August to October, 2012 were examined. After screening, the patients were grouped into two. Group 1, the test group (those who tested positive to falciparum malaria) and a total of 101 children were selected into this group while 101 children who tested negative to malaria were selected into group 2 (control group). Changes in the activities of serum enzymes were determined in both groups using normal range values as baseline. Results: In falciparum malaria patients, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities respectively were 63.10+2.76, 138.46+5.04, 70.50±4.33 and those of the non infected patients respectively were 62.39+2.96, 131.46+4.38 and 65.57 ±2.39. This indicates the serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP in infected patients were significantly (P = 0.05) elevated relative to their non-infected counterparts, an indication of defective liver function. Conclusion: This study suggests that malaria parasites could be responsible for derangement of the liver functions in patients and could therefore contribute to organ damage in affected individuals if not treated.
Relationship Between Exercise Activity with Incidence of Overweight-Obesity in Medical Students
Randy Fitratullah M --- Afriwardi --- Nurhayati (2016). Relationship Between Exercise Activity with Incidence of Overweight-Obesity in Medical Students. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 21. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
WHO stated overweight-obesity are leading risks for global deaths. Overweight-obesity are dramatically increase in developed and developing countries. One of the risk factors of overweight-obesity is due to lack of exercise activity. Objective of this research is to analyze the relation between exercise activity with incidence of overweight-obesity of medical students of medical faculty of Andalas Univesity batch 2013. This research is an analytical observational with case control method. This research conducted in FK Unand on September-October 2015. Population of this research is medical students batch 2013. 26 samples (13 samples were case, 13 samples were control) were taken by purposive sampling technique and analysed using statistical univariate and bivariate analysis. Exercise activity questionnaire were used as research instruments. Based on interview with questionnaire, anaerobic exercise was majority in case group and aerobic exercise was majority in control group. Rare category was majority in exercise frequency of case and control group. Less category was majority in exercise duration of case and enough category was majority in control group. Bivariate analysis is using chi-square test with cell combining to 2x2 table, obtained p-value=0.097 in sort of exercise, p-value=1,000 in frequency of exercise, and p-value=0,112 in duration of exercise, which means statistically unsignificant. There is no relation between exercise activity with incidence of overweight-obesity of medical students of FK Unand batch 2013. For medical students who suffers overweight-obesity is suggested for balancing their energy intake and expenditure.
Bmi a Health Pointer- a Prospective Study of Apparent Healthy Students of Dorben Polytechnic Abuja
Nwachukwu F. C. --- Barau, M. M. --- Iheghoro G. O. (2016). Bmi a Health Pointer- a Prospective Study of Apparent Healthy Students of Dorben Polytechnic Abuja. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 20. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
Most Nigerians eat for every reason other than hunger. Binge eating and bulimia are significant concerns. BMI along with waist circumference measurement points where the fat accumulates on the body. When fat is primarily stored around the trunk than in the hips, thigh or arms presents risk factors. The common cause of truncal obesity is eating too many heavily processed or highly fat foods and a lack of physical activity. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a good measure of general adiposity therefore, the aim of this research is to highlight a commonplace fact on Nigerians eating habits with its link on health status, through BMI assessment. The researchers measure fasting blood sugar using the principle of glucose oxidase method, BMI and associated anthropometric parameters in apparent healthy students, to scale the health status in prospect. The results revealed positive correlation between Fasting blood sugar with BMI and Waist circumference. The association between the BMI and Waist Circumference with Blood pressure showed both positive and negative correlation. BMI correlated well with Waist circumference. There was no significant change in all the parameters except in BMI. From the results, trend in the development of risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes are farsighted. Despite the limitation faced by BMI, of not putting into account many factors such as frame size and musculature, the result agreed with other parameters measured and reinforce the importance of normal body weight in young adults so as to address now, the future health.
