Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering

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Online ISSN: 2415-2072
Print ISSN: 2518-2552

No.9

Determination and Monitoring of Seafood Contamination with Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Bacteria at Majmaah Province, Saudi Arabia

Pages: 29
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Determination and Monitoring of Seafood Contamination with Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Bacteria at Majmaah Province, Saudi Arabia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Hala Ali Abdel-Salam

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Hala Ali Abdel-Salam (2016). Determination and Monitoring of Seafood Contamination with Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Bacteria at Majmaah Province, Saudi Arabia. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 29. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Seafood has traditionally being a popular part of the diet in many parts of the world and in some countries constituted the main supply of animal protein, lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and  minerals. Seafood is part of a healthful diet, but seafood consumption is not risk-free. Seafood is responsible for an important proportion of food-borne illnesses and outbreaks in the world. A number of bacterial illnesses may arise from the consumption of seafood. Understanding the transfer of  bacteria contaminants through the food web is critical to predict the exposure of humans to contaminants either through subsistence or commercial consumption of seafood and the possible health consequences of such exposure. In addition, such information is crucial in making accurate risk assessment for seafood safety purposes, a topic which is attracting much National and International attention. The results of the present study recorded that  nine bacterial species  were isolated from different tissues of both sexes of shrimp species (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab species (Portunus pelagicus). In this research the occurrence of Gram negative bacteria was more frequent comparing with Gram positive ones. Furthermore, bacteria  communities isolated from different organs of  crustacean  organisms collected from the study area showed a highly diverse and varied bacteria population associated with different organs, sex  and species.

Probability Analysis of Slope Stability Analysis

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Probability Analysis of Slope Stability Analysis

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

A. Belouar , S. Hannachi , M.W. Belouar

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A.Belouar --- S.Hannachi --- M.W.Belouar (2016). Probability Analysis of Slope Stability Analysis. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 28. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
The aim of this paper is to present a probability analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation method of uncertainty (MCSM). The results of this method will be compared to all recognized method of slope stability such as Bishop simplified, Fellenuis, Janbu simplified and corrected, Spencer and Lowe-Karafiath which are in general in limit equilibrium. This study has been done by a normal frequency distribution relative for all the parameters taken in considerations. From the mean values and the standard deviations of the pore water pressure, cohesion and the internal angle of friction with the correlation relation between these parameters, a set of random values of pore water pressure, cohesion and internal angle of friction where generated by computing a Critical Probabilistic Slip Surface. The analysis of the obtained results indicates that the failure probability is affected by the standard deviation of the pore water pressure, cohesion, internal angle of friction and correlation coefficient. However, all methods of equilibrium limit are affecting the failure probability by taking in account one of these parameters following each case. Nevertheless the probability of failure is not significantly affected by the standard deviation of the unit weight for all methods.

Color Preceptation of Annealed Polyamid under Different Illuminants

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Color Preceptation of Annealed Polyamid under Different Illuminants

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Fatma Mohamed El-Sharkawy , F .M. El-Sharkawy

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Fatma Mohamed El-Sharkawy --- F .M. El-Sharkawy (2016). Color Preceptation of Annealed Polyamid under Different Illuminants. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 27. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of perceived shift in color and color coordinates of quenched polyamid fiberes under different illuminants using 6 different light sources, standard illuminant D55, D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F1, F2 (fluorescent lamp). The diffuse spectral reflectance values were measured by a spectrophotometer using 0/diffuse geometry CIE Lab color system under six different illuminants (D55,D65,C,A,F1 and F2) has been computed. Color parameters, including luminance factor, dominant wavelength and purity were calculated for the samples Relation between the optical data of spectro-photometric parameters with different annealing conditions are given. A computer model has been developed at the NIS to determine the colour data from the spectrophotometric.

Tyrosinase İnhibitory Effect Studies on the Aerial Parts of Wiedemannia Multifida (L.) Bentham

Pages: 26
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Tyrosinase İnhibitory Effect Studies on the Aerial Parts of Wiedemannia Multifida (L.) Bentham

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Esen Sezen Karaoglan , Sıla Ozlem Sener , Merve Badem , Meryem Sengul Koseoglu , Ufuk Ozgen

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Esen Sezen Karaoğlan --- Sıla Özlem Şener --- Merve Badem --- Meryem Şengül Köseoğlu --- Ufuk Özgen (2016). Tyrosinase İnhibitory Effect Studies on the Aerial Parts of Wiedemannia Multifida (L.) Bentham. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 26. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme which is mostly deployed in microorganism, plants, human, and animals. This enzyme is involved in melanin synthesis. The abnormal melanin accumulation causes hiperpigmentation in human skins and browning of foods. Tyrosinase inhibitors gained importance in medicine,cosmetic and food industries1-4. Kojic acid, arbutin, hydroquinon known as a powerful tyrosinase inhibitory agent. Natural compounds with anti-pigmenting effect are preferred rather than synthetic substances such as kojic acid and hydroquinone, which can cause skin inflammations 5-7. The genus Wiedemannia (Lamiaceae) is represented by two species in Turkey.  Methanol extract of Wiedemannia multifida has shown strong antioxidant and antibacterial activity 8-9. The tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous extracts of the W. multifida have been evaluated in this study. Modified Masuda’s colorimetric method was used to evaluate the mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory effect10. Kojic acid  was used as positive control. The value of %inhibition of the dichloromethane extract (39.47 ± 0.662, 47.36 ± 1.449)  is higher than kojic acid  (23.29 ± 0.113, 43.37 ± 0.080) against mushroom tyrosinase at 25 and 100 µg/mL concentration and ethyl acetat extract (26.31 ± 0.760) is higher than kojic acid (23,29 ± 0,113)  against mushroom tyrosinase at 25 µg/mL concentration. W. multifida may be evaluated a natural alternative in the treatment of hyperpigmentation and cosmetic and food industry.

