Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering

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Online ISSN: 2415-2072
Print ISSN: 2518-2552

No.11

Comparative Analysis of Bio-Gas Electrification from Anaerobic Digesters in Nepal

Pages: 26
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Comparative Analysis of Bio-Gas Electrification from Anaerobic Digesters in Nepal

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Suman Dhun Shrestha , Bim Prasad Shrestha , Nabin Kumar Shrestha

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Suman Dhun Shrestha --- Bim Prasad Shrestha --- Nabin Kumar Shrestha (2016). Comparative Analysis of Bio-Gas Electrification from Anaerobic Digesters in Nepal. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 26. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
This research paper presents minimum gas pressure and size of biogas digester required to run biogas generator in Nepal through comparative analysis of different biogas digesters and generators. Three underground concrete anaerobic biogas digesters of sizes; 7 m3, 10m3 and 75m3 were analysed with 0.4 kVA and 0.6 kVA biogas generators to test gas pressure required to run these generators. The tests were done in summer season with an average day temperature of 28oC. Meanwhile, the gas released from biogas digester was directly coupled with the generator. From the analysis, it was found that minimum gas pressure required to run 0.4 kVA and 0.6 kVA biogas generators were 7 kPa and 10 kPa respectively. Considering 75 W load, pressure drop of 5 kPa was noted for 1.5 hours average time loading condition. The generator efficiency was 30% which is lower than projected due to impurities in gas. The gas compositon had an average of 54% methane and 18% Carbon and 28% other gases. In order to remove potential impurity, H2S scrubber was used but it resulted in decrease of average 5 kPa output pressure. It was depicted that the power output increased with gas purification and gas storage with controlled release of gas. In the market of Nepal, with minimal of 1 kVA biogas generator availability, an anaerobic digester of minimum 15m3 size is suggested for biogas electrification.

Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia catappa) Seed Oil

Pages: 25
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Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia catappa) Seed Oil

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11


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Orhevba, B.A --- Adebayo, S. E --- Salihu, A.O (2016). Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia catappa) Seed Oil. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 25. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Biodiesel an example of liquid biofuels is broadly acknowledged as technically appropriate substitute for petrodiesel. The objective of this study is extraction and characterization of oil from tropical almond seed, trans-esterification and characterization of tropical almond seed oil biodiesel. All experiments were replicated and average results were evaluated. The moisture content of the seed was 2.04 %; the oil was extracted using solvent method and the percentage of oil yield was 50.33 %. The physicochemical properties of the oil obtained during the experiment were; density (0.90 g/cm3), specific gravity (0.89), kinematic viscosity at 40 oC (14.1 mPa.s), cloud point (16.0 oC), pour point (11.5 oC), smoke point (173.0 oC), flash point (208.0 oC), fire point (271.0 oC), saponification value (199.19 mgKOH/g), acid value (3.37mgKOH/g), FFA (1.68 mgKOH/g), Peroxide value (5.0 meq/kg), and Iodine value (98.0 gI2/100g). The oil was trans-esterified to biodiesel using oil to alcohol ratio of 4:1 and KOH as catalyst. The percentage of biodiesel yield was 75.0 % averagely. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel obtained during the experiment were; density (0.96g/cm3), specific gravity (0.90), kinematic viscosity at 40 oC (5.20 mPa.s), kinematic viscosity at 100 oC (4.30 mPa.s) cloud point (7.0 oC), pour point (6.0 oC), smoke point (161.0 oC), flash point (186.0 oC), fire point (216.0 oC), saponification value (182.4 mgKOH/g), acid value (0.84 mgKOH/g), FFA (0.42 mgKOH/g), Peroxide value (8.0 meq/kg), and Iodine value (109.0 gI2/100g, the calculated cetane number was 51.70. The result obtained for the physicochemical properties of the biodiesel were compared with the ASTM standard and it was concluded that tropical almond seed oil is a good feedstock for biodiesel production since the result is within ASTM specification standard.

Drying Machine Versatile without Sunlight

Pages: 24
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Drying Machine Versatile without Sunlight

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Eduart Wolok , ZC Fachrussyah , Stella Junus

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Eduart Wolok --- ZC Fachrussyah --- Stella Junus (2016). Drying Machine Versatile without Sunlight. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 24. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
The drying process is natural that the need to preserve foodstuffs such as fish, fruits, rice, etc. have several shortcomings such as: a long time, need some time reversal process and less hygienic. Therefore need to design a dryer that is hygienic and does not depend on sunlight. Machine designed for a capacity of 50 Kg is possessed kompoken Fuel Gas, thermostat, Hot Space and Space dryer and blower for transferring heat to the drying chamber. To dry food with water content of 65% to 25% is required 0.5kg Fuel Gas, Hot Space 0.5 m x 1 m x 2.5 m, 3 m Space Dryer x 1m x 2.5 m, as well as blowers and gas stove. From the tests performed on the machine, it was found that the required temperature is at 55-65 0 C within 60 minutes to dry foodstuffs from 65% to 25% wb wb. The temperature in the drying chamber can be set using the thermostat according to the raw material to be dried.