Zika Virus and Responsibilities of a Government: A New Drone
Barkat Ali Khan (2016). Zika Virus and Responsibilities of a Government: A New Drone. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 19. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
The emergence of the Zika virus, with its suspected risk of causing health hazards is highlighted in this review. The World Health Organization has declared the Zika virus an international public health emergency, prompted by growing concern that it could cause birth defects. As many as four million people could be infected by the end of the year. Kenya, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Maxico, Egypt and Uganda are the countries where zika is in action. The Zika virus is a mosquito (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus) transmitted infection and it was discovered in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. However it is also expecting that it is also transmitting sexually. There is no widely available test for Zika infection. To detect Zika, a blood or tissue sample from the first week of infection is sent to an laboratory so the virus can be detected through sophisticated molecular testing. Symptoms of zika fever include fever, rash, joint pain and red eyes. Generaly, it is recommended that pregnant women who have visited any area with Zika transmission should consult a doctor. Those who have had symptoms of infection like fever, rash, joint pain and bloodshot eyes during their trip or within two weeks of returning should have a blood test for the virus. The crisis sparked by the Zika virus has created an opportunity to review and reform governmental policies in the countries where zika is attacking as a drone.
222Rn in the Selected Samples of Fruits in Local Markets, Iraq
Ali Abid Abojassim Al-Hamidawi --- Heiyam Najy Hady --- Zahrah Baqer Mohammed (2016). 222Rn in the Selected Samples of Fruits in Local Markets, Iraq. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
Radon concentrations in fruits samples collected randomly from local markets in An Najaf, Iraq has been measured using two passive technique (LR-115 type II nuclear track detectors). The radon concentrations measured by both tracks are found to vary from (18.51±8.28 Bq/m3) to (62.96±15.27 Bq/m3 ) with a mean value of (37.44±5.09 Bq/m3 ) and from (37.03±11.71 Bq/m3) to (100±19.24 Bq/m3) with a mean value of (55.55±6.83 Bq/m3) respectively. All values of radon concentrations for samples under study were found to be quite lower than the permissible value of (400 Bq/m3) recommended by (ICRP). From radiation protection purpose of read, it had been found that the fruits samples under study don’t cause any vital risk for the presence of 222Rn concentration ,and it’s thought of radiologically safe for human consumption.
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Efficacies of Withania Coagulans Seed Extract against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi
Hamsa Noreen --- Bakht Zaman --- Ata Ur Rehmean --- Waseem Hassan (2016). Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Efficacies of Withania Coagulans Seed Extract against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 17. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional profile, phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of aqueous and acetonic extract of Withania coagulans by standard chemical analysis methods. Proximate analysis revealed that aqueous extract of W.coagulans is a rich source of soluble solids (16.1 ± 1.5%), fiber (15.5 ± 0.1%), pH (11.5 ± 0.19%), ash (11.2 ± 0.2%), sugar (9.7 ± 0.1%) and ascorbic acid (9.7 ± 0.1 mg/100ml). Phytochemicals detected were flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrate & sugar, phenolic compounds, proteins & amino acids, tannins, gum and mucilage while phytosterols were absent. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these extracts were determined against ten bacterial (Escherichia coli,Bacilluscereus, Staphylococcus aureus,Clostridium, Escherichia coli (Human), Bacillus subtilius, xanthomonas, Salmonella typhi,Salmonella heidelberg andKlebsiella pneumonia) and five fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Entomola, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium) using the agar well diffusion method. The acetonic extract of W. coagulans indicated highest antibacterial activity (12mm) against clostridium and Salmonella heidelberg and lowest action (5mm) against E. coli (Human.). Highest antifungal activity (10mm) was recorded against Alternaria alternata andPenicilliumwhileAspergillus nigershowedlowest zone of inhibition (6mm). Streptomycin was used as a control. The antioxidant activity was assessed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method using the ascorbic acid as standard. The acetonic extract of W.coagulans exhibited highest scavenging activity (72%) at concentration of 30mg/ml, with an IC50 value (18µg/ml) as compared to control (4µg/ml). The presence of bioactive compounds, nutrients and biochemical screening indicated that the seeds of W. coagulans can serve as a potential and possible nutraceutical source for the treatment various pathologies.
Effects of Cooking on the Nutritional Properties of Tomato Fruit (Solanum Lycopersicum L.)
Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf --- Lynda Arkoub-Djermoune --- Khodir Madania (2016). Effects of Cooking on the Nutritional Properties of Tomato Fruit (Solanum Lycopersicum L.). Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 16. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
The aim of this study is to investigate effects of three cooking methods (frying, grilling and baking) on the nutritional properties of tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Compared with fresh samples, all cooking processes were found to increase pH, total soluble solids, total sugar, ash, non enzymatic browning index and ABTS radical scavenging activity of tomato. However, the processes reduced the DPPH radical scavenging activity and its reducing power. Frying and grilling, the two most popular Algerian cooking methods, have induced a significant increase in total phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, but they have reduced vitamin C, total carotenoids, lycopene and the moisture contents. The traditional cooking methods of Algerian people improve the nutritional properties of tomato fruit. Similarly, we recommend the consumption of fresh tomato in order to provide some antioxidant compounds such vitamin C and carotenoids
Multi-Order Fractional Mathieu Equation with External Multi-Periodic Excitation
Joshua Ikechukwu Nwamba (2016). Multi-Order Fractional Mathieu Equation with External Multi-Periodic Excitation. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 15. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
This paper presents an investigation of the behavior of the multi-order fractional differential equation (MFDE) represented in equation (6). We derive expressions for the transition curves separating regions of stability from instability for the MFDE generally and the particular case . Employing the harmonic balance technique, we obtained approximate expressions for the and transition curves of the MFDE above and particularly for the case . We also obtained an approximate analytical solution to the multi-order fractionally damped and forced Duffing-Mathieu equation as well as some special cases computationally using the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM).
Implementation of Efficient Cache Architecture for Performance Improvement of SOC
A Subbarao --- Pratik Ganguly (2016). Implementation of Efficient Cache Architecture for Performance Improvement of SOC. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 14. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
For advanced multimedia communication based systems, performance improvement is one of the most important issues. Data cache consumes a major portion of the whole processor power for communication applications as they are mainly data intensive. The cache architecture cannot betaken care of specifically for an application in case of an integrated communication system. As a result, a big amount of cache energy is not used. In this paper, the software-controlled cache architecture has been proposed, that improves the energy efficiency of the shared cache in an integrated communication based system. For different cache regions, data types are allocated for an application. Only the allocated cache regions are activated. We test the effectiveness of the software-controlled cache after integration in a communication based SOC. The results shows the performance improvement of the SOC up-to a huge level on an ARM-like cache architecture.
Application of Modern Microprocessor in Power Conversion Systems: A Practical Approach for Multiphase Drives
Cristina Martin --- Mario Bermúdez --- Federico Barrero --- Hugo Guzmán (2016). Application of Modern Microprocessor in Power Conversion Systems: A Practical Approach for Multiphase Drives. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
Fast modern microprocessors have quickly become a corner stone of high performance electrical drives, where power electronic conversion systems have heavy online computation burdens and must be controlled using complex control algorithms. Digital Signal Processors have become powerful microprocessors to shape engineering problems in the last few decades thanks to their introduction in 1982 by Texas Instruments. The multiphase machine field, which has been recognized in recent times as an attractive electrical drive due to its usefulness in traction or more-electric aircraft applications and in wind power generation systems, represents a particularly interesting case example to see the ability of modern Digital Signal Processors for the implementation of complex and heavy time consuming control algorithms because their complexity notably increases in relation with conventional three-phase drives. This paper makes a revision of the necessities of a high-performance multiphase drive from the implementation in modern Digital Signal Processors’ perspective. One of the most powerful Texas Instruments’ Digital Signal Processor (TMS320F28335) is used, and specific control algorithms, electronic circuits and acquisition processing methods are designed, implemented and analyzed to show its interest in the development of a high-performance multiphase drive.
GPS Aiding Low Cost Inertial Navigation System for Land Vehicle Navigation Application
O. M Maklouf --- Nasser Tresh --- Sbria Gnjewa --- Nour Alroudaslı (2016). GPS Aiding Low Cost Inertial Navigation System for Land Vehicle Navigation Application. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
In the last few years great interest has been generated in low-cost integrated navigation systems compromise of inertial navigation system(INS) and Global positioning system (GPS). The development of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) in the last decade has permitted mass production of devices, thereby reducing the cost of previously expensive sensors. In this paper we introduce low cost IMUGPS integrated navigation system, focusing on strap down INS systems based on MEMS devices. The most common estimation algorithm used in integrated GPS/INS is the Kalman Filter (KF). In order to perform numerical simulations, MATLAB software has been developed. The paper also provides experimental results; field test using a car is carried out. The primary piece of equipment used was a MEMS-based ADIS16334 IMU (from Analog Device) and a Garmin GPS 18 PC (which is both a receiver and antenna).