Changes in Growth, Fiber Quality and Yield of Ramie with Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilization

Pages: 25
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Changes in Growth, Fiber Quality and Yield of Ramie with Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilization

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Sana Ullah , Liu Li-Jun , Sumera Anwar , Shahbaz Khan , Wang Bo, Xu Tuo , Peng Ding Xiang

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Sana Ullah --- Liu Li-Jun --- Sumera Anwar --- Shahbaz Khan --- Wang Bo, Xu Tuo ---Peng Ding Xiang (2016). Changes in Growth, Fiber Quality and Yield of Ramie with Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilization. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 25. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is one of the most important sources of natural fiber. Its yield and fiber quality are affected by mineral nutrients, especially nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K). In the present study, we aimed to quantify the influence of N, P, K fertilizers on plant growth, yield, and fiber quality. To this end, ramie plants grown under different fertilizer treatments (no fertilizer, N, P, K, NP, NK, PK, and NPK) were evaluated for differences in plant height, stem diameter, stem fresh and dry weights, number of stems, fiber fresh and dry weights, fiber quality (breaking strength, elongation, and diameter), and total N and P content.NPK, followed by NK, had the highest effect on plant growth, yield, and fiber quality, whereas P application had the least effect among all fertilization treatments. A strong correlation of fiber weight, elongation rate, and breaking strength was identified with stem diameter, stem fresh and dry weights, and N and P contents, suggesting that the combined application of NPK significantly enhances yield and fiber quality in ramie. Overall results suggested that optimum fertilization is important for a sustainable ramie production.

Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rates on Yield-and Lodging-Related Traits in Rapeseed

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Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rates on Yield-and Lodging-Related Traits in Rapeseed

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Shahbaz Khan , Sumera Anwar , Sana Ullah , Ali Noman , Guangshang Zhou

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Shahbaz Khan --- Sumera Anwar --- Sana Ullah --- Ali Noman --- Guangshang Zhou (2016). Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rates on Yield-and Lodging-Related Traits in Rapeseed. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 24. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Yield- and lodging-related traits are considered essential for improving rapeseed production; however, the interrelationship of these traits and their role in agronomic processes that promote rapeseed growth are not fully understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of plant density (D) and nitrogen (N) rates on morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits related to yield and lodging in rapeseed. To this end, we evaluated Huazha 9 for two consecutive growing seasons (2013–2014 and 2014–2015) under three plant densities (D15, 15 plants m−2; D30, 30 plants m−2; and D45, 45 plants m−2) and four N rates (N0, 0 kg N ha-1; N180, 180 kg N ha-1; N270, 270 kg N ha-1; and N360, 360 kg N ha-1). The experiment was laid out in a split-plot completely randomized design with three replications—plant density was applied in the main plots and N rates in the sub-plots. Our results demonstrated that the effect of plant density on seed yield and yield-related traits was inconsistent between the growing seasons, whereas that of N application was consistently positive. Lodging resistance significantly increased with increase in plant density in both growing seasons; however, the effect of N application was not consistent. Plant height was affected only by N application and reached a maximum at D15N270. The net photosynthetic rate was significantly affected by N application and D × N, reaching a peak at D15N180, whereas the radiation interception significantly increased with increasing the D × N, peaking at approximately 70–80% at D45N360.The oil content was significantly affected by N but not by plant density, whereas lignin content was significantly affected by plant density in both growing seasons and by N application in the 2013–2014 season. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the correlation between lignin content and lodging resistance in rapeseed. Hence, this study implies that that D30N180 was the best combination of plant density and N rate for improving yield and lodging resistance in rapeseed.

Physiological Characteristics of Maize under Chelators Induced Phytoextraction of Cadmium

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Physiological Characteristics of Maize under Chelators Induced Phytoextraction of Cadmium

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Sumera Anwar , M. Yasin Ashraf , Shahbaz Khan , Sara Omer , Ali Noman

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Sumera Anwar --- M. Yasin Ashraf --- Shahbaz Khan --- Sara Omer --- Ali Noman (2016). Physiological Characteristics of Maize under Chelators Induced Phytoextraction of Cadmium. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 23. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Phytoextraction by using plants for accumulating contaminant metals in the aboveground parts is a cost-effective and environmentally safe method of soil remediation. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of Cd contamination in soil, with and without adding EDTA and citric acid on the physiological parameters of maize plant. For this, pot experiment was conducted using two maize varieties, two Cd levels (150 and 300 mg/kg) were applied at the time of sowing and EDTA and citric acid (1 mM each) applied after 10 days of germination. Results indicated that Cd contamination in the growth medium influenced a number of metabolic processes in maize such as reduction in chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency. This reduction was more significant by increasing Cd level and also by adding EDTA in growth medium. Trend of reduction was Cd+EDTA > Cd > citric acid+Cd > citric acid. Similarly water potential, osmotic and turgor potential also reduced by Cd stress. Plants growing under Cd+EDTA and Cd+citric acid showed higher reduction in water and osmotic potential than Cd alone. Conclusively, Cd had a negative impact on overall health of maize plant while citric acid enhanced the Cd tolerance, nevertheless EDTA improved Cd uptake in maize plants, addition of EDTA in the growth medium produced more detrimental effects as compared to Cd alone.