Evaluating the Processes, and Implementing Lean Principles into an Engineering Consultantancy & Architectural Design Office

Pages: 23
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Evaluating the Processes, and Implementing Lean Principles into an Engineering Consultantancy & Architectural Design Office

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Nasser Alturki

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Nasser Alturki (2016). Evaluating the Processes, and Implementing Lean Principles into an Engineering Consultantancy & Architectural Design Office. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 23. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
The business world is currently in a highly competitive state, where the slightest and smallest of strategies employed by management determines the success and profitability of the organisation. Through effective application of the strategies and concepts, a business entity might enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of business operations, reduce costs and increase profits on commodities produced and sold. One-Piece Flow, also known as Single Piece Flow, Continuous Flows, or Flow Manufacturing, is ideal for lean manufacturing (Bollinger, 2006). This concept entails building one item at a time to effectively and accurately meet consumer needs. It also involves the matching of demand and supply, where supply is only triggered when there is demand. Furthermore, supply has to match demand, for example, no excess commodities are produced and/or stored in anticipation of future demand trends. In this paper, a scenario has been presented of a design office1 that incorporates multiple disciplines, with architecture as the main one. Mechanical and structural design is also included in the firm’s services. The firm has experienced a number of problems appear to be having a negative effect on the firm’s reputation and image. The paper seeks to analyse the existing processes and identify how institutional changes can be made to improve the firm’s performance. Also it will highlight the concept of lean principles, and analyse how they can be employed to make the required improvements. A target system is proposed, relating to the identified problems and resulting alternatives discussed. This will lead to the development of an implementation plan.

Multi-Order fractional Mathieu equation with External Multi-Periodic Excitation

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Multi-Order fractional Mathieu equation with External Multi-Periodic Excitation

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Joshua Ikechukwu Nwamba

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Joshua Ikechukwu Nwamba (2016). Multi-Order fractional Mathieu equation with External Multi-Periodic Excitation. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 22. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
This paper presents an investigation of the behavior of the multi-order fractional differential equation (MFDE) represented in equation (6). We derive expressions for the transition curves separating regions of stability from instability for the MFDE generally and the particular case  . Employing the harmonic balance technique, we obtained approximate expressions for the   and   transition curves of  the MFDE above and particularly for the case  . We also obtained an approximate analytical solution to the multi-order fractionally damped and forced Duffing-Mathieu equation as well as some special cases computationally using the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM).

Detection of Motorway Disorders by Processing and Classification of Smartphone Signals Using Artificial Neural Networks

Pages: 21
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Detection of Motorway Disorders by Processing and Classification of Smartphone Signals Using Artificial Neural Networks

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Yusra Mohammed M. Salih , Ali Kattan , Taner Cevik

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Yusra Mohammed M. Salih --- Ali Kattan --- Taner Çevik (2016). Detection of Motorway Disorders by Processing and Classification of Smartphone Signals Using Artificial Neural Networks. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 21. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Potholes, debris, sunken manhole covers and others are common street safety hazards which drivers experience daily as they bump into them unexpectedly while driving. The International Roughness Index (IRI) is the most prevalent metric that is used to evaluate pavement roughness in transportation agencies. This study primarily basis on the classification of IRI values that are collected by using an android smartphone application using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for the detection and analysis of diverse predefined street safety hazards and classification as disorder or normal area. The neural network designed in this study is the back-propagation type and trained by using the Gradient Descent (GD) training algorithm. Before the classification process, the IRI values are pre-processed for extracting some features from them. The conventional and most effective features are extracted and normalized. The neural network is trained with the normalized feature set by using supervised learning method. Simulation results show that the designed network can successfully classify the street conditions by using IRI values with a satisfying success rate. The performance of the designed network is compared to a similar research work that is previously presented in the literature and supported with a detailed performance comparison demonstration. The performance of the designed network is compared to a similar research work that is previously presented in the literature and supported with a detailed performance comparison demonstration.

Research Regarding the Kanban Card Losses and Its Significances

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Research Regarding the Kanban Card Losses and Its Significances

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Nur Nida Azira Md Yasin , Nurul Hayati Abdul Halim , Ahmad Naufal Adnan

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Nur Nida Azira Md Yasin --- Nurul Hayati Abdul Halim --- Ahmad Naufal Adnan (2016). Research Regarding the Kanban Card Losses and Its Significances. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 20. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Kanban card losses are the endless common problem faced by Malaysian manufacturer implemented conventional kanban system. Thus, this research aims to find the root cause of the problem in order to identify the most efficient ways to eliminate the kanban card losses. The field of research is concentrating on the mixed model production line in one of the automotive industry in Malaysia. To solve the problem, an electronic kanban framework is introduced and developed in this research to replace the kanban card. The framework promoting the enhancement in terms of job and planning efficiency, inventory level monitoring as well as abnormalities control in the production site. Nevertheless, this electronic kanban framework is promising would not change the originality and nature of the existing kanban system as what has been created by the company.