Design of Special Circuits Using State-of-The-Art Reversible Gates
Omkar Sadanand Murkumbi --- Tarek Elarabi (2016). Design of Special Circuits Using State-of-The-Art Reversible Gates. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
As the advancements in VLSI industry reach new heights, the feature size will keep getting small. More and more logical units will be integrated on a single piece of silicon following Moore’s law. With increasing number of transistors, power dissipation becomes a critical issue. According to modern studies, power dissipation can be reduced by making use of reversible logic gates over conventional logic gates. This technique finds enormous advantages in low power application like portable devices, cryptography, quantum computing and nanotechnology. Different reversible gates are introduced in this research project. Basic arithmetic and logical operations are realized from level 0. The realized operations are used as basic blocks to design complex special adders. All introduced modules are designed using Verilog on Xilinx ISE V13.2 and ISim simulator.
Design Framework for Video-on-Demand a Prototype of Academic Workstation Using Web RTC Technology
Abubakar S. Hamza --- Ahmad Abubakar Yusuf --- Adamu Salisu (2016). Design Framework for Video-on-Demand a Prototype of Academic Workstation Using Web RTC Technology. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
Anti-Criminal Biometric Technology Based System for Automobile System: An Automated Immobilizer and Access Control System for Millennium Vehicles
Adedeji W. Oyediran ---Yekini N. Nureni (2016). Anti-Criminal Biometric Technology Based System for Automobile System: An Automated Immobilizer and Access Control System for Millennium Vehicles. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
We conducted an experimental Analysis of security platform in some millennium vehicles across Nigeria through the use of questionnaire, observation, and oral interview within the automobile dealers, vehicle owners and users within Lagos Nigeria. Our aim/objectives is to investigate, compare, and contrast the available anti-theft systems in the millennium cars around Nigeria, and to proposed and recommend the best security platform to prevent automobile theft. It was discovered that majority of vehicles available for sales at automobile showroom, and those currently been cruised on Nigeria roads lack required security system to deterred vehicle theft or stealing from vehicle. Prominent vehicle security systems available in Nigeria are manual and most rampart is use of locks, alarm, and kill switch which is not efficiency compare to criminal tendency related to automobile criminal activities. Hence we proposed a complete anti- Theft Deterrent Biometric Module (TDBM): An automated immobilizer and Access control system for automobile systems, which if implemented it will prevent completely theft of motor vehicles and content’s within.
Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal) with Different Energy Sources on Performance, Blood Chemistry and Meat Characteristics of Broiler Chicks
Siham, A. Abdalla --- Khadiga A. Abdel- Att --- Huwaida E.E. Malik (2016). Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal) with Different Energy Sources on Performance, Blood Chemistry and Meat Characteristics of Broiler Chicks. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary gum arabic (GA) as a natural prebiotic and growth promoter on growth performance of broiler chicks. 192 one day old unsexed broiler chicks of commercial strain (Cobb) were randomly assigned into four dietary treatments; group A contained 0% GA and 60% sorghum (control), B contain 5% GA and 57% sorghum, C contain sorghum 30%and maize 30% and D contained sorghum 28%and maize 28% and 5% GA diets were isocoloric and isonitrogenic with two sources of energy sorghum and maize. Each treatment contained six replicates (8 birds/ replicate). Weekly feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured. Results showed that feed intake and weight gain were influenced by dietary treatment, the best Feed conversion ratio was attained by group D. Pre-slaughter weight was affected by dietary treatment. Higher pre-slaughter weight and Carcasses weight observed for group D (sorghum 28%and maize 28% and 5% GA). Dressing percentage was not affected by dietary treatment. Commercial cuts (Breast weight, backbone weight, and thigh and wings weight) significantly increased for bird fed group D (sorghum 28%and maize 28% and 5%gum arabic). There was no significant (p>0.05) difference among all groups on physical characteristic of meat (colour, water holding capacity, cooking loss and pH). Ether extract of meat for group B significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Serum glucose, total protein, triglyceride and inorganic phosphorus had not affected by treatment. However serum cholesterol, calcium and creatinine showed significantly (p<0.05) decrease for group B.