Some Biochemical Markers that Can Predict Pre-Eclampsia

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Some Biochemical Markers that Can Predict Pre-Eclampsia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Mohammad Sayyed Bakheet , Mohamed Ismail Seddik , M H Abdelzaher , Mohammad Mohammad Abolfotoh , Abdelaziz eldarwesh , Alomairi Mostafa M , Maher Abdelshakor

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Mohammad Sayyed Bakheet --- Mohamed Ismail Seddik --- M H Abdelzaher --- Mohammad Mohammad Abolfotoh --- Abdelaziz eldarwesh --- Alomairi Mostafa M --- Maher Abdelshakor (2016). Some Biochemical Markers that Can Predict Pre-Eclampsia. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 22. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
TNF– α directly damages the vascular endothelial cells, reduces regional blood flow, causes occlusion of vessels and increases endothelial permeability. Endothelial cell injury after TNF– α mediated activation of immune system may result in secretion of vasoactive substances and increase in vascular permeability and intravascular coagulation. TNF-α may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia  and may identify the patients who are at high risk of PE and can be a potential marker of the severity of the preeclamptic syndrome. Preeclamptic women had deranged lipid profile due to abnormal lipid metabolism; this alteration of lipid metabolism may play a key role in the development of symptoms of Pre-eclampsia. Furthermore, changes to lipid metabolism may contribute towards the endothelial lesions observed in pre-eclampsia.

RHF and DFT Theoretical Study of the Benzene and Hydroxylbenzene Molecule Group in Gas Phase

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RHF and DFT Theoretical Study of the Benzene and Hydroxylbenzene Molecule Group in Gas Phase

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

A. Muhammad , L .S. Taura , C.E. Ndikilar , I.G. Shitu

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A. Muhammad --- L .S. Taura --- C.E. Ndikilar --- I.G. Shitu (2016). RHF and DFT Theoretical Study of the Benzene and Hydroxylbenzene Molecule Group in Gas Phase. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 21. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
The Benzene ring is an important example of conjugated molecule, and also an important building block of many organic semiconductors (OSC). However a single benzene ring is not yet large enough to bring the band-gaps Eg into the OSC regime. The molecular geometries of the   Hydroxylbenzene group have been studied using ab-initio Quantum chemical calculations at the Restricted Hatree-fock (RHF) with 6-31G (d,p) basis set. Also Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP have been carried out at the same basis set for inclusion of electron correlation. The electronic properties calculated are Bond length, Bond angle, total energy, energy gap, ionization energy, electron affinity, electrophilic index, Hardness and softness. Some of the properties computed like bond lengths and bond angles by DFT are in good agreement with experimental values but those computed from RHF over estimated the results. The energy gap decreases with the substitution of OH radical in the Benzene molecule.

Active Smoking and Impacts on Male Fertility in Humans

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Active Smoking and Impacts on Male Fertility in Humans

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Djabali Nacira

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Djabali Nacira (2016). Active Smoking and Impacts on Male Fertility in Humans. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 20. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Our work aims to study the impact of active smoking on some parameters indicative of male fertility in humans. The experiment involved a cohort of 20 men against 20 men smokers non-smokers (controls) who came to take spermogramme, some of them were volunteers.  The volume of semen, concentration, mobility, speed, vitality and sperm abnormalities, and the level of testosterone were studied in two groups. The results show that there is a non-significant decrease in the volume of semen at smokers compared to non smokers (controls), a significant decrease (p <0.001) in the concentration, mobility, speed, vitality sperm in the group of smokers compared with controls. Smokers are also a significant increase in the level of sperm morphological abnormalities and the level of testosterone was a significant decrease (p <0.01) in subjects smoking compared with controls.

Unstable Plastic Flow in the Industrial Al-2, 5%Mg Alloy, Effect of Annealing Process

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Unstable Plastic Flow in the Industrial Al-2, 5%Mg Alloy, Effect of Annealing Process

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Chibane Nouara , Ait-Amokhtar Hakim

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Chibane Nouara --- Ait-Amokhtar Hakim(2016). Unstable Plastic Flow in the Industrial Al-2, 5%Mg Alloy, Effect of Annealing Process. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 19. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
At the microscopic scale, a plastically deformed material constitutes a nonlinear system with a large number of parameters related to the presence of defects (dislocations, impurities, precipitates, etc.). These microscopic heterogeneities lead, in general, to homogeneous macroscopic plastic flow in a large interval of deformation. Thus the flow stress increases with the applied strain rate. However, in certain conditions of temperature, strain rate and deformation, interaction between dislocations and their transport can lead to an instable plastic flow, in particular in face –centered cubic (fcc) materials where dislocations present a high mobility. Thus, a uniform plastic flow regime gives way to a localized deformation mode. In such conditions, the complexity and the non linearity of the microscopic parameters generate instabilities of plastic flow; localizations appear on a macroscopic scale by the spontaneous formation of heterogeneities and defects, sometimes regular and propagatifs, which can be observed on the surface of the deformed material. A commonly observed heterogeneous plastic flow is the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) phenomenon. It is due to dynamic strain aging (DSA), i.e., a dynamic interaction between solute atoms and mobile dislocations. The solute atoms diffuse to and pin mobile dislocations during their temporary arrest at local obstacles (forest dislocations, precipitates, etc.). Instabilities arise when the waiting time of dislocations at obstacles is of the order of the diffusion time of the solute atoms.The repeated breakaway of dislocations from the solute clouds reduces the strain rate sensitivity (SRS) of the flow stress which becomes negative. Therefore, the strain localizes into narrow deformation bands and gives rise to serrated stress-strain curve at constant applied strain rate. The purpose of the present work is focused on the analysis of the temporal aspects of the PLC effect in the Al-2.5%Mg alloy. We have investigated the Portevin “Le Chatelier characteristics at room temperature in annealed and cold “rolled Al-2.5%Mg alloys. We have shown that the heat treatment affects significantly the jerky flow, namely, the range of instability, the critical strain for the onset of serrations and the ductility of the alloy. We interpret our results in accordance with dynamic strain aging mechanisms.

