Sunisa Kamonwan --- Booncharoen Wongkittisuksa --- Sawit Tanthanuch (2016). Real-Time Intelligent Bed Monitoring System Using Support Vector Machine. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 16. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
Bed exits monitoring is critical for establishing the mobility trend of patients. The development and design of an intelligent bed system can be implemented to monitor and prevent the fall and to help immediately, especially in the elderly patients. In this paper, the detection of the patient using FlexiForce sensors 100 lbs based on the basic amplifier is focused. Four sensors are installed at the base of the bed to produce a voltage output and investigate the signs of emerging change. An analyzed mattress is divided into three parts (middle, left, right) to detect a full coverage area of the patient motions before and after leaving the bed. In this case, the voltage variation will be inputs of Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to identify the fall mode, i.e., fall or not, which is shown on the monitor and the alarm sound in real-time mode. This indicates that the system can be used for the bed exits monitoring to prevent a fall to help the patients in time.
Effect of Different Organic Mulches and in-Situ Green Manuring on Soil Chemical, Biological Properties and Weed Dynamics in Maize
Rajashekarappa, K.S --- Basavarajappa, B.E. (2016). Effect of Different Organic Mulches and in-Situ Green Manuring on Soil Chemical, Biological Properties and Weed Dynamics in Maize. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 15. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
A study was conducted at the Zonal Agricultural Research Station, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore in Alfisols during 2010 to know the effect of different organic mulches and In-situ green manuring on soil properties and weed dynamics in maize. The soil was red sandy loam, slightly acidic in pH and with low in available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium. The experiment consists of nine treatments comprising different mulchels like straw, coir pith, coconut fronds, tank soil and In-situ green manuring of sunhemp and glyricidia as green leaf manuring and horse gram as inter crop and control which are replicated thrice in RCBD. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon content did not differ significantly due to different mulches and In-situ green manuring but differed significantly with respect to available nutrients and on weed dynamics. Among different treatments In-situ green manuring of sunhemp registered significantly higher available nitrogen (280.80 kg/ha) over other treatments but which was on par with green leaf manuring, horse gram intercropping and tank silt application. Similarly In-situ green manuring of sunhemp recorded significantly higher available phosphorus (77.80 kg/ha) over application of additional FYM but was on par with other treatments. Mulching with coconut fronds (2.3 t/ha) recorded higher available potassium (136 kg/ha) but which was on par with other mulches except mulching with straw, application of additional FYM and control. The population of total bacteria, fungi and P solublizers, azotobactor were found be increased significantly after the harvest of the crop compared to the initial population, In-situ green manuring of sunhemp, green leaf manuring with glyricidia and intercropping of horse gram registered lower weed density of 18.98, 30.32 and 32 per m2 respectively over other treatments. Similar trend was noticed with respect to weed dry weight and weed control efficiency.
Spatial Variability of Soil Nutrients and Site Specific Nutrient Management in Central Dry Zone of Karnataka, India
Mudalagiriyappa --- T. Sheshadri --- D.C. Hanumanthappa --- Nagaraju --- V. Venkatachalapathi --- Kiran (2016). Spatial Variability of Soil Nutrients and Site Specific Nutrient Management in Central Dry Zone of Karnataka, India. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 14. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
A field study was conducted during kharif 2012 and 2013 to know the spatial variability in available nutrient content in cultivator’s field for site specific nutrient management with mechanisation in groundnut at the Central Dry Zone of Karnataka under the jurisdiction of University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, India. The farmer’s fields have been delineated with each grid size of 50 x 50 m using geospatial technology and also DGPS locations have been used for each grid to map the field variability. After grid making soil samples from 0-15cm were collected and analysed for different major and micro nutrients in all the selected 139 grids. Results indicated that significant variability of essential plant nutrients exists in different operating systems in which each farmers family was assigned to operate several small field plots with the field size ranging from 0.8 ha to 3.2 ha. The large spatial variability of soil nutrients was mainly due to the fertilizer history of individual farmers, diversity of crop types and varieties used. There was a strong correlation between crop yields and available soil nutrient levels at the corresponding sites in the field. Based on the understanding of the nature of spatial variability of soil nutrient availability in Central Dry Zone of Karnataka and with the purpose of increasing profitability and sustainability of crop production a site specific nutrient management strategy was proposed. Related techniques adopted and discussed including soil testing and fertilizer recommendation in farmers plots, state recommendations in comparison with precision farming plots. Assessment, quantification of spatial variability of the field for PH, EC, major and minor nutrients, pest and yield are done through GIS mapping in order to supplement the right quantity of nutrients and pesticides on right time on right quantity and right method. The available nitrogen status of soil revealed that 8, 80, 12 per cent was low, medium and high respectively, while the available phosphorus level remained lower for 96 per cent of samples and 84 per cent of the samples found to be medium in available potassium .The available sulphur and zinc status remained lower. It was also assessed for its variability spread in the field and insecticides were given as per variability by which we saved in the cost on pesticides. The analysis of two years data showed that precision nutrient management with mechanized cultivation recorded 52.1 and 22.0 per cent higher pod yield of groundnut over farmers method and state recommendations respectively.