Dimerization of Xanthorrhizol Using Peroxidase Enzyme from Broccoli Leaves (Brasicca Oleacea L) and İts İnfluence on the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

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Dimerization of Xanthorrhizol Using Peroxidase Enzyme from Broccoli Leaves (Brasicca Oleacea L) and İts İnfluence on the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Hanafi . , Candra Irawan , Kartini Afriani , Foliatini . , Joko Untung

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Hanafi --- Candra Irawan --- Kartini Afriani --- Foliatini --- Joko Untung (2016). Dimerization of Xanthorrhizol Using Peroxidase Enzyme from Broccoli Leaves (Brasicca Oleacea L) and İts İnfluence on the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 19. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Xanthorrhizol, one of phytochemical compound in the extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb, is a phenolic type compound which has abundant hydroxyl groups in its structure, thus, it is highly potential to be a hydrogen donor. Several studies showed that the hydrogen donor substances are also have antioxidative and antimicrobial capacity. The hydrogen donor substance from xanthorrhizol can be synthesized with the aid of peroxidase enzyme, via an oxidation mechanism. The as-formed radical product of xanthorrhizol will combine with the other radicals to produce dimer compound of xanthorrhizol. This study was aimed to develop modified xanthorrhizol from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb via dimerization process using peroxidase enzyme from raw extract of broccoli as catalyst. This novel product from modification of xanthorrhizol was expected to have higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. This experiment was carried out via several steps, as follows : extraction of xanthorrhizol from curcuma, extraction of peroxidase enzyme from broccoli, dimerization process of xanthorrhizol, characterization of products by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectrophotometry, antioxidant assay using DPPH method and antimicrobial assay. The results showed that the extraction of curcuma using ethyl acetate produce viscose liquid with Rf 0.4 which was predicted as xanthorrhizol. In the further step, this extract was dimerized using peroxidase enzyme extracted from broccoli (protein content of 47.85%, activity of 8.05 unit/mL) and produced a substance which expected to be a new compound since there was a moderate shift in wavelength at UV region. FTIR spectrum showed the decrease in intensity at –OH groups region, the disappeareance of benzene ring at 1514 cm-1, and the significant shift in wavenumber from 1728 cm-1 to 1737 cm-1, which confirmed the breaking of the benzene ring and the formation of ketone group. The antioxidant assay using DPPH method revealed the increase of IC50 from 467.5 ppm to 578,9 ppm (without Tween-80) and 1056.6 ppm (with Tween-80). The result of antimicrobial assay showed that xanthorrhizol and its dimerization product have similar inhibition capacity to the growth of gram positive bacteria of Basillus cereus at concentration of 1% with value of 14 mm (strong) but could not inhibit the growth of gram negative bacteria of E.coli and some fungies (Pestalutiopsis, Penicilium and Aspergillus niger) in the concentration range of 0,2 – 1%.

Degradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) by Using Multi-Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (m-CGDE) and Ion Fe2+ as Catalyst

Pages: 18
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Degradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) by Using Multi-Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (m-CGDE) and Ion Fe2+ as Catalyst

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Tri Sutanti Budikania , Candra Irawan , Kartini Afriani , Foliatini . , Nelson Saksono

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Tri Sutanti Budikania --- Candra Irawan --- Kartini Afriani --- Foliatini --- Nelson Saksono (2016). Degradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) by Using Multi-Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (m-CGDE) and Ion Fe2+ as Catalyst. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Multi-Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (m-CGDE) technique have succesfully degraded linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) surfactant with high efficiency. The degradation process was conducted in 0.02 M electrolyte solution NaOH with electrical voltage at 800 V and anode at 1 mm depth. The anode number and addition of Fe2+ ion greatly influenced the efficiency of the degradation. In the experiment using number of anode of 4, the percentage of LAS degradation achieved approximately 99.46% in 90 minutes, with energy consumption of 721.06 kJ/mmol. The addition of Fe2+ ions will increase the LAS degradation, by using 40 mg/L of  Fe2+ ions in the reactor, LAS was degraded approximately 97.95 % and 807.82 kJ/mol energy consumed during the operation.

C0- Development of Process Planning and Structural Configurations Considering Machine’s Accessibility in a Reconfigurable Setup

Pages: 17
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C0- Development of Process Planning and Structural Configurations Considering Machine’s Accessibility in a Reconfigurable Setup

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Eram Asghar , Aamer Ahmad Baqai , Ramshah Ahmad Toor , Sara Ayub

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Eram Asghar --- Aamer Ahmad Baqai --- Ramshah Ahmad Toor --- Sara Ayub (2016). C0- Development of Process Planning and Structural Configurations Considering Machine’s Accessibility in a Reconfigurable Setup. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 17. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Manufacturing system has been evolved over the years to accommodate major design variations. To respond to these high frequency variations and to stay competitive, there is a need of having such type of manufacturing system that could cope with market trends and design changes efficiently. Product’s design and its manufacturing capabilities are closely related, thus the manufacturing system should be customized to cater all the design changes with suitable manufacturing capabilities. Reconfigurable Manufacturing system has been recommended for the turbulent market conditions because of its flexible and changeable nature. This research work is based on the co-generated model. Based on different tool approach directions and machine’s accessibility, the machine’s kinematic configurations are defined against each generated process plan. A new approach is proposed that ensures the optimal selection of process plan considering different process planning parameters such as tool approach directions, tool change, set-up change and part rotation. A multi-objective genetic algorithm has been applied on co-evolution model. The proposed approach is generic and can be applied on different features of same part family. Considering the relevant change drivers the degree of reconfigurablity in any case of application can be achieved through proposed algorithm. A case study has been presented to illustrate the application of proposed model based on the technological constraints.