Economic Assessment of Weeds Management Methods in Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranean (L) Verdc) at Sabon Gari in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Borno State, Nigeria
A.L. Banta --- I.A. Sodangi (2016). Economic Assessment of Weeds Management Methods in Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranean (L) Verdc) at Sabon Gari in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Borno State, Nigeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
Bambara Groundnut though cultivated majorly by women, remains a crop of high value to some local communities. Field trials were conducted in the rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011 to assess the effect of weed control methods on the yield and profitability of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc) at Sabon Gari in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Borno State, Nigeria. The experiment was made up of eight treatments (weedy check, pendimenthalin only, pendimenthalin followed by one hoe weeding, butachlor only, butachlor followed by one hoe weeding, hoe weeding once, hoe weeding twice and hoe weeding thrice) all arranged in a randomnized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The weedy check and the plots that were treated with pendimenthalin only supported statistically similar weed dry matter in both years, which was significantly higher than the other treatments. In 2010, all the hoe weeded plots produced significantly grain yields than the weedy check and the herbicide treated plots except pendimenthalin followed by hoe weeding once. None of the herbicide treatments out-yielded the weedy check. In 2011, however, all the hoe weeding once and hoe weeding twice treatments out-yielded the hoe weeding trice treatment, although the difference was not significant. The result shows that bambara groundnut production was profitable in the two years of the study. The mean of the two years experiment shows that pendimenthalin followed by one hoe weeding had the highest net benefit of N60,875, while the least was recorded by butachlor followed by one hoe weeding (N17,494). The mean MRR indicate that hoe weeding once recorded 1.56 as the highest while the least was observed in hoe weeding thrice (0.42). It was therefore recommended that the weeds management methods be tried in larger field for economic impact, the application of pendimenthalin herbicide followed by one hoe weeding be studied further on bambara groundnut weeding practices.
Role of Probiotics in Improving Ration Digestibility Based on Palm Oil Industry by Product on Etawa Cross Bred Dairy Goat
Arief --- N Jamarun --- B Satria (2016). Role of Probiotics in Improving Ration Digestibility Based on Palm Oil Industry by Product on Etawa Cross Bred Dairy Goat. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 6. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
The research objective was to determine the role of probiotics in improving digestibility of ration’s etawa cross bred dairy goat lactation based on palm oil industrial byproducts. Palm oil Industrial byproducts used was palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm oil sludge (POS) with additional materials as corn, bran, coconut meal and minerals. Research using a completely randomized design (CRD) with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment is administered dose of probiotics, namely, A). 0 g (without probiotics), B). 100 g, C). 125 g, D). 150 g, E). 175 g and F) .200 g. This research was in-vitro test using Tilley and Terry methode (1969). Parameters measured were Digestibility of Dry Matter Digestibility (DDM), Digestibility of Organic Matter (DOM) and Digestibility of Crude Protein (DCP). The results showed that probiotics supplementation can improve DOM on average by 42.96%, DDM average of 31.13% and increased of DCP by 39.97%.
The Effect of Palm Kernel Cake with Cellulase and Manannase Supplemented Enzyme Utilization in Broiler Ration
Mirnawati --- Ade Djulardi --- Gita Ciptaan (2016). The Effect of Palm Kernel Cake with Cellulase and Manannase Supplemented Enzyme Utilization in Broiler Ration. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 5. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
An experiment was conducted to use of palm kernel cake with cellulase and manannase supplemented enzyme in the ration on broiler performance. The method used was experimental. The design used was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatment rations containing palm kernel cake (PKC) (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) and cellulase and manannase supplemented enzymes 800 U/kg in ration, each treatment was repeated four times. Parameters measured were feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion, body weight, carcass percentage of broiler chickens. The results showed that the use of palm kernel cake with cellulase and manannase supplemented enzyme in the ration of broiler had no significant (P>0.05) effect on feed consumption, but highly significant (P<0.01) in to the body weight gain, feed conversion, body weight and carcass percentage. The results of this study concluded that palm kernel cake up to 25% and cellulase and manannase supplemented enzyme 800 U/kg in ration can provide favorable performance as seen from consumption (2269,43 kg), body weight gain (1219,19 kg), feed conversion (1.86), body weight (1466,25 kg), carcass percentage (65.22%).