Impact of Extension Interventions on the Management of Rodents in selected Crop Production
M.I. Naik --- S V Hugar (2016). Impact of Extension Interventions on the Management of Rodents in selected Crop Production. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
Rodents are one of the important vertebrate pests directly related to destruction of crops belongings of man and animal besides responsible for spread of many diseases. The study was under taken at three villages of Chikkaballapura District in the state of Karnataka to know the influence of extension intervention on rodent density and infestation on various crops. The results indicated that in a village with an extension intervention viz. group discussion, demonstration and free distribution of rodenticides resulted in significant reduction of rodent density (67.70%) and incidence (77.59%) on various crops. However, in another village where one day training workshop on rodent management was given without supply of any inputs, the rodent density (27.47%) and rodent damage (17.43%) reduction was moderate. Whereas in control village where there was no extension intervention the rodent density and damage increased by 42.60 and 33.47 per cent, respectively. This clearly highlight the importance of extension intervention viz. group discussion, training programmes and demonstrations in the management of rodents.
Assessment of Seismic Response Reduction Factor of Multistorey Reinforced Concrete Framed Structures Using Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis
Ramadan. M --- Salem. H (2016). Assessment of Seismic Response Reduction Factor of Multistorey Reinforced Concrete Framed Structures Using Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
The inelastic design seismic forces are generally calculated equal to corresponding elastic ones divided by response reduction factor (R) that depends on structural Ductility, Over-Strength, and Redundancy. Many studies have attempted to quantify the potential of structural systems to delimit the level of force imposed by virtue of their ductility and energy absorption capacity. Most of practice design codes give values of (R) factor for a building as function of its structural system only excluding the effect of important factors such as: the geometrical configuration, reinforcement ratio, concrete strength, yielding stress of reinforcement, and earthquake magnitude. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effect of those parameters on RC Ductile Frames Structures using Applied Element Method, where a nonlinear dynamic analysis was carried out in the time domain for multistory reinforced concrete framed structures. Results showed that (R) factor is greatly affected by earthquake magnitude, moderate effect by geometrical configuration, and material properties. The results also showed the (R) factors recommended in current design codes are unconservative and overestimated for the majority of studied cases.
Assessment of Seismic Response Reduction Factor of Multistorey Reinforced Concrete Structures with Shear Walls Resisting System Using Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis
Adel.M --- Salem.H (2016). Assessment of Seismic Response Reduction Factor of Multistorey Reinforced Concrete Structures with Shear Walls Resisting System Using Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
Many studies have endeavored to quantify the potential of the structural system to delimit the seismic force level imposed by virtue of their ductility and energy absorption capacity. The response modification factor (R) is defined as the ratio of the absolute maximum linear elastic base shear to the absolute maximum nonlinear base shear of structure subjected to the same earthquake acceleration. The response modification factor (R) depends on over-strength (Rs), ductility (Rμ), and redundancy (Rr). In the current study, the R factor is investigated for multistory reinforced concrete flat slab structures where the lateral forces are resisted solely by shear walls. A non-linear time-history dynamic analysis based on the Applied Element Method was carried out on ten stories RC flat slab structure with shear wall resisting system for lateral loads. A parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of different parameters on the R factor such as earthquake acceleration magnitude, height of the building, reinforcement ratio of shear walls, and material strength. The results showed that the value of (R) depends not only on structure dynamic properties but also on its nonlinearity and on earthquake magnitude which is not considered in the current worldwide design codes.
