Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering

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Online ISSN: 2415-2072
Print ISSN: 2518-2552

No.2

Advanced Machining Technologies for Titanium Aerospace Components

Pages: 18
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Advanced Machining Technologies for Titanium Aerospace Components

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Frank Brinken , Walter BArsch , Bernhard Bringmann

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Frank Brinken --- Walter BÃrsch --- Bernhard Bringmann (2015). Advanced Machining Technologies for Titanium Aerospace Components. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
Advanced Machining Technologies for Titanium Aerospace Components Future aircraft and jet engines need to be lighter, quieter, more fuel efficient and should have lower emissions. This set of requirements will change the material mix for aircraft components drastically. Titanium and Composite materials will replace traditional Aluminum structures in flight safety critical applications. Manufacturing technology has to respond to this trend by offering globally competitive machining solutions, as aerospace manufacturing is more and more shifting to countries with heavy investment in new aircraft fleets, like Dubai. The presentation will assess the state of the art in aerospace component manufacturing and provide guidelines for a global efficiency benchmark. The main focus will be on the recent science and research based progress in efficient Titanium manufacturing processes for aircraft structures and jet engines. Based on these test results in industrial environment conditions recommendations have been developed helping to achieve a cost optimized manufacturing strategy for consistent high quality safety critical engine and structural components. The presentation concludes with a guidance for global competitiveness in Titanium maching.

A Study on Whether Assistive Devices Are Needed For Dementia Elderly in Dementia Day Care Centre

Pages: 17
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A Study on Whether Assistive Devices Are Needed For Dementia Elderly in Dementia Day Care Centre

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Asiah Abdul Rahim , Ismawi Zen , Nur Balqis Ahmad Safawi

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Asiah Abdul Rahim --- Ismawi Zen --- Nur Balqis Ahmad Safawi (2015). A Study on Whether Assistive Devices Are Needed For Dementia Elderly in Dementia Day Care Centre. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 17. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
The aim of this paper is to seek whether there is a current or future needs for the devices to be used in dementia day care centre based on the Malaysian context. This is due to the community has not yet familiarize with such devices for cognitive use as there is limitation in terms of reaching the product itself in the local market. Moreover, there are few research studies linking the needs of dementia people and their acknowledgement of utilizing the gadgets. Dementia is a mental illness that demonstrates a decrease in cognitive capacity and memory, which generally affects the seniors. Studies show that the number of elderly affected with dementia is keep rising and this phenomenon has grabbed a lot of people’s attention. Due to this matter, there are a lot of experimental and exploration researches being conducted that are correlated with assistive devices for this cohort. For this research, observations, checklist and interview session were used as instruments for data collection. Two of the dementia day care centres were selected as the case studies. Assistive device is a tool designed to facilitate and enhance human capabilities for everyday use basis. Its existence is proven to bring tremendous help for people with disability to help them to be independent and carry on with their daily routine. The research analyze the collected data of the study regarding whether there are needs for the devices to be included in the dementia day care centre programme. Suggestions and recommendations for future research were given in the end based on the conclusions achieved.

Probability Analysis of Slope Stability Analysis

Pages: 16
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Probability Analysis of Slope Stability Analysis

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

A. Belouar , S. Hannachi , M.W. Belouar

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A.Belouar --- S.Hannachi --- M.W.Belouar (2015). Probability Analysis of Slope Stability Analysis. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 16. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
The aim of this paper is to present a probability analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation method of uncertainty (MCSM). The results of this method will be compared to all recognized method of slope stability such as Bishop simplified, Fellenuis, Janbu simplified and corrected, Spencer and Lowe-Karafiath which are in general in limit equilibrium. This study has been done by a normal frequency distribution relative for all the parameters taken in considerations. From the mean values and the standard deviations of the pore water pressure, cohesion and the internal angle of friction with the correlation relation between these parameters, a set of random values of pore water pressure, cohesion and internal angle of friction where generated by computing a Critical Probabilistic Slip Surface. The analysis of the obtained results indicates that the failure probability is affected by the standard deviation of the pore water pressure, cohesion, internal angle of friction and correlation coefficient. However, all methods of equilibrium limit are affecting the failure probability by taking in account one of these parameters following each case. Nevertheless the probability of failure is not significantly affected by the standard deviation of the unit weight for all methods.