Bayesian and Frequentist Comparison: An Application to Low Birth Weight Babies in Ghana

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Bayesian and Frequentist Comparison: An Application to Low Birth Weight Babies in Ghana

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Michael Ofori Fosu , Osborne A.Y Jackson , Stephen B Twum

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Michael Ofori Fosu --- Osborne A.Y Jackson --- Stephen B Twum (2016). Bayesian and Frequentist Comparison: An Application to Low Birth Weight Babies in Ghana. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 16. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between maternal factors and birth weight among babies by using and comparing frequentist and Bayesian methods’ results from an epidemiologist or public health point of view. Low birth weight babies, defined by WHO as babies born at term who weigh less than 2.5kg is an important indicator of reproductive health and general health status of any Population. The incidence of low birth weight is quite high in the sub region which has a public health concern.The study used a data set based on Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey conducted by Ghana Statistical Service in 2011 to monitor progress of women and children. A sample of 10,963 women within the reproductive age (15 – 49) years across the country between 2009 and 2011 were selected for the survey. The results from the frequentist and the Bayesian models show that, the two approaches can yield similar results using same data set. However, there are factors that the Bayesian technique can unfold which might not be the case using the frequentist model. We were able to show that the Bayesian approach may have advantages over the frequentist one, particularly with respect to our data. The use of informative priors might however be useful in narrowing credible interval and providing precise choice between the null and alternative hypothesis. In case of borderline frequentist results, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method may be more conservative, particularly without priors. Comparing the two approaches with respect to our data set, we can infer (from table 4) that using Bayesian model provides better estimates in predicting low birth weight among babies in Ghana. We note however that to better understand the phenomenon under study the two methods should be used together. Our findings further revealed that low birth weight is not only a public health problem but also a socio-cultural issue.

Integration of Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube to Construct a Novel Platform for Direct Electrochemistry of Enzymes and Biosensing Applications

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Integration of Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube to Construct a Novel Platform for Direct Electrochemistry of Enzymes and Biosensing Applications

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

A.K.M. Kafi , N.S. Azmi , Mashitah M. Yusoff

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A.K.M. Kafi --- N.S. Azmi --- Mashitah M. Yusoff (2016). Integration of Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube to Construct a Novel Platform for Direct Electrochemistry of Enzymes and Biosensing Applications. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 15. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
In this work, we describe a new 3-dimensional (3D) network of crosslinked Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube (HRP/CNT) on a thiol-modified Au surface in order to build up the effective electrical wiring of the enzyme units with the electrode. This is achieved by the electropolymerization of aniline-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 4-aminothiophenol -modified-HRP on a 4-aminothiophenol monolayer-modified Au electrode. The synthesized 3D HRP/CNT network has been characterized with cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, resulting the establishment direct electron transfer between the redox active unit of HRP and the Au surface. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the immobilized HRP exhibits high biological activity and stability and a quasi-reversible redox peak of the redox centre of HRP was observed at about −0.355 and −0.275 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer rate constant, KS and electron transfer co-efficient  are found to be 0.57 s-1 and 0.42, respectively. Based on the electrocatalytic process by direct electrochemistry of HRP, a biosensor for detecting H2O2 is developed. The developed biosensor exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2. The proposed biosensor modified with HRP/CNT 3D network displays a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for H2O2 determination. The linear range is from 1.0×10−7 to 1.2×10−4M with a detection limit of 2.2.0×10−8M at 3σ. The Michaelies–Menten constant Kapp M value is estimated to be 0.18 mM. Moreover, this biosensor exhibits very high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-time stability. Ease of fabrication, a low cost, fast response and high sensitivity are the main advantages of the new biosensor proposed in this study. These obvious advantages would really help for the real analytical applicability of the proposed biosensor.