Reinforcing Kenya Power National Grid Using Statcom Devices
C. Ndungu --- J. Nderu --- L. Ngoo --- P. Hinga (2016). Reinforcing Kenya Power National Grid Using Statcom Devices. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
Modern power system is a complex network comprising of numerous distributed generators, transmission lines, switchgears, distribution network and variety of loads. Due to the recent increase of connected load as result of Government of Kenya and Kenya Power initiative projects such as last mile, GPOBA, and school electrification, transmission lines and primary substations are getting more loaded than they were initially designed. Further, the quality of the power supplied to the end users is deteriorating as network expand due to inherent system disturbances such as voltage dips, harmonic distortions and phase angle deviations caused by low voltage network faults. This has resulted to high level of customers’ dissatisfaction and complains. Research has shown that over 60% of system perturbations are caused by natural events such as lightning strikes and system faults. There are various methods power utilities are employing to realize a robust and reliable power transmission system. Such methods include re-conducting of transmission lines, construction of new transmission lines and in recent time installation of Flexible AC transmission system (FACTs) devices. The FACTS are power electronic devices that have ability of controlling the network voltage condition both in steady and transient state of complex power system. The most common power electronic controllers are, Dynamic voltage stabilizer (DVS), Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM), shunt compensators and Unified power flow controller (UPFC). The STATCOM devices are the most widely installed power electronic controllers as they provide excellent performance in stabilizing the power system both in steady state and non-steady state (system disturbances) conditions. It is for this reason the author propose installation of STATCOMs to reinforce the Kenya Power national power grid to achieve a robust and resilience system which improves the power quality supplied to the end users.
Effect of Oxygen Addition in Ar/CO2 Gas Miture on Metal Transfer Behaviour in Gas Metal Arc Welding
Ronnakrit Soonrach --- Bovornchok Poopat (2016). Effect of Oxygen Addition in Ar/CO2 Gas Miture on Metal Transfer Behaviour in Gas Metal Arc Welding. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
Mode of metal transfer is essential variable for quality of welding. Welding gas is one of the main factors affecting metal transfer behavior for GMAW process. Recently, some gas providers have developed by adding oxygen into Ar/CO2 gas mixture to improve welding performance. However the effect of oxygen addition on metal transfer behavior has not been demonstrated and clarified. This research aims to study the influence of Oxygen, on modes of metal transfer and transition currents. In this study, the effect of welding currents and various types of welding gases were also investigated. The welding currents used were ranged from 90 to 310 ampere. Ten categories of welding gases involved in this study were divided into 2 groups, Ar/5%CO2 and Ar/15%CO2. Oxygen gas was added into each group ranging from 0% to 4%. Behaviors and modes of metal transfer were observed by using high speed camera. Rate of metal transfer, droplet size and transition current were measured. The results showed that with 1 – 2% oxygen addition short circuit/globular and globular/spray transition currents can be reached at lower welding current comparing with those of conventional Ar/5%CO2 and Ar/15%CO2 , (no oxygen addition). However excessive amount of oxygen in gas mixtures could increase both short circuit/globular and globular/spray transition currents especially in Ar/5%CO2.
Rhf and Dft Theoretical Study of the Hydroxyl Radical on the Mono Silacylobutane Molecule
A. Muhammad --- L .S. Taura --- C.E. Ndikilar (2016). Rhf and Dft Theoretical Study of the Hydroxyl Radical on the Mono Silacylobutane Molecule. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
The molecular geometries of the hydroxyl radical on the monosilacyclobutane molecule have been studied using ab-initio Quantum chemical calculations at the Restricted Hatree-fock (RHF) with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Also Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP have carried out at the same basis set for inclusion of electron correlation. Cyclobutane is the original Molecule before replacing one carbon by Silicon atom. This led/resulted in the study of three molecules. The electronic properties calculated are Bond length, Bond angle, total energy, energy gap, ionization energy, electron affinity, electophilic index, Hardness and softness. The result in this study show that calculated Bond length, Bond angle and total energy for cyclobutane have been found in good agreement with previous studies. For the other molecules, we have not found a reference data, so this study supplies a new data in this aspect. These calculations have been performed using Gaussian 03 package.
