Grace Pennap --- OTI, V. B. (2016). Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Infection among HIV Patients Accessing Healthcare at Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections is a sexually transmitted infection worldwide, with public health implications especially as a driving force behind the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic. It is known to cause genital ulcer as well as lesions. It is a lifelong recurrent disease with no cure. Due to the lack of documented HSV-2 studies among HIV patients in this study area with an estimated HIV prevalence of 38.7%, there was a need for estimating the seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection among HIV patients. The sera of 223 consenting HIV positive patients were screened for HSV-2 specific IgG using an ELISA test kit (Cortez Diagnostic, Inc, USA). Chi-square test was performed to identify possible risk factors associated with the viral seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence HSV-2 infection was 77.6%. Females recorded a prevalence of 84.5% and males 51.0% (p > 0.05). Participants aged ≤ 20 and ≥ 61 years recorded a prevalence of 100%, while the lowest prevalence (66.7%) was observed in those aged 51-60 years (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant association between the seroprevalence of HSV-2 and locality. Patients from the rural setting had a higher prevalence (85.2%) of the infection than those from the urban setting (72.6%) (p ≤ 0.05). However, marital status, occupation, level of education, antiretroviral therapy (ART) status and CD4 counts, had no statistically significant association with HSV-2 infection (p > 0.05). The prevalence of 77.6% reported in this study is a cause for alarm. Awareness campaigns and health education that will promote behavioral change might be the most important strategy to mitigate transmission as most of the infected persons usually show no clinical symptoms.
On Generation of Renewable Energy from Road Traffic
Hiba Najini --- Senthil Arumugam Muthukumaraswamy(2016). On Generation of Renewable Energy from Road Traffic. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
This paper investigates the possibility of generating green power from day to day road traffic. This source of green energy is obtained from the proposed systems that harness the wasted energy such as the kinetic and vibrated energy from everyday traffic. These include two proposed systems that were designed and implemented using the MATLAB-Simulink platform. In the first proposed system, the renewable energy is generated using compressed air which is suitable for developing countries and the second proposed system is designed such way to another system to deduce electricity by harvesting the kinetic and vibration energy. The second proposed system is suitable for a developed country based on the implementation expenditures. The system was designed considering all the factors that involved producing a realist outcome. These factors include the load factor, heat loss, power loss, frictional losses and the switching losses that dwell into the field of fluid mechanics, power electronics and element analysis. The system performance was also determined by considering the nature and characteristic properties of the materials, motors and generators used; and the usage time of the system. As a result, incorporating the necessary factors involved in the system designing, the power generated under traffic rate condition at peak and off peak hours for each system was estimated. The obtained results proved that substantial amount of power are generated during peak traffic hours using the two proposed methods.
Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Children Attending an Antiretroviral Therapy Clinic in Lafia, Nigeria
Grace Pennap --- Yahuza AJ --- Abdulkarim ML (2016). Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Children Attending an Antiretroviral Therapy Clinic in Lafia, Nigeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
Nigeria has the largest burden of children living with HIV in the world but because of antiretroviral therapy, they are living longer. However, hepatitis B and C viruses are emerging important co-morbidities to consider especially for management decisions. This study set out to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses among these children and to identify possible risk factors associated with the infections. Two hundred HIV-infected children at an antiretroviral treatment center were screened for Hepatitis B and C seromarkers using rapid test kits (ABCON Laboratories Hangzhou China). Informed written consent was obtained from their parents/guardians. Information on their sociodemographics and exposure to some possible risk factors were obtained. A general prevalence of infection with hepatitis B and C virus in the study population was 14.0%. The prevalence of HBV was 3.0% while HCV was 11.0% and no child was coinfected with all 3 viruses. The HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfection prevalence of 3.0% and 11.0% respectively is a cause for alarm. It is therefore pertinent that HIV infected children are screened for these viruses before commencement and during antiretroviral therapy.
Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among People Attending a Voluntary Screening Centre in Masaka, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Grace Pennap --- Nuhu II (2016). Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among People Attending a Voluntary Screening Centre in Masaka, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
Hepatitis C virus( HCV) is an emerging public health problem in Nigeria. This study therefore determined the seroprevalence of this virus among people of a rural settlement in Nigeria during which 600 people were screened for HCV infection. Five ml of blood was collected from each participant, the serum harvested and screened for anti- HCV using a Chromatographic rapid test kit (ACON) according to the manufacturer’s instructions .The overall prevalence of HCV infection in this population was 24.2% being higher among males(23.7%) than females (23.7%) (p 0.05). When stratified by age infection was highest among those aged 21 -30 years(27.4%) and least among those aged 51 years and above (3.6%) (p 0.05). Occupation, education,and marital status had no statistically significant relationship with viral infection. This suggests the possibility of locale-specific risk factors. The 24.2% infection rate in this population is a cause for alarm because of the implication for end- stage liver diseases among these participants. There is therefore an urgent need for proactive policies on prevention and control also screening should be available and affordable.
Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among People Attending a Hepatitis Treatment and Control Centre in Karu, Nigeria
Grace Pennap --- Danladi HF (2016). Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among People Attending a Hepatitis Treatment and Control Centre in Karu, Nigeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has remained a recurring decimal in vertical transmission, blood transfusion, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of HBV infection in people wishing to know their serostatus. Six hundred and one people were enrolled for the study. Three ml of blood was collected from each participant, the serum harvested and tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen( HBsAg) as the seromarker for HBV infection using a rapid test kit(ACON USA). Their sociodemographic information was obtained through oral interview. Of the 601 participants screened, 39.1% were reactive for HBsAg with a sex stratified prevalence of 32.4% in males and 31.4% in females. With respect to age those aged 15 years and below had the least infection prevalence(15.4%) while the highest was among those aged 31 – 35 years(p > 0.05). Other parameters studied as possible risk factors included marital status, history of HBV vaccination and occupation (p > 0.05). The present study reported a very high HBV infection prevalence with obscured risk factors. This is a cause for alarm because of the implication of many people with the likelihood of transiting to end-stage liver diseases. It is vaccine preventable so urgent proactive strategies should be put in place for increased vaccine uptake and prevention and control measures.
Therapeutic Effects of Albendazole on Disposition Kinetics of Florfenicol in Goats
Muhammad Ahsan Naeem --- Bilal Aslam --- Muhammad Mudassar Ashraf --- Ijaz Javed (2016). Therapeutic Effects of Albendazole on Disposition Kinetics of Florfenicol in Goats. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
Effect of albendazole on the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol was investigated in ten healthy adult goats. In each experiment, after restraining the animal, a single dose of florfenicol was administered intramuscularly. After wash out period of 7 days, florfenicol along with albendazole suspension was administered orally. Blood samples were collected in plastic centrifuge tubes. Prior to drug administration, a control blood sample was collected in each experiment. Following drug administration, blood samples were drawn at half hourly interval up to 4 hours followed by hourly interval up to 8 hours and thereafter, at 10 and 12 hours. Blood samples were centrifuged and serum was separated and stored at -20°C until analysis. The concentration of florfenicol in serum samples was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography HPLC technique. The results of present study indicated that albendazole significantly (P<0.05) increased or decreased the pharmacokinetic parameters of florfenicol after their concurrent administration i.e. decreased peak serum concentration Cmax (4.22 ± 0.32 to 3.3 ± 0.21 µg mL-1), extrapolated zero time drug concentration B (5.29 ± 0.46 to 4.85 ±0.51 µg mL-1), elimination half-life t1/2 β (6.56 ± 0.94 to 5.06 ± 0.77 hours) and increased volume of distribution Vd (4.05 ± 0.35 to 4.49 ± 0.4 L kg-1) and total body clearance CLB (0.47 ± 0.04 to 0.69 ± 0.06 mL min-1 kg-1). As florfenicol is metabolized by the same cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2) which are induced by albendazole, the change in pharmacokinetics parameters of florfenicol may be attributed to its drug action with albendazole. Thus it may be conceived that the change in pharmacokinetic parameters is due to rapid elimination of florfenicol when given concurrently with albendazole to healthy adult goats which in turn may be due to induction of CYP3A4 isoenzyme by albendazole.
Nanoencapsulation of Moringa Olifera Leaves Extract Using a Gelatin Based Matrix via Electrospinning Method
Norziah M. Hani --- Amir Ehsan Tokarmani --- Pablo Juliano (2016). Nanoencapsulation of Moringa Olifera Leaves Extract Using a Gelatin Based Matrix via Electrospinning Method. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
The interest in utilizing phytochemicals from Moringa Olifera (MO) leaves due to its pharmacological properties has recently increased. However, these properties could not be harnessed unless extracted and encapsulated. This study aims to evaluate the extraction of polyphenolic bioactive compounds from MO leaves using aqueous ethanol (80%). Secondly, nanoencapsulation of extract from MO leaves within fish gelatin matrix via electrospinning technique was performed to produce nanofibers. Total phenolics, flavonoids, radical scavenging (IC50 value) and metal scavenging (FRAP) properties obtained were 67.0±2.5 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, 32.0±0.5mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, 0.79 mg/ml and 510 mol eq Fe (II)/g, respectively. The electrospinning process was conducted at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/hr, emitter to collector distance of 10 cm and at 20 kV. The solution consisted of gelatin (20-45%), acetic acid (30%) and MO extract (1-5%). Optimal encapsulation process was achieved with 40% gelatin solution containing 3% MO extract was used for fibre generation. Ultrafine fibres with encapsulated MO extract were successfully produced with diameters ranging from 20 to 100 nm and 55 to 300 nm with and without the core material, respectively, as observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The core material could be visually observed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which coincided with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum indicating no chemical interaction between core and wall material was observed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results indicated that encapsulation process did not have a significant impact on the gelatin matrix structural attributes. The antioxidative properties of MO extract illustrated high efficiency of ethanol extraction. This study demonstrated the potential of nanoencapsulation of plant bioactive extracts through electrospinning process.
Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia
Syahariza Zainul Abidin --- Norziah, M.H. --- Fazilah, A. --- Nuraihan, A.Z. (2016). Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 6. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
Dysphagia refers to the term of having difficulty in swallowing or moving foods and liquids from the mouth to the stomach, which will lead to dehydration and malnutrition. Texture modified food is one of common method used in dysphagia management, by altering the rate of food travelling down the pharynx. In this study, texture modified chicken rendang was developed to comply to Texture C (fine puree with lump free) as outline by Australian dysphagia standard. Rendang, one of popular traditional dish in Malaysia was selected; aim to introduce high protein diet in patient with dysphagia problem. Texture modification was carried out by adding commercial thickener, and later was compared to formulation with addition of tapioca and sago starch as the thickener. Effect of using different types of food thickener, together with different level of starch addition and serving temperature on the rheological properties of developed food were investigated. Results showed that control sample (chicken rendang without any starch addition) exhibit shear thinning effect at temperature above 55°C, while all thickened samples demonstrated a shear thinning effect throughout the temperature studied. Both storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G") values of samples containing starch decreases as temperature increases. Addition of starch was found to increase shear thinning effect as starch granules would normally lose its integrity upon heating. The optimum starch concentration for all thickened samples was found around 6%. Addition of commercial thickener was found to exhibit the most stable structure, followed by tapioca and sago starch, upon oscillation frequency and temperature increment during rheological analysis. In conclusion, it was shown that tapioca starch could potentially use as cheaper thickener alternative in preparing texture modified chicken rendang. Preparing food in accordance to a specified dysphagia diet standard will ensure safe consumption; hence will increase nutrient intake among patients with dysphagia.
A Simulation Based Model for the Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem
Mostafa Ahmed Abedel Hafez Ahmed --- Hubbard, N.J. --- Tipi, N.S. (2016). A Simulation Based Model for the Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 04-05. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
With the global development of container transport, container terminals have become important nodes in transport networks which serve as hubs for the transshipment of containerized goods from ship to ship or from ship to other transport modes. As the container transport system is capital intensive, the turnaround time of ships at container terminals is an important factor for liner shipping companies to consider in order to decrease their costs. The turnaround time includes berthing, unloading, loading and departure and therefore, berth allocation and quay cranes assignment for unloading and loading operations is critical to the efficiency of container terminal systems. In addition, the rising competition between ports has compelled them to improve their service levels with the efficiency of container terminal operations becoming an important factor for success (Zeng, 2009). The berth allocation problem (BAP) and the quay crane assignment problem (QCAP) has been analysed in other studies (Yang et al., 2012). By definition, the former determines the berthing positions and berthing time for incoming ships, while the latter determines the assignments of quay cranes to each ship). Existing approaches to these problems can be classified into two categories: the independent approach and the integrated approach (Yang et al., 2012). The literature provides many approaches for the individual and integrated Berth and Quay Crane Assignment Problems (BAQCAP) using mathematical models. On the other hand, few publications have used simultaneous BAQCAP. Simulation modelling techniques are being applied to a wide range of container terminal (CT) planning processes and operational analysis of container handling systems (Park et al. 2012). These models have become extremely valuable as decision support tools during the planning and modelling of CT operations. The application of Discrete Event Simulation (DES) where there exists queuing and scarcity of the number or availability of resources is viewed as a valid approach in simulating a CT (Bruzone, 1999). Discrete event simulation is probably the most widely used simulation technique in Operational Research. As the name suggests it models a process as a series of discrete events. This means that entities (the general name for what is being considered; e.g. "ships") are thought of as moving between different states as time passes. The entities enter the system and visit some of the states (not necessarily only once) before leaving the system. Discrete event simulation is a relatively easy to use tool, but, needs extensive effort in model development and validation, in order to have practical value. Most simulation based container terminal models are general ones examining the general performance of the container terminal. These models are coded in different simulation languages. The different types of simulation languages that have been used include PORTSIM, Modsim III, SIMPLE++, ARENA and SLX, Visual SLAM and AweSim. In this paper we present a framework for a simulation based model for the BAQCAP that can be used as a decision support tool for the container terminal planner to decide on the allocation that achieves the best solution according to different operational requirements. Given a specific set of vessels to process in a typical week, and the related container loading and unloading requirements, the model helps the decision maker develop a set of operational plans illustrating the different performance parameters associated with each plan. The plan includes the start time and service time for each vessel at the specified berth, and the timed assignments of the different quay cranes to the different vessels. This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, a brief review of previous works is given. The framework and procedure of the simulation optimization model is developed in Section 3. The results of the simulation model is presented in Section 4. Conclusions and future work are given in Section 5.