Efficiency Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with a Low Cost Co-Adsorbent in N719 Dye

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Efficiency Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with a Low Cost Co-Adsorbent in N719 Dye

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Ramshah Ahmad Toor , Muhammad Hassan Sayyad , Nazia Nasr , Sarah Sajjad , Syed Afaq Ali Shah , Tehreem Manzoor

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Ramshah Ahmad Toor --- Muhammad Hassan Sayyad --- Nazia Nasr --- Sarah Sajjad --- Syed Afaq Ali Shah --- Tehreem Manzoor (2016). Efficiency Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with a Low Cost Co-Adsorbent in N719 Dye. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 14. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Sunlight is a limitless form of renewable and clean energy which is amply accessible. Economic consumption of solar energy can boundlessly fulfil the energy demand. The cost reduction of solar photovoltaics has attracted many researchers over the last many years. Different next generation solar cells including silicon, thin films, dye sensitized , organic and perovskite solar cells have been developed. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are acknowledged as third generation solar cell technology because of their environmental friendliness, cost effectiveness, simple fabrication and capability to be manufactured on huge substrates. In this work, the effect of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in N719 dye solution as a co-adsorbent and low cost additive was investigated. The cells were fabricated with and without the addition of CDCA. Absorption spectrum of dyes and current density -voltage curves will be presented and trend will be explained for understanding. Comparison of the parameters showed that co-adsorbent additive significantly improved the photovoltage open circuit (Voc), photocurrent density (Jsc) and the solar energy power conversion efficiency (ᾐ). The impedance spectroscopy of cells are also depicted, compared and discussed in the paper.

Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Heavy Metals in Locally Roasted Food Consumed in Sagamu Local Government Area, South West Nigeria

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Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Heavy Metals in Locally Roasted Food Consumed in Sagamu Local Government Area, South West Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Osiboye Oludare O.

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Osiboye Oludare O. (2016). Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Heavy Metals in Locally Roasted Food Consumed in Sagamu Local Government Area, South West Nigeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Analysis of locally toasted foods namely roasted animal skin (ponmo), roasted meat (Suya), roasted yam, roasted corn, roasted plantain (boli) obtained from Sagamu Local Government area of Ogun State, South western Nigeria was screened for the presence of 5 polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 heavy metals such as Zinc, Manganese, Nickel, Lead, Iron, Cadmium were also determined after digestion with aqua regia analysis using atomic absorption spectrophometer. Column chromatography packed with Na2SO4 and Silca gel was used for PAHs were carried out by gas chromatography GC/FID with the aid of 5 PAHs standards. The least concentration of Pyrene, Naphthalene and Anthracene in the foods indicate that these PAHs were not abundant in the woods (charcoal) used for their roasting. This study has shown that Polycylic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and heavy metals are present in fresh and prolonged processed foods. Since the metabolites of PAHs target cellular macromolecules such as DNA and this may lead to mutations and carcinogenesis while toxic heavy metals target membrane structures enzymes or DNA, exposure to these compounds can impact negatively on living system causing serious adverse health problem to living osrganisms. Considering the findings and observations of this study, highlighting the toxicity and risk of PAHs and heavy metals the need to promote research into better processing methods of food through technological advancement  particularly in third world countries is further projected.

Surface Functional Group of Maize Cob as Low Cost Adsorbents

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Surface Functional Group of Maize Cob as Low Cost Adsorbents

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Nabila Shehata , Eman A. Ashour , Reda M. A. Abobeah , Mohammad S. El-Geundi

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Nabila Shehata --- Eman A. Ashour --- Reda M. A. Abobeah --- Mohammad S. El-Geundi (2016). Surface Functional Group of Maize Cob as Low Cost Adsorbents. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Instead of using commercial activated carbon, researchers have worked on inexpensive materials, such as agricultural by-products, which have high adsorption capacity and are locally available. The objective of this investigation was to characterize maize cob (MC) in terms of its surface chemistry. These properties are directly related to the effectiveness of MCs for using them as low-cost adsorbents; also these properties are important to the their commercial utilization. The infrared (IR) spectrum of lignocellulosic material confirms the presence of (O-H) groups, acetal, carboxylic groups and ether linkages (C-O-C), which are responsible for creating a polar environment in the agro-residues matrix. Based on the results of the present study, one could conclude that MC being a natural adsorbent might be a suitable local alternative for elimination of heavy metal ions and basic dyestuffs from aqueous solutions.

Indirect Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drive with PI Controller

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Indirect Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drive with PI Controller

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Salim. Mahdab , Mohamed Seghir. Boucherit

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Salim.Mahdab --- Mohamed Seghir.Boucherit (2016). Indirect Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drive with PI Controller. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
The indirect vector controlled induction motor (IM) drive Involves decoupling of the stator current into torque and flux producing components. This paper proposes the implementation of a (PI) control scheme applied to a two d-q current components model of an induction motor.

The Efficacy of Bangbangsit (Lantana camara Linn) as Organic Katol

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The Efficacy of Bangbangsit (Lantana camara Linn) as Organic Katol

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Romiro G. Bautista

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Romiro G. Bautista (2016). The Efficacy of Bangbangsit (Lantana camara Linn) as Organic Katol. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
This study explores the efficacy of the developed Bangbangsit katol (Lantana camara Linn.) using dried young and matured leaves and flowers of the plants in treating mosquitoes. L. camara is known to contain repellant properties to insects. Philippines, particularly in the countryside like Quirino province, hosts L. camara pandemically in its topographies.  On the other hand, mosquitoes had been one of the vectors of the world’s pandemic health problem of serious human diseases that threaten human existence, e.g. Malaria, zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, among others. Young and matured leaves and flowers of L. camara were freshly picked, air dried, and pulverized. The katol stick was developed by mixing the pulverized L. camara and corn starch. The corn starch was used as binder in forming the katol stick. Mosquitoes were collected and subjected to the fume of the burnt L. camara katol stick: T1 - young leaves, T2 - matured leaves, T3 - flowers, and Tc - commercial katol. Time of  disorientation (unprecedented display of behavior) and time of death were determined and compared. Findings revealed that there are no significant difference on the number of disoriented and killed mosquitoes across treatments in the study, hence the efficacy of the proposed organic katol and the commercial katol is comparable. Therefore, Bangbangsit katol stick (L. camara) is a good alternative of the commercial katol in controlling the proliferation of mosquitoes.

Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of African Palmyrah Palm (Borassus Aethiopum) Shoots Obtained from Sokoto State, Nigeria

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Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of African Palmyrah Palm (Borassus Aethiopum) Shoots Obtained from Sokoto State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Muhammad Sirajo , Kabiru Jega Umar , Sanusi Hassan Warra

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Muhammad Sirajo --- Kabiru Jega Umar ---Sanusi Hassan Warra (2016). Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of African Palmyrah Palm (Borassus Aethiopum) Shoots Obtained from Sokoto State, Nigeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
The study examined the effect of feeding albino rats with 25%, 50%, and 75% Palmyrah Palm (Borassus aethiopum) shoots with respect to their body weight, liver and kidney function indices. No mortality was observed in the LD50 test throughout the period of 48hours. Rats fed with 25%, and 50% Borassus aethiopum shoots showed a gradual increase in the body weight throughout the period of treatment, but those fed with 75% of the shoots experienced a significant (p>0.05) decrease in body weight at the 3rd and 4th week of treatment compared to the control group. The results also showed changes in the Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and bilirubin but were not significantly different (p>0.05) compared to the control group. The serum enzymes activities i.e aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly (p>0.05) elevated compared to the control group which suggested toxicity induced by some of the phytocompounds present in the feed. Serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, and electrolytes (Na+, K+) of rats fed with 75% Borassus aethiopum shoots  showed significant (p>0.05) changes compared to the control group. The results showed that Borassus aethiopum shoots have a relatively low or no toxicity.

Determination of the Free Radical Scavenging Properties as Indices for Evaluating the Anti-Cancer Properties of Vigna Sesquipedalis

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Determination of the Free Radical Scavenging Properties as Indices for Evaluating the Anti-Cancer Properties of Vigna Sesquipedalis

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Enemor, V.H.A. , Nweke, G.I. , Agbara, A.C

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Enemor, V.H.A. ---  Nweke, G.I. ---Agbara, A.C. (2016). Determination of the Free Radical Scavenging Properties as Indices for Evaluating the Anti-Cancer Properties of Vigna Sesquipedalis. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Vigna sesquipedalis was assayed to determine its content of essential minerals and vitamins that are commonly associated with the ability to neutralize the damaging effects of free radicals and consequently help prevent the development of cancer. Selenium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron which have antioxidant capability were determined among other minerals. The antioxidant vitamins, A, C, and E were also assayed among other vitamins. Appropriate colorimetric and titration methods were used for assay of vitamins while the minerals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometer.  The results of the analyses showed that the seeds have significant concentrations of vitamins A and C while vitamin E concentration was relatively low. Also the minerals zinc, iron and manganese were significantly present while selenium and copper were of relatively low concentrations. However, the antinutrients namely trypsin inhibitor, haemagglutinin, and glycosides were found to be present. The results show that Vigna sesquipedalis has significant concentration of substances that are effectively involved in free radical scavenging and which can consequently enhance the body’s protection against cancer development. The consumption of natural foods should be highly encouraged to reduce the chances of development of cancer associated with increased consumption of industrially processed foods.

Unstable Plastic Flow in the Al-2%Mg Alloy

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Unstable Plastic Flow in the Al-2%Mg Alloy

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Lynda Ziani , Hakim Ait - Amokhtar

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Lynda Ziani --- Hakim Ait -Amokhtar (2016). Unstable Plastic Flow in the Al-2%Mg Alloy. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Under certain conditions of strain rate and temperature, the plastic flow in metallic materials can become heterogeneous at the macroscopic scale and lead to strain localization. The Portevin Le Chatelier (PLC) phenomenon is a commonly observed heterogeneous plastic flow. In Al-Mg alloys, it appears around room temperature and, consequently, can have a detrimental effect on the mechanical performances of structures. This unstable and heterogeneous behavior originates from the Dynamic Strain Aging (DSA) resulting from the dynamic interaction between mobile dislocations and solute atoms. The solute atoms diffuse to mobile dislocations during their temporary arrests at local obstacles (precipitates, forest dislocations, etc.) and increase the plastic flow stress. When the waiting time of dislocations at obstacles is of the order of the diffusion time of the solute atoms, the Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) of the flow stress becomes negative and leads to unstable plastic flow. In the present work, we studied jerky flow in the Al-2%Mg alloy at room temperature with a hard testing machine (i.e., constant driving velocity). Under these conditions, instability characteristics are studied in relation with dislocations structures obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A numerical study, based on the evolution of dislocations densities during plastic deformation, allowed to account for several jerky flow characteristics. These results are discussed in accordance with DSA mechanisms.