Biochemical and Mineral Quality Analysis of Shea (Vitellaria Paradoxa) Latex

Pages: 18
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Biochemical and Mineral Quality Analysis of Shea (Vitellaria Paradoxa) Latex

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Abdul-Aziz, B. , Quainoo, A. K. , Abubakari, A. H. , Abagale .

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Abdul-Aziz, B. --- Quainoo, A. K. --- Abubakari, A. H. --- Abagale (2016). Biochemical and Mineral Quality Analysis of Shea (Vitellaria Paradoxa) Latex. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
The research investigated the biochemical and mineral composition of shea latex. Shea latex samples were tapped monthly, from May to October 2014 at Yagaba and Nyankpala in the Northern Guinea-savannah and Kawampein the Transitional agro-ecological zones of Ghana for the investigation. The biochemical components entailed proximate and phytochemical quality determinations. The mean monthly proximate content of the shea latex did not differ significantly for crude fat, moisture, ash and carbohydrates. However, crude protein and crude fiber levels were significantly higher in July (1.33% and 8.86%) respectively and in August (1.29% and 8.80%) for crude protein and crude fiber respectively. Based on location, crude protein level of shea latex was significantly higher in Yagaba (1.22%) than Nyankpala (1.11%) respectively. Consistently crude protein levels in the shea latex were relatively low and manifested significant variations with respect to tapping period and location. Kawampe and Nyankpala had significantly highest levels of K (39.53 mg/l and 40.66 mg/l respectively) and significantly higher levels of Zn (0.02 mg/l and 0.02 mg/l) respectively than Yagaba (0.01 mg/l). Shea latex sodium (Na):potassium (K) ratio of less than one (1) across the study period was also revealed. The phytochemical quality screening of different polar solvents extracts of the shea latex revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, reducing sugars and tannins. The outcome of this study suggests that shea latex may have medicinal and nutritional benefits, and the potential for the manufacture of hypo-allergenic latex products.

Two Dimensional Device Modeling and Analysis of Metal–Germanium–Metal Photodiode

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Two Dimensional Device Modeling and Analysis of Metal–Germanium–Metal Photodiode

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

S. Benzeghda , F. Hobar

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S. Benzeghda --- F. Hobar (2016). Two Dimensional Device Modeling and Analysis of Metal–Germanium–Metal Photodiode. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 17. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
A two-dimensional self-consistent time-dependent simulation technique has been used to investigate electron-hole transport processes in the active region of metal-semiconductor-metal photodiode structurcs (MSM-PD) and to analyse their high-speed response [1, 2]. Ge and SiGe are promising materials for  optoelectronic devices compatible with standard and well developed Si technology [3, 4]. The sensitive volumes are 270 nm thick Ge film, grown on Si. Interdigitated Cr metal top electrodes with 1.5–5 µm spacing and identical finger width form Schottky contacts on the Ge film [2].  Monte Carlo simulation is a useful means of simulating the behavior of small semiconductor devices. Unlike conventional (Drift Diffusion) simulation methods, the Monte Carlo method provides an essentially exact solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is prone only to statistical errors [5]. Due to the shorter carrier drift length, these devices are even faster, with a pulse response of 9.4 ps FWHM at 1550 nm, but have a lower overall quantum efficiency of 0.9% [2].

Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Semi-Arid Region of Algeria

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Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Semi-Arid Region of Algeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Pr.Abdelkader Bouthiba , Bachir Baalia , Adda Ababou , Abla Bouthiba , ysaad Houcine Abdelhakim Regui , Djamal Saidi

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Pr.Abdelkader Bouthiba ---  Bachir Baalia --- Adda Ababou --- Abla Bouthiba --- ysaad Houcine Abdelhakim Reguieg --- Djamal Saidi (2016). Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Semi-Arid Region of Algeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 16. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
By its geographical location within the arid and semi-arid area, Algeria is subject to adverse weather conditions. Algeria is highly sensitive to climate, especially in the highlands and the steppes which cover about 60% of North viable land. A climate change is inevitable and it will result in significant impacts, among other related to increased temperatures and rainfall, water resources scarcity and increased frequency of storms. Other impacts are studied: The loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystems, increased risk of famine, population movements, and health impacts. Climate change is causing a decline in reserves of soil water because of decreased precipitation and increased evaporation from the plant and soil due to the temperature rise. The increase in temperature will shorten the cycle plant which can be a negative factor by increasing water stress. However, in the case of Algeria, declining rainfall and increasing temperatures are unfavorable factors for both the soil and the plant. The consequence of the emphasis of water stress cause lower yields. The increase in soil evaporation will also increase the degree of salinity, also causing damage. The analyze of climate date shows that in the Chlef Region the three recent decades have been characterized by very marked developments, in particular by episodes of significant drought, upward trend for temperature and high rainfall. Climate projections for 2020-2050 and 2069-2099 horizons were performed using the average global multi-model (M3G) following two scenarios SRES RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The approach to simulate the scenarios and time horizons for future successful changes in temperature and precipitation in relation to the data in the reference period 1979-2000. The results indicate an increase temperature accompanied by a slight increase in precipitation.