Mehmet Kazım YETİK (2016). A Case Analysis about BOD in Araç River (TURKEY). Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
One of the most important works for decision makers is to decrease the bed environmental effect off human beings. For that reason, the regional environmental data is necessary to find a solution for environmental problems. The planners have to use some useful programs, methods or mathematical approach to calculate or estimate the pollution amount in the environment. The rivers are water sources for the small living areas. Moreover, the small rivers are also disposal sites for dischargers of sewage water. Therefore, the studies about river pollution are needed for the future plan of most of the regional development areas. River pollution is considered as one of the most important environmental pollution problem due to inverse effects in all river basins. Therefore, to control water quality, river pollution parameters are analyzed to represent the river situation. This is very expensive, consumes too much time and needs deep analysis. For that reason, a mathematical approach was used for the estimation of pollution level. There isn’t any other work about Araç River in Karabük province of Turkey. In this study, Araç river was analyzed by statistical and mathematical methods. The time series of the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) was studied. In first step, sewage system and waste water amount data were gathered from administrative registrations and then analyzed. The population data are correlated with waste water amount. Finally, total BOD values in sewage water were predicted which is disposed to Araç River. Other water pollution parameters should be also predicted and studied by this method.
Yield Estimation Model based on Time Series, Satellite and GPS
Osman YILDIZ (2016). Yield Estimation Model based on Time Series, Satellite and GPS. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 6. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
Todays, in most of the countries, the agricultural production is estimated by direct measurements or surveys depends on human source. However, the production could be estimated within some statistical error and this error can be corrected by statistical aprooach. Within these study, our aim is to create a model for estimating crop production in the corresponding period scale of a country or region and in particular agricultural field by satellite view and coordinate system data measured by GPS. In this study, the latest ten-year yield production data in a time span before and/or vegetation time. The functions involved in the study are listed as atmospheric parameters including temperature, evaporation, precipitation, sunshine duration, wind direction and climatic parameters such as intensity; soil parameters including temperature and soil moisture; administrative recordings including plant height, texture and spectral characteristics of RGB color distribution and other data sets including area, agricultural yields, production quantity and the unit amaount of seeding. The analyses have shown that, the estimation has including some errors. And these erors can be corrected by some statistical aprroach. The annual base estimation has also considered in the study. The series has some fluctuations and the main reasons are also correlated with atmospheric conditions. The weather, soil moisture, sunshine are all important parameters for the growth of agricultural yields.
Forced Convection Fluid Flow Characteristics of R600a/Al2O3 Nanorefrigerant
Kamil Arslan --- Oğuz Turgut (2016). Forced Convection Fluid Flow Characteristics of R600a/Al2O3 Nanorefrigerant. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 5. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
Nanorefrigerants are produced by dispersion of nanometer sized (1-100 nm) solid particles having high thermal conductivity such as Cu, Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, etc. in a refrigerant and used in engineering devices to enhance the heat transfer capabilities. They are used in numerous applications such as tribology, chemistry, environmental areas, surfactants and coating, pharmaceutical and medical applications, microprocessors, jacket water cooling in vehicles and fuel cells. In this study, forced convection fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of R600a/Al2O3 nanorefrigerant have been investigated numerically. Three different nanoparticle volume fractions (0.8, 2.0 and 4.0%) were used in numerical calculations. Numerical study has been implemented under three-dimensional steady-state laminar flow condition. The circular cross-sectioned duct geometry with uniform surface heat flux has been used as computational domain. The effect of nanorefrigerant and nanoparticle volume fraction on the average convective heat transfer coefficient and average Darcy friction factor have been analyzed in detail. The velocity and temperature distributions inside the duct were obtained for different nanoparticle volume fractions and Reynolds numbers. Variation of local heat transfer coefficient and local Darcy friction factor along the duct length have also been investigated. It is seen that increasing nanoparticle volume fraction increases the convective heat transfer in the duct. However, pressure drop are not affected by the change of nanoparticle volume fraction.
Structural Characteristics of the Egyptian Clay as a Low-Cost Adsorbent
Nabila Sh. Mohamed --- Mohammad S. El-Geundi --- Eman A. Ashour --- Reda M. A. Abobeah (2016). Structural Characteristics of the Egyptian Clay as a Low-Cost Adsorbent. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 4. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
A study of the characteristics of clay from El-Sheikh Fadl Village, El-Minia governorate in Egypt has been carried out. A crucial factor in the applying clay as a low-cost adsorbent, however, is the understanding of the physical, chemical, mineralogical, and colloidal properties of these clays. The characteristics of texture such as surface area, pore volume, porosity, pore size distribution, particle shape and density were determined. The pore size distribution results showed that natural clay is predominantly mesoporous. The thermal behavior of clay was studied using differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis analysis. The X-Ray diffraction analysis was performed in order to determine the main constituents of the materials. The X-Ray diffraction analysis verified the presence of kaolinite, montmorillonite and quartz in the natural clay. Then clay was tested for infrared spectra, it confirm the presence of the constituents mentioned above. The structure and chemical composition, exchangeable ion type and small crystal size of montmorillonite are responsible for several properties, including a large chemically active surface area.