Evaluation of the Toxic Effect of the Herbicide 2, 4-D on Rat Hepatocytes: A Ft-Ir Spectroscopic Study

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Evaluation of the Toxic Effect of the Herbicide 2, 4-D on Rat Hepatocytes: A Ft-Ir Spectroscopic Study

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Tahani H. Dakhakhni , Gehan A. Raouf , Safaa Y. Qusti

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Tahani H. Dakhakhni --- Gehan A. Raouf --- Safaa Y. Qusti
(2016). Evaluation of the Toxic Effect of the Herbicide 2, 4-D on Rat Hepatocytes: A Ft-Ir Spectroscopic Study. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 6. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique used to investigate molecular structures to the level of bonds lengths and angles. In this study, the hepatotoxic effect of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The experiment was performed on 15 male albino Wister rats (250-350 g) divided randomly into a control group (5 rats) and a 2, 4-D treated group (10 rats). The 2, 4-D treated group received a single oral gavage LD50 dose of 639mg/kg body weight were then sacrificed and the livers were excised 24hrs after 2, 4-D administration. Spectroscopic results revealed that there was a significant reduction in protein content as well as a marked decrease
in the secondary structure of protein after 2, 4-D intoxication. Moreover, Looseness of membrane lipid chain packing, lipid polarity and/or a significant increase in the formation of lipids with hydroperoxyl groups and carbonyl compounds were shown in the 2, 4-D LD50 treated group compared to the control group. Glycogen is dramatically decreased in rat liver after the induction of 2, 4-D. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy proved to be a rapid and sensitive approach to cytotoxicity diagnosis and monitoring of toxins-induced damage in biological membranes and proteins. In addition, the FTIR parameters employed in this study can be used as biophysical indicators of toxin-induced cell/or membrane damage during apoptosis.

DFT Studies Using B3LYP/6-31 G* Level of theory for the Evaluation of Global and Local Electrophilicity Descriptors for the Prediction of Reaction Mechanism of Diels-Alder Reaction

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DFT Studies Using B3LYP/6-31 G* Level of theory for the Evaluation of Global and Local Electrophilicity Descriptors for the Prediction of Reaction Mechanism of Diels-Alder Reaction

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Vinita Sahu

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Vinita Sahu (2016). DFT Studies Using B3LYP/6-31 G* Level of theory for the Evaluation of Global and Local Electrophilicity Descriptors for the Prediction of Reaction Mechanism of Diels-Alder Reaction. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 5. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Computational chemistry is a very significant tool for the prediction and undersatnding of reaction mechanisms and behavior of reagents. Global and local reactivity descriptors proposed by Parr et al. have been proved to be are very important and reliable tool for the prediction of mechanism and reactivity of Diels-Alder reactions. In this regards, we have deteremined a number of global and local reactivity descriptors viz., electrophilicity index ω, chemical potential μ, chemical softness S, chemical hardness η etc. for various dienes and dienophiles to understand their participation in Diels-Alder reaction. These studies were performed at  DFT B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. Moreover electrophilic (fk+) & nucleophilic fukui (fk-) functions along with Parr functions have also been evaluated to predict the regioselectivity of cycloaddition processes. Further, the transition states were determined for different cycloadducts using QST2 approach and confirmed by IRC analysis and negative imaginary frequency. The activation energy barriers, thermodynamic parameters viz., ∆G, ∆S and ∆H were also calculated to explain the mechanistic aspects of cycloaddition reaction. The results were found to be quite useful for the prediction of Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions.

Sediments Characteristics of Villages Adjacent to Sabarmati River

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Sediments Characteristics of Villages Adjacent to Sabarmati River

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

C.G. Patel , S.A. Makwana , H.D. Jahangirpuria

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C.G.Patel --- .S.A.Makwana --- H.D.Jahangirpuria (2016). Sediments Characteristics of Villages Adjacent to Sabarmati River. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 4. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Soil analysis is a  chemical processes that determine the amount of available plant nutrients in the soil & by determining the parameter we are able to achieve good soil health[2].We have collected 20 soil samples of various villages adjacent to Sabarmati river according to standard method suggested by literature & analyzed in our laboratory. We have determined primary nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K ), OC(Organic Carbon) ,pH,EC, & macro nutrient like Ca Mg, , S, & micronutrients like Cu,Fe,Mn,Zn of all the samples & seen a significant variation[04].