Examination of Farming Systems for Sustainable Agricultural Development Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), the Case of Ilam Province, Iran
Alireza Poursaeed --- Said Mehdi Mirdamadi --- Iraj Malekmohammadi --- Said Jamal Farajollah Hossaini (2016). Examination of Farming Systems for Sustainable Agricultural Development Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), the Case of Ilam Province, Iran. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 4. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
Farming Systems play a key role in achieving sustainability. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to define an appropriate farming system which provides Sustainable Agricultural Development (SAD) in "Iran". The population consisted of the 15 research experts were interviewed to determine the sustainable agricultural development criteria and appropriate farming systems. The sampling of the experts was carried out via Non probability Sampling (Purposive and Chained). Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied for the decision making stage. The required statistics were carried out by the use of EC2000 software. A questionnaire was developed based on the Analytical hierarchy Process (AHP). Each question consisted of a pair-wise comparison of two criteria. Therefore, the six criteria and four alternatives resulted in a total of 42 questions. First the respondents were asked to indicate the relative importance of the two criteria with respect to the overall goal. Finally, the Experts were asked to indicate the relative importance of the two alternatives (Farming systems) with respect to the each criterion. The results indicated that using less amount of chemical fertilizer, using less amount of chemical pesticide, crop rotation, reducing tillage operation, land fragmentation and reducing soil erosion criteria are the most important criteria for sustainable agriculture of Iran. The results of farming systems prioritizing by experts using AHP indicated that the private and cooperative farming systems are the most useful farming systems for sustainable agricultural development.
In Vivo Sperm Capacitation in the Female Reproductive Tract of Merino Ewes
Ismaya --- Phillip Summers (2016). In Vivo Sperm Capacitation in the Female Reproductive Tract of Merino Ewes. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 3. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of time after mating on the capacitation status of spermatozoa and the distribution of capacitated spermatozoa in the reproductive tract of Merino ewes. Thirty five ewes were examined for capacitation status in the female reproductive tract at 3, 6 and 24 hours after mating. Samples of fluid and mucus from various sites in the reproductive tract of ewes were collected into HSOF medium for determination of capacitation status. The chlortetracycline-fluorescence assay was used to assess the capacitation status of spermatozoa. Analysis of variance one way classification was used to determine the effect of time after mating on the capacitation status. The mean percentage of capacitated spermatozoa at 3 hours after mating in the anterior vagina was 29.5% and 27.3% in the posterior cervix increasing to about 80% in the anterior uterus. At 6 hours after mating, between about 90% of spermatozoa in the vagina were capacitated and about 75% of spermatozoa in the cervix and uterus were capacitated whereas the percentage of capacitated spermatozoa in the oviducts was up to about 87.5% in the isthmus and 93.5% in the ampulla. All of the capacitated spermatozoa in the oviducts at 6 hours after mating were acrosome-reacted and none had an intact acrosome. By 24 hours after mating, all or almost all spermatozoa were capacitated and acrosome-reacted. Significantly more capacitated acrosome-reacted spermatozoa were present in the ipsilateral oviduct and uterine horns than the contralateral side but there was no significant effect on the percentage of capacitated acrosome-intact spermatozoa
Metabolomics Profile in Calves with Acute Bronchopneumonia
Abdullah Basoglu --- Nuri Baspinar --- Leonardo Tenori --- Alessia Vignoli --- Ramazan Yildiz (2016). Metabolomics Profile in Calves with Acute Bronchopneumonia. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 12: 1-2. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.12/1001.12
Background: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the main health issues in dairy calves. Inflammatory lung diseases are highly complex in respect of pathogenesis and relationships between inflammation, clinical disease and response to treatment. Metabolomics may offer the potential to identify biomarkers that define calf bronchopneumonia in terms of combined clinical, physiological and patho-biological abnormalities. There is no knowledge related to metabolomics approach to calf pneumonia as in human medicine and childhood pneumonia. Objective The aim of this first study was to reveal the new potential biomarkers for acute calf bronchopneumonia by single proton (1H) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based quantitative metabolomics. Methods Fifty dairy calves with acute bronchopneumonia presented for treatment to the teaching hospital, and ten healthy dairy calves belonging the teaching farm were used. Laboratory (hematological: complete blood count and blood gas analysis), and biochemical analysis related to health profile were performed. NMR spectra of the all samples (50 diseased +10 healthy water soluble extracts, 50 diseased +10 healthy lipid extracts) were acquired using a standard Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy pulse sequence. Results NMR based metabolomics analysis showed that calves suffering from bronchopneumonia and healthy calves have two different and distinguishable metabolic fingerprints using both water soluble and lipid extracts. Alterations in metabolites (increases in 2-methyl glutarate, phenylalanine, phosphatidylcholine, and decreases in ethanol, dimethylsulfone, propionate, acetate, allantoin, free cholesterol, cholesterol (-C18), were meaningful for pathogenic mechanisms of calf bronchopneumonia. Conclusion The NMR based metabolomic profile may contribute to better understanding bronchopneumonia in calves.