Effect of Fagonia Cretica Linn Ethanolic Extract on Different Hematological Parameters in Albino Rats in Sudan

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Effect of Fagonia Cretica Linn Ethanolic Extract on Different Hematological Parameters in Albino Rats in Sudan

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Omer Abbas Mohamad Jahala , Omer Musa Izzeldin , Rashid Eltayeb Abdalla

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Omer Abbas Mohamad Jahala ---- Omer Musa Izzeldin --- Rashid Eltayeb Abdalla(2016). Effect of Fagonia Cretica Linn Ethanolic Extract on Different Hematological Parameters in Albino Rats in Sudan. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 15. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Objectives: To determine the effects of ethanolic extract of fagonia cretica linn on different hematological parameters, in albino rats, in Sudan (January – February) 2011. Materials & Methods: Different methods were adopted in this study; the Harborne extraction method was applied. A total of (30), young adult Wistar rats of age (8-12) weeks, weighing (42.6 – 72.2) grams, maintained at standard laboratory conditions, obtained from Sudan NCR. Rats were divided into (4) groups, (3) x (7) rats (study groups), and control group (9) rats. All rats were sacrificed for inspection, and safety of internal organs. Ethical approval had been obtained. Before experiments started, rats were fasted overnight for (14 – 16) hours. the control group (C), received orally (10) ml/kg distilled water, while groups (1,2,3) were orally receiving single, daily doses ( 100, 300 and 600) mg/kg of body weight of the extract in distilled water (1 g/10 ml) respectively, for (14) days using acute oral toxicity (425) protocol [36] . (CBC) blood samples were collected in (EDTA) tubes - from the rat’s eyes using nonheparinized capillary tubes. The assay was done at Shendi University using (Shenzhen Mindray BC-3000 Plus Auto Hematology Analyzer). Results: The ethanolic extract of Fagonia cretica in doses of (100, 300 and 600) mg/kg/body weight) has different effects on the major blood cells in rats after the study period (14 - days) compared to the control group. Conclusion: Statistical analysis for evaluation of the extract affects different variant hematological parameters, but in general it is concluded that it raises the main blood parameters.

Airborne Particulates Assessment in KL Sentral, Malaysia: Symptoms Associated with Sick Building Syndrome and Perceptions on Indoor Air Quality among Malaysian

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Airborne Particulates Assessment in KL Sentral, Malaysia: Symptoms Associated with Sick Building Syndrome and Perceptions on Indoor Air Quality among Malaysian

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Shamzani Affendy Mohd Din , Normadihah M. Aminuddin , Nur Baiti Mat Husin

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Shamzani Affendy Mohd Din --- Normadihah M. Aminuddin --- Nur Baiti Mat Husin (2016). Airborne Particulates Assessment in KL Sentral, Malaysia: Symptoms Associated with Sick Building Syndrome and Perceptions on Indoor Air Quality among Malaysian. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 14. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Since most of our time were spent indoors, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is very important to our health and comfort. A study on IAQ and specifically on airborne particulates are the best means to identify and reduce the negative effects of airborne particulates in the building to the occupants of building. The previous studies concentrated mainly on medical incidents that can usually be traced back and officially verified cases such as asthmatic and acute respiratory infection. Unfortunately, other medical complaints such as eye, nose or throat irritation, headaches, fatigue, dizziness, difficulty in concentration and nausea (odour) cases have not been studied. The study of air pollution here is very important in order to obtain the knowledge about the level of air quality especially airborne particulates that may affect the human health. It is done by focusing on 100 respondents who were occupants of building or public users. The primary data obtained in October to December 2010. From the survey conducted, there are 47 (56%) of the total respondents experienced health problems due to SBS and BRI in their office building for examples eye, nose or throat irritation, headaches, dry skin and humidifier fever meanwhile, their perceptions on Indoor Air Quality within selected office buildings (i.e. SSM, KTMB and MRCB, KL Sentral) found that there are 50% of respondents thought that air quality in their building is in good condition. Hence, the level of awareness on the importance of healthy IAQ in office buildings among the occupants also needs to be improved.

A Scientific Conception of Welfare and Housing in Dairy Farming

Pages: 13
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A Scientific Conception of Welfare and Housing in Dairy Farming

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Derya Onder , Serap Goncu , Nazan Koluman

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Derya Onder --- Serap Goncu --- Nazan Koluman (2016). A Scientific Conception of Welfare and Housing in Dairy Farming. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Good animal health and welfare is an explicit goal of dairy farming, but this is not always achieved and may be at risk. Several studies have shown that production diseases such as lameness, mastitis or metabolic disorders, play a considerable role in dairy production (Brinkmann and Winckler, 2005; Hamilton et al., 2006; Hardeng and Edge, 2001; Reksen et al., 1999; Weller and Bowling, 2000), thus demonstrating a need for innovative improvement strategies in livestock farming (Hovi and Vaarst, 2001 and Hovi et al., 2004). Some important index could be use for determining the animal well fare and housing conditions in intensive farming. In this paper these indexes and some indicators of animal wellfare will be discussed.