Characterization of Portevin - Le Chatelier Effect in the Industrial Alloy Al - 2.5% Mg

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Characterization of Portevin - Le Chatelier Effect in the Industrial Alloy Al - 2.5% Mg

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Chibane Nouara , Ait-Amokhtar Hakim

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Chibane Nouara --- Ait-Amokhtar Hakim (2016). Characterization of Portevin - Le Chatelier Effect in the Industrial Alloy Al - 2.5% Mg. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 3. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
The instable plastic flow constitutes a major inconvenient during the formability of metallic materials. The Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) is one of these plastic heterogeneities. It leads to heterogeneous mechanical properties, reduces the ductility of the deformed material and creates areas very sensitive to the corrosion. The strain localization zones are characterized by a dilating behavior which can cause the material rupture and, consequently, the failure of structures. The optimization of the homogeneous material formability is based mainly on the results of characterization and modelling of the unstable plastic flow. PLC instabilities are observed in different materials with different histories and in different conditions. The microscopic origin of the PLC effect is associated to the dynamic strain aging (DSA) phenomenon resulting from the interaction between mobile dislocations and the clouds of impurities. The solute atoms diffuse towards dislocations during their temporary arrests at local obstacles and increases, consequently, the plastic flow stress. The purpose of the present work is focused on the analysis of the temporal aspects of the PLC effect in the Al-2.5%Mg alloy at room temperature. We are interested to the determination of the domain of appearance of PLC plastic instabilities and to the study of the influence of the strain and the strain rate on the characteristic parameters of the unstable plastic flow. The most important parameters of nonuniform deformation of the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect are re-examined. Through uniaxial tensile tests, along the rolling direction, the amplitude of serrated yielding, the reloading time, the strain rate sensitivity and the critical strain for the onset of jerky flow have been studied and discussed as a function of strain and strain rate at room temperature.

Effect of Plasmodium falciparum on Liver Function Parameters of Children in Akoko Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

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Effect of Plasmodium falciparum on Liver Function Parameters of Children in Akoko Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Augustine O. Olusola , Matthew O. Akanbi

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Augustine O. Olusola --- Matthew O. Akanbi (2016). Effect of Plasmodium falciparum on Liver Function Parameters of Children in Akoko Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 2. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Background: Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, primarily affecting children under five years of age.  The highest death burden occurs in young children who have not yet developed protective immune mechanisms against the parasite. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Plasmodium falciparum infection on liver function in malaria patients in Ikare Akoko, Ondo State Nigeria . Methods: Blood samples taken from 101 patients (children between the ages of 6 months – 5years) at the State Specialist Hospital Ikare Akoko Ondo State Nigeria between August to October, 2012 were examined. After screening, the patients were grouped into two. Group 1, the test group (those who tested positive to falciparum malaria) and a total of 101 children were selected into this group while 101 children who tested negative to malaria were selected into group 2 (control group). Changes in the activities of serum enzymes were determined in both groups using normal range values as baseline. Results: In falciparum malaria patients, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities respectively were 63.10+2.76, 138.46+5.04, 70.50±4.33 and those of the non infected patients respectively were 62.39+2.96, 131.46+4.38 and 65.57 ±2.39. This indicates the serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP in infected patients were significantly (P = 0.05) elevated relative to their non-infected counterparts, an indication of defective liver function. Conclusion: This study suggests that malaria parasites could be responsible for derangement of the liver functions in patients and could therefore contribute to organ damage in affected individuals if not treated.

Differential Diagnosis of Malaria and Dengue Fever on the Basis of Clinical Findings and Laboratory Investigations

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Differential Diagnosis of Malaria and Dengue Fever on the Basis of Clinical Findings and Laboratory Investigations

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11

Aman Ullah Khan , Muhammad Younus , Aqil Ijaz , Muti-ur-Rehman Khan , Sanan Raza , Sayyed Aun Muhammad , Asif Idrees , Amar Nasir

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Aman Ullah Khan --- Muhammad Younus --- Aqil Ijaz --- Muti-ur-Rehman Khan --- Sanan Raza --- Sayyed Aun Muhammad --- Asif Idrees --- Amar Nasir (2016). Differential Diagnosis of Malaria and Dengue Fever on the Basis of Clinical Findings and Laboratory Investigations. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 11: 1. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.11/1001.11
Dengue fever and malaria are important vector-borne diseases of public health significance affecting millions of people around the globe. Dengue fever is caused by Dengue virus while malaria is caused by plasmodium protozoan. Generally, the consequences of Malaria are less severe compared to dengue fever. This study was designed to differentiate dengue fever and malaria on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and to compare the changes in both diseases having different causative agents transmitted by the common vector. A total of 200 patients of dengue viral infection (120 males, 80 females) were included in this prospective descriptive study. The blood samples of the individuals were first screened for malaria by blood smear examination and then the negative samples were tested by anti-dengue IgM strip. The strip positive cases were further screened by IgM capture ELISA and their complete blood count including hemoglobin estimation (Hb), total and differential leukocyte counts (TLC and DLC),Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and platelet counts were performed. On the basis of the severity of signs and symptoms, dengue virus infected patients were subdivided into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) comprising 70 and 100 confirmed patients, respectively. On the other hand, 30 patients were found infected with Malaria while overall 120 patients showed thrombocytopenia. The patients of DHF were found to have more leucopenia, raised hemoglobin level and thrombocytopenia <50,000/µl compared to the patients belonging to DF and malaria. On the basis of the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that patients affected by DF were at a lower risk of undergoing haematological disturbance than suffering from DHF. While, the patients infected by Malaria were found to have no significant change in their blood components.