Influence of the Retrofitting Technique on the Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Pages: 15
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Influence of the Retrofitting Technique on the Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

A. Belouar , R. Benia , M.W. Belouar

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A.Belouar --- R. Benia --- M.W.Belouar (2015). Influence of the Retrofitting Technique on the Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 15. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
In this paper, a numerical investigation has been carried out in order to compare the seismic behavior of an existing non-ductile reinforced concrete (RC) structure under different retrofitting schemes (RC-Jacketing, Steel-Bracing and Steel-cage technique ) and the same structure designed according to the Algerian seismic code, RPA 2003, in order to establish the most effective and economic retrofit solution. The construction details for the existing building are typical of constructions prior to the seismic guidelines of 1980.The frame structure is evaluated using both a nonlinear static (push-over) analysis to estimate the inelastic strength and deformation capacities and nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses under a set of different ground motions for comparison purposes. The results indicate that retrofitting with RC-Jacketing yields good performance in terms of ductility resistance capacities, the Steel-Bracing system resistance is increased but may collapse for great PGA of ground motions. , and the Steel-cage system has a large resistance but low ductility compared to the other retrofitting techniques.

The Performing Material Used for Total Knee Replacement

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The Performing Material Used for Total Knee Replacement

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Hichem Amrani , Hammoudi Mazouz

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Hichem Amrani --- Hammoudi Mazouz (2015). The Performing Material Used for Total Knee Replacement. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 14. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
With knee prosthesis, many patients with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, articular necrosis, sports accident or other origin..., can move again without human or mechanical assistance. The prosthetic knee replacement is much more complex than the hip. This is mainly due to the anatomy and biomechanics of this joint and the important role of peripheral and axial ligamentous structures. The knee joint, the largest joint in the human body, is a trochoid-joint articulation trochlear. The flexing movement consists of a rolling phase and a phase shift. When the joint is flexed, rotational movements are possible, (these movements are automatic).in the rotation, the femur and the meniscus moves relative to the tibia ; by cons, in flexion and extension, the femur moves relative to the meniscus by sliding movements and rolling. The deterioration of the joint leads to the use of the Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), the materials used are titanium, cobalt chrome and Oxinium, the most powerful is the Oxinium for its very high mechanical properties that we found in our simulation with ABAQUS. The constraint Von mises and the pressure are maximum, in the contact assembly « femur / tibia», in the points of application of the load,to the two bodies in contact. The constraint Von mises for the couple PEHD / cobalt chrome is greater than the couple PEHD / Oxinium, and then it is higher than bone. This gives that the Oxinium prosthesis is the best, it protects the polyethylene plate against wear, so a long life for TKA.

Architectural Language Based On ‘Place’: The Case of Sille

Pages: 13
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Architectural Language Based On ‘Place’: The Case of Sille

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Emine YILDIZ KUYRUKCU , Zafer KUYRUKCU

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Emine YILDIZ KUYRUKÇU --- Zafer KUYRUKÇU (2015). Architectural Language Based On ‘Place’: The Case of Sille. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
The design studio is a medium of intense learning in architectural education. A learning experiment that engages in critical practice, seeking to present values instead of mere techniques, promoting investigative work rather than trying to bring exact definitions to what must be, is typical of architectural studio education. The choice of a theme around which to structure studio work is significant in this respect; themes define the trajectory and act as filters of perception, thought and action, which the instructors and students share throughout the design process. The theme of the studio exercise presented in this paper consists of the comprehension of place and space qualities and proposing new design in a historic context. While this theme directed learning of pertinent design vocabulary and concepts, it also required that students should develop an ethical approach based on the sense of responsibility towards delicate environments possessing cultural heritage. The aim of this study is to make the architect candidates do the investigation related to the “place”, and live the experience of using the properties unique for the place as design criteria. Konya-Sille, which for some people it is a Byzantium village, for some other it is a Central Anatolian settlement dated to very old periods, where either Byzantines or Turks, as being Orthodox Christian and Muslim, lived together. Sille, with it’s economic potential, has became one of the most important economic centers of Konya and it’s environment. Sille, which is known a very important centre up to the end of 19 Century, fell into a declining period at the end of that century, and accelerated its speed during the Post Exchanging period realized together with Lozan Agreement, and reached to the 21 Century. The design problem is determined as “cultural center” in this area where is under conservation and has a unique traditional texture. In this study about a studio experience; the process of the discussions on culture, history, religion, texture, tradition, originality, continuity concepts upon context/place and new design realization in an existing texture in the direction of these concepts are explained.