Evaluation of Improved Varieties of Teff in West Belessa, Northwest Ethiopia
Daniel Tadesse --- Teferi Alem --- Tesfaye Wossen (2016). Evaluation of Improved Varieties of Teff in West Belessa, Northwest Ethiopia. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 3. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
An experiment was conducted at West Belessa district of Northwestern Ethiopia during 2013 main cropping season in order to identify and promote well adapted and promising genotypes of teff. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The data recorded were plant height, spike length, number of tillers per plant, grain yield, biomass yield and harvest index. The data was analyzed using SAS software and means were separated using least significant difference. The analysis showed that varieties varied significantly for plant height, spike length (P<0.001), grain yield, biomass yield (P<0.01) and harvest index (P<0.05). Varieties were not significant for number of tillers per plant. Dukem was shown to be high yielder variety followed by the varieties Boset and Mechare with the values of 1963.7, 1772.0 and 1743.7 kg ha-1 , respectively. The varieties Dukem, Kunch and Mechare were found to be having high biomass with the values of 6111.3, 5833.3 and 5555.3 kg ha-1, respectively. Dukem was superior in almost all the agronomic traits evaluated while the local varieties Awra tef and Bunign were out performed by most of the improved varieties of teff tested. The varieties evaluated had a wide genetic background for the studied traits, thus showing grain yield ranges from 1012.0 to 1963.7 kg ha-1. Therefore, based on objectively measured traits, the variety Dukem was found most promising having the potential to increase the average yield of tef in West Belessa district and is therefore recommended for general cultivation.
A Simple Criterion for the Non-Existence of Limit Cycles of a Lienard System
Makoto HAYASHI (2016). A Simple Criterion for the Non-Existence of Limit Cycles of a Lienard System. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 2. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
In this paper, as an application in our result, the non-existence of limit cycles for the Liénard system with , is discussed by the simple criterion. J.Graef[Gr :1971] has studied the uniformly boundedness of the solution orbits under the condition (C1) , Moreover, he also proved the existence of limit cycles under the conditions (C1) and (C2) ∃k>0 s.t. F(x)≥A (x ≥k")," F(x)" ≤"-"A (" x ≤-k") for some fixed constant A." Recently, M.Cioni and G.Villari gave the same result as in [Gr] under the conditions (C1) and (C3) ∃K_1>〖∃K〗_2 s.t. F(x)≥K_1 (x>"β > 0)," F(x)" ≤" 〖 K〗_2 "(" x "< α < 0)." Note that (C2) is included to (C3). Our aim here is to discuss on the case of which (C1) is satisfied, but (C3) is not satisfied. We shall give the simple criterion for the non-existence of limit cycles for a Liénard system with these conditions.
Formation and Degradation of Starch in Pollen of Transgenic Tobacco
Bright Chima Megbo (2016). Formation and Degradation of Starch in Pollen of Transgenic Tobacco. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 7: 1. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.7/1001.7
Half of the pollen population from the plants expressing the β-glucosidase was found to be sterile. The pollen development was divided into six development stages/phases which correlated with distinct cytological characteristics. On the basis of microscopic and histochemical studies, using X-glc (5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glycopyranoside) as substrate, β-glucosidase activity was found in half the pollen of the transgenic tobacco plants. The dynamics of starch metabolism in the developing pollen of positive plants (i.e. plants expressing Zm-p60.1 in the leaf) in comparison to that of the negative plants (i.e. plants not expressing Zm-p60.1 in the leaf), was studied in order to elucidate the possible role of Zm-p60.1 in starch metabolism. Detection of the β-glucosidase (Zm-p60.1) was achieved using β-glucosidase histochemical and biochemical assays. The activities of selected enzymes of sucrose metabolism (UDPG-pyrophosphorylase) and starch metabolism (ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, starch-phosphorylase, and amylase) were biochemically analyzed. Histochemical studies with potassium iodide revealed that 50% of the pollen of the positive plants (i.e. tobacco plants expressing β-glucosidase activity) exhibited normal starch accumulation. Biochemical determination of starch revealed that the pollen expressing Zm-p60.1 contained significantly lower amount of starch in comparison to the pollen from negative plants (i.e. tobacco plants not expressing β-glucosidase activity). About 50% of the pollen population expressing Zmp-60.1 has decreased starch content. The same starchless pollen exhibited β-glucosidase activity.