Effects of Heat Stress on Bucks

Pages: 12
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Effects of Heat Stress on Bucks

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Dehouegnon Jerry Agossou , Nazan Koluman

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Dehouegnon Jerry Agossou --- Nazan Koluman (2016). Effects of Heat Stress on Bucks. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Climate change associated with heat stress impacts negatively on animal’s reproduction; particularly to farm animals. In males, the exposure to harsh climatic conditions, namely, high ambient temperature affects the spermatogenesis process quality and quantity of semen causing important changes in biochemical and physiological parameters of blood. The goats are living in harsh, hot and dry conditions. Thus both male and females are affected by adverse effects of climate. To cope this uncomfortable thermal condition, bucks develop some physiological and behavioral adaptation by reducing their heat production, increasing heat loss, decreasing feed intake and increasing water consumption. Also to alleviate heat stress some strategies such as such as use of sprinklers in feedlots, evaporative cooling, feeding and nutritional techniques may be used. In this paper the effects of adverse effects of climate and some alleviation methods to decrease these effects on bucks will be determined.

Effect of Thermal Stress on Semen Parameters of Alpine Buck

Pages: 11
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Effect of Thermal Stress on Semen Parameters of Alpine Buck

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Jerry D. Agossou , Nazan Koluman

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Jerry D. Agossou --- Nazan Koluman (2016). Effect of Thermal Stress on Semen Parameters of Alpine Buck. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
High zootechnical and economic productivity of goat production depend on the number of kids raised, weaned, and marketed each year. The reproductive performances of does and bucks, in the breeding season are influenced by some factors whose the most important are climatic components notably ambient temperature, humidity, air movement, photoperiod, solar radiation, wind speed. Theses climatic factors may impose stress on the productive and reproductive performance traits of goats. Therefore, there is urgent demand to assess the effect of thermal stress on physiological and biochemical traits of semen in bucks. This study aims to assess the effect thermal stress on different semen parameters of Alpine bucks raised at Experimental Farm of Çukurova University (EFÇU) and some private farms of project of Ministry of Agriculture.
This research will be carried out during one month winter (January), spring (April) and summer (June). It will question to determine the cold and heat stress on some:
•    Blood parameters including: Red Blood Cells (RBC) and White Blood Cells (WBC), Packed Cells Volume (PCV%), Haemoglobin (HB%) and ESR. PCV and HB concentration will be determined by microhaematocrit and cyanmethemoglobin
Semen parameters like: Color, consistency and volume of ejaculate. Also sperm concentration will be determined using the improved Neubauer haemocytometer after dilution. Sperm mass activity, progressive motility, live-dead ratio and morphological aberrations (Acrosomal integrity) will be determined by conventional methods.

Consumer Trend of Red Meat Consumption

Pages: 10
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Consumer Trend of Red Meat Consumption

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Ars. Gor. Kadriye Hatipoglu , Nazan Koluman

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Arş. Gör. Kadriye Hatipoğlu --- Nazan Koluman (2016). Consumer Trend of Red Meat Consumption. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
The research carried out so that an adult should consume daily 70 grams of protein has been reported that 40% must consist of animal-derived proteins. This is only obtained from animal proteins such as meat, milk, eggs and honey. Meat among nutrients for the feeding of animal origin it has an importance role. Red meat is the most valuable source of animal protein. Red meats are classified as; cattle, sheep, goat , pig , llama , buffalo, camels , kangaroos and so on. Cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo meats are common source of red meat, in our country. In this paper the consumer trends will be considered. For this aim, the questionnary for preferences and consumption of read meat by the young generation of Adana province (18-24 years) will be determined.

Linear Programming and Excel Solver Functions for Dairy Ration Calculation

Pages: 9
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Linear Programming and Excel Solver Functions for Dairy Ration Calculation

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

M. Gorgulu , N. Koluman , S. Goncu , U. Serbester

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M.Gorgulu --- N. Koluman --- S. Goncu, U.Serbester (2016). Linear Programming and Excel Solver Functions for Dairy Ration Calculation. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Feed input occupies the most significant place in animal production costs. Reducing feed input cost is very important in terms of obtaining maximum farm profit. Animal feeders have used linear programming method very extensively after it has been adopted to the practice. Because diet formulation is a typical linear programming problem. Linear programming is a decision tool for optimum allocation of limited or scarce resources. The diet formulation is a typical linear programming problem. Feed industry is manufacturing tremendous feed and feed cost in animal production is a major part of total cost. Least cost diet formulation may therefore increase profit of farm and feed industry. Introducing linear programing to the staffs in animal production practice and academia may results in cost and environmentally effective diets when nutritional knowledge introduced to computer properly. Generally each office computer has excel program and excel has solver add-in. This add-in has capability to optimize different models. In this workshop, it is aimed to explain how linear programming solutions can be accomplished in Excel worksheet environment by people dealing with diet formulation with practical work.

The New Technology Usage at Turkish Dairy Farms to Better Milk Quality

Pages: 8
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The New Technology Usage at Turkish Dairy Farms to Better Milk Quality