Molecular Characterization of Some Resistance Genes in Some Large Spectrum Beta - Lactamases Producing Enterobacteriaceae
Ben Slim Asma --- Khenchouche Halim (2016). Molecular Characterization of Some Resistance Genes in Some Large Spectrum Beta - Lactamases Producing Enterobacteriaceae. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 3. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
In this work, 25 hospital isolates of Enterobacteria were isolated from the hospital of SETIF, Algeria, and were identified by Api 20E galleries. 10 isolates (40%) belong to Escherichia coli, 5 (20%) were identified as Enterobacter cloacae isolates, while the remaining 40% (10 isolates) belonged to other genera. To study the sensitivity towards antibiotics, the isolated strains were conducted to susceptibility testing. Among isolates, a single E. coli (10%) and only one of Enterobacter showed ESBL (+) phenotype. To confirm the phenotype, susceptibility testing was performed on Muller Hinton + cloxacillin medium which was positive for both strains. ESBL strains (+) were subjected to molecular analysis. Resistance genes were amplified by PCR and then subjected to electrophoresis, the positive smirs were sequenced and aligned in the BLAST database (GenBank, NCBI ) .
Buttermaking from Camel Milk by blending it with Goat Milk and Analysis of its Quality
Aleme Asres --- Eyassu Seifu --- Mohammed Y.Kurtu (2016). Buttermaking from Camel Milk by blending it with Goat Milk and Analysis of its Quality. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 10: 1-2. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.10/1001.10
The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of buttermaking from camel milk by blending it with goat milk, the physicochemical properties and microbiological qualities of butter made alone and at different blending levels were assessed. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with five treatments, i.e., T1 (100% camel milk), T2 (75% camel and 25% goat milk), T3 (50% camel and 50% goat milk), T4 (25% camel and 75% goat milk) and T5 (100% goat milk). The milk samples were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and microbiological quality. The fat, total solids and titratable acidity of T1 was significantly (P<0.001) lower than T5 but T1 had significantly (P<0.001) higher pH value than T3, T4 and T5. There was no significant (P>0.001) difference in specific gravity between T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. The total bacteria count (TBC) of T1 was significantly (P<0.001) higher than TBC of T2, T3, T4 and T5. The coliform count (CC) of T5 was significantly (P<0.001) higher than CC of the other milk samples and no significant (P>0.001) difference was observed in CC between T1, T2, T3 and T4. The churning efficiency, physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of the butter samples were analyzed following standard procedures. The fermentation time (11.3 days), churning time (121.7 min) and churning temperature (280C) of T1 were significantly (P<0.001) higher than the other milk samples. However, T1 had significantly (P<0.001) lower churning pH (4.13) and butter yield (49.3 g/liter) than the other samples. T3 and T4 had significantly (P<0.001) higher butter yield than the other milk samples. The fermentation time, churning time and churning temperature of T5 were significantly (P<0.001) shorter/lower than the rest and T5 required significantly (P<0.001) higher churning pH than the other milk samples. The moisture content (39.2%), melting range (42.±10C) and acid degree value (8.72% oleic acid) for T1 was significantly (P<0.001) higher than the other butter samples and T1 had significantly (P<0.001) lower fat content(56.8%) than the other samples. The coliform count (CC), Enterobacteriaceae count (EBC), lipolytic bacteria count (LBC) and yeast and mould count (YMC) of T1 was significantly (P<0.001) higher than the other butter samples. The CC, EC and total bacteria count (TBC) of T5 was significantly (P<0.001) higher than T2, T3 and T4 and it had significantly (P<0.001) lower TBC than the others. The results showed that blending camel milk with goat milk improved fermentation and churning time and yield of butter from camel milk. Although butter can be made from pure camel milk, it took longer churning time and fermentation time. Thus, research is needed in order to reduce the churning time and improve the yield of butter made from pure camel milk by manipulating the operating parameters viz., pH of the milk, churning temperature, method of churning and volume of milk in the churn.