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

S. Goncu , N. Koluman , M. Gorgulu

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S.Goncu --- N.Koluman --- M.Gorgulu (2016). The New Technology Usage at Turkish Dairy Farms to Better Milk Quality. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
As of 2012 , the share of livestock in agricultural production by about 35% in Turkey and 44% in EU. In Turkey 58` % of the revenue generated by cattle- while EU has 51` % were from cattle. In other words, cattle has contribution to animal production  20 ` % of the total agricultural income in Turkey. According to TUIK  data 18.2 million tons milk was produced in Turkey in 2013 and 91,4 % of the milk is obtained from cattle . In other words, obtained from bovine milk yield is 16.7 million tons.  Recently, Turkey’s livestock sector has displayed three clear trends: (one) is declining number of livestock; (two) decreasing per capita consumption of animal products; and (three) increasing productivity. During this trend quality getting more important criteria for the breeding aims and farming practice. Milk quality means different things to the different groups. To some it’s simply low somatic cell count milk. To others it’s a complex subject involving SCCs, bacteria counts, management programs, premiums, cow health and welfare and more. Farmers are extremely focused on producing quality milk for two reasons. The main reason is consumer confidence and the second reason is economics. They fully understand that they will get more milk per cow with a lower SCC and they get a premium from their milk plants which are very significant. Milk quality monitoring is all about prevention on each step of production. Quality control systems aimed the prevention of defects, rather than their detection. Quality control occurs at every step in the production, as a raw material on farm condition.  Milk quality start from the farm gate. So this review will focused on latest technologic developments for better milk quality production.

Sustainability of Goat Farming in Mediterranean Countries

Pages: 7
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Sustainability of Goat Farming in Mediterranean Countries

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Nazan Koluman , Serap Goncu , Murat Gorgulu

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Nazan Koluman --- Serap Göncü --- Murat Görgülü (2016). Sustainability of Goat Farming in Mediterranean Countries. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
One of the limited scientific studies of livestock production is meat type goat production. Goat meat, particularly in tropical regions, Southeast Asia and more is consumed due to be preferred by people with low incomes in Africa. Due to insufficient marketing situation, organisational structure, prejudice and grassland possibilities, economic value of goat meat is very low. On the other hand, besides of  goat meat production cost is low and has different advanteges and goat is use low productive grassland areas and it is very  effective livestock production systems for cost effective rantability. During last 10 years, goat production sector has changed in Turkey. The number of dairy goat farms has increased sharply and the possibilities of marketing to goat meat come into agenda, as well. In this review importance of the goat meat production and industrial goat meat prodcution sector and their sustainability  will be discussed.

Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of New Ceramic Material Near the Morphotropic Phase Boundary

Pages: 6
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Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of New Ceramic Material Near the Morphotropic Phase Boundary

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Kribaa Oum Keltoum , Boutarfaia Ahmed , Abdessalem Nora

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Kribaa Oum Keltoum --- Boutarfaia Ahmed --- Abdessalem Nora (2016). Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of New Ceramic Material Near the Morphotropic Phase Boundary. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 6. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
This work has as an aim the synthesis of new ceramic materials: Pb1-0.04Sm0.02Nd0.02[(Zr0,55Ti0,45)1-2x,x(Y2/3 ,Mo1/3),x( Y2/3,Ni1/3)]O3 of structure perovskite , such that x = {0.01,0.03,0.05,0.07,0.1}.  In order to study well this system and delimiting the composition close to the morphotropic phase boundary (FMB) where coexists the two ferroelectric phases ( tetragonal and rhombohedral) , we varied the Zr/Ti ratio and the dopants ratio  for that various compositions were prepared by the method of synthesis with solid way . A thermal treatment was applied to these compositions at different temperatures (1100, 1150, 1180°C), in order to optimize the sintering temperature where the density of ceramics is maximum. We present the preparation and the different stages of the formation reaction of the solid solution. Then we will detail the different techniques of analysis applied to this compound, we begin first by x-ray diffraction, in the following by Infrared spectroscopy, analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis by spectrometric energy dispersive and finally the study of physical properties (dielectric and electromechanical). These studies help us to accumulate as much information on these materials.

Photocatalytic Degradation of Atenolol by Using Tio2 Catalysts under Solar Irradiation

Pages: 5
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Photocatalytic Degradation of Atenolol by Using Tio2 Catalysts under Solar Irradiation

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Madjene. F , Yeddou-Mezenner N , Lebik. H

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Madjene. F --- Yeddou-Mezenner N --- Lebik. H --- Aoudjit .L (2016). Photocatalytic Degradation of Atenolol by Using Tio2 Catalysts under Solar Irradiation. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 5. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
Several processes in the pharmaceutical industry require large amounts of water that inevitably are contaminated. Pharmaceuticals are often not completely removed in sewage treatment plants and, therefore, are emitted into receiving water systems. Recently, the use of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for complete destruction of contaminants has been popular. AOPs are based on the production of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals that oxidized a wide range of organic pollutants quickly and non-selectively.AOPs include photocatalytic systems like the combination of semiconductor and lighting, and oxidants. Photocatalytic process as anenvironmentally friendly process has considerable advantages over some existing technologies;can be carried out under ambient conditions (atmospheric oxygen is used as oxidant and solar light can be used as light source) and usually leads to complete mineralization of organic pollutants into CO2 and H2O. This study focuses on the removal of the pharmaceutical Atenolol (ATL) by TiO2photocatalysis. Operating factors such as initial concentration, photocatalyst dosage, and pH solution were investigated in order to evaluate the extent of mineralization.

The Soiling Defects of Airborne Particulates towards Museum Artefacts: Insight from a Literature Review

Pages: 3-4
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The Soiling Defects of Airborne Particulates towards Museum Artefacts: Insight from a Literature Review

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Nur Baiti Mat Husin , Shamzani Affendy Mohd Din , Rashidi Othman

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Nur Baiti Mat Husin --- Shamzani Affendy Mohd Din --- Rashidi Othman (2016). The Soiling Defects of Airborne Particulates towards Museum Artefacts: Insight from a Literature Review. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 3-4. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
The conservation of artefacts and its protection against possible damage from air pollution is of increasing concern. Soiling is considered harmful for the artefact as it happened when the airborne particulates deposited onto the surface of artefacts. The conservation literature suggests that deposited airborne material can attack collections chemically. Therefore high particle concentrations should be avoided in museum. Moreover, air filtration devices are characteristically remove coarse particles quite efficiently, but often leave the fine soot-containing fraction uncollected.  Hence, it is indicated that soiling particles were not effectively removed by the filters in the air-conditioning systems studied.  Based on Department of Museum Malaysia (DMM) Annual Report 2013, there is a huge amount of money allocated for acquiring asset of the museums. This shows that value of each artefact in the museums are expensive and should be conserved properly to prevent any damages that will lead to degradation of its own value. This paper reviewed literature published in journals and conference proceedings in the atmospheric environment and conservation field. The aim of the paper is to review the physical and chemical characterisations of airborne particulates which affect the soiling of artefact in National Museum and Textiles Museum, Kuala Lumpur. The objectives are to measure and quantify the airborne particulate matters found in indoor atmosphere of museum, to identify the physical mechanism that governs the transfer of airborne particles to the surface of artefact, to measure the rates of soiling for a range of artefacts and to propose the approaches to reduce the soiling defect of artefacts. The literature review examines the typology of world museums and Malaysia museums as well as the types of artefacts and its deterioration due to airborne particulates. An introduction to these topics is followed by an investigation on the relationship between airborne particulates and soiling defect. A look at the basis of organic and inorganic artefact is also undertaken to determine which types of artefact absorb more particulates to become soiled. Also examined is the museum ventilation system which may affect the concentration of airborne particulates inside the building. The method used to achieve the objectives of the research involves 4 key activities which are data collection through museum typology study, scientific data collections using Cyclone sampler, Cascade Impactor and 7 Holes sampler. Then, the data analysis and analytical analysis will be conducted using SEM, TEM, ICPMS and FTIR as to determine the quantity and elements within an airborne particulates sample.  After analysing, the data will be systematically distilled and integrated to draw conclusions using AnalySIS Software. Moreover, the significant finding of the research is the soiling rates of airborne particulates in National Museum and Textile Museum, Kuala Lumpur.  The findings will assist future research to come up with variety of solution and techniques to control the rate of particle depositing to surfaces of artefact as many of the techniques have low associated costs, and some are even yield savings. Hence, this will save up the National budget in terms of preservation cost.

Protoplast Fusion was Performed between Origanum Onites (Marble Thyme) and Origanum Majorana (White Thyme) Species

Pages: 2
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Protoplast Fusion was Performed between Origanum Onites (Marble Thyme) and Origanum Majorana (White Thyme) Species

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Yrd.Doc. Banu Aytul Ekmekci

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Yrd.Doç. Banu Aytül Ekmekçi (2016). Protoplast Fusion was Performed between Origanum Onites (Marble Thyme) and Origanum Majorana (White Thyme) Species. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 2. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
In order to obtain a new thyme cultivars from which thyme oil can be produced more excessively, protoplast fusion was performed between Origanum onites (marble thyme) and Origanum majorana  (white thyme) species. Firstly, cells of two species were separated from their cell walls. To do this, cells were incubated overnight at dark, in CPW+mannitol and CPW+sucrose mixtures. Fusion was achieved by three times centrifugation of protoplasts (plant cells with no cell wall) in CPW+enzyme solution (20% selulase, 30% driselase, 15% pectinase). Cybrid cells were transferred from flasks to petri dishes containing M prot+enyme solution and callus cells formed after one month in growth cabinet under neutral photoperiod condition. In order to determine whether cybrid cell group is true hybrid, DNA was isolated from two thyme plants and cybrid cell group and RAPD-PCR analysis was undertaken. Eleven primers from Operon RAPD 10mer AB kit were used to reveal differences between Origanum onites and Origanum majorana plants at DNA level. Specific DNA bands belonging to two species were detected in cybrid cell group. This result proves hybridity of cybrids after protoplast fusion.

The Use of Quality Management Techniques in Automotive Parts Production

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The Use of Quality Management Techniques in Automotive Parts Production

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9

Elizabeta Mitreva , Nako Taskov , Liljana Zdravkovska , Julijana Sazdova , Hristijan Gjorshevski

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Elizabeta Mitreva --- Nako Taskov --- Liljana Zdravkovska --- Julijana Sazdova --- Hristijan Gjorshevski (2016). The Use of Quality Management Techniques in Automotive Parts Production. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 9: 1. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.9/1001.9
This paper comprises an analysis of an automotive industry company in order to identify whether it has an effective quality assurance system, by monitoring the manner business processes are managed (identification, documentation and control) and whether system efficiency documentation has been developed. In the automotive industry, it is necessary to observe the standards of production, handling and after sales customer service. The application of different standards/systems for: quality, environment, employee health and safety, corporative social responsibility, food products safety, etc., requires new manager proactive management style and system orientation, as well as reengineering of business processes. However, for successful operation, it is not enough to develop a system that will provide designed quality, but also the costs to implement business processes are significant. Therefore, when developing the standard operating procedure, appropriate methodology for optimizing business processes should be applied. In this paper, by applying the Pareto method for detection of points where most defects occur, the Ishikawa approach which reveals the causes of errors, checklists, as well as the Quick Response Quick Control methodologies; 8D (Eight disciplines); PFMEA, the business processes for procurement of raw and repro materials was optimized. The obtained results show that the implementation of these methodologies to optimize business processes leads to the defined quality and better productivity at the lowest costs in operation.