The Potential of Vernacular Materials to the Sustainable Building Design: Experience of Construction Design with Adobe Material

Pages: 12
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The Potential of Vernacular Materials to the Sustainable Building Design: Experience of Construction Design with Adobe Material

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Zafer KUYRUKCU , Emine YILDIZ KUYRUKCU

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Zafer KUYRUKÇU --- Emine YILDIZ KUYRUKÇU (2015). The Potential of Vernacular Materials to the Sustainable Building Design: Experience of Construction Design with Adobe Material. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
The history of adobe, which is used as a sustainable structure material by the human being as old  as its own existence. The premitive human who first left the cave found and used the natural materials such as stone, soil, water and wood when s/he needed to build ashelter in order to keep his/her existence. Adobe is a material which have easily- found raw material, is recyled, economical, harmless to the enviroment while being produced and provide heat isolation. The importance of adobe buildings is considerable from the point of our architectural culture. The presence of adobe buildings in almost every settlement except big cities indicates a significant built stock. In addition to this stock, we also see the prototypes of this architecture in the country. Nowadays the tendency of industrial construction materials causes adobe architecture and its values to be forgotten. The work of this art, reflecting the characteristics, identity and heritage of regions, has to be conserved. In order to achieve sustainable architecture, cultural and sustainable design principles should be considered in a complementary relationship. Cultural context implies a sound respect to the traditional knowledge of place, technology and local materials. Sustainable design implies the recycling of energy, either by the use of passive energy or renewable energy. It also requires harmony with local economies and data supporting biological diversity. For this purpose, this study promotes the use of adobe as a sustainable material. Also this study emphasizes importance of adobe in architecture design education with a studio sample.

The Needs of Knowledge Based Economy for Advancing Egypt Development Plans

Pages: 11
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The Needs of Knowledge Based Economy for Advancing Egypt Development Plans

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Abd El-Hady B. Kashyout , Essam Khamis , Hisham G. El-Shimy , Marwa Fathy , Feby S. Youssef

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Abd El-Hady B. Kashyout --- Essam Khamis --- Hisham G. El-Shimy --- Marwa Fathy --- Feby S. Youssef (2015). The Needs of Knowledge Based Economy for Advancing Egypt Development Plans. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
Egypt is facing many difficult challenges such as securing good job opportunities, energy shortage, water supplies, poverty, health care, etc. In order to meet these challenges, the nation should follow a model based on knowledge and innovation, as per the global trend that is heading toward a knowledge based economy (KBE). The proportion of young people in Egypt (15-24 years) is about 19% and they are suffering from the highest youth unemployment rates across the world. This rate is more than 25% (14.7% Male and 54.9% Female), which is twice the global youth unemployment rate and about twice the general unemployment rate in Egypt (13%). This and other factors will address great challenges and big needs for the transformation of the present economy to knowledge based economy and consequently build a model, road map and action plan for implementing this economy. The main strategy is based on the vision of transformation to KBE within 10-15 years considering that Egypt economy will be among the biggest top 20 economies and the economy indicators for innovation, competitiveness and KEI will be within the top 30. Also, the main strategy is based on four main pillars: Development and creation of the main national strategies, Development of legislations and laws, Construction of a national system for the measurement and monitoring of the innovation indicators and KEI’s and finally exploring the detailed action plan for the implementation of the strategy.

A Study on the Accessibility in Shopping Malls for People with Disabilities (PwDS) in Malaysia

Pages: 10
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A Study on the Accessibility in Shopping Malls for People with Disabilities (PwDS) in Malaysia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Asiah Abdul Rahim

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Asiah Abdul Rahim (2015). A Study on the Accessibility in Shopping Malls for People with Disabilities (PwDS) in Malaysia. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
The objective of the paper: firstly, to evaluate accessibility and usability in the facilities that used by people with disabilities (PwDs) in shopping malls. Secondly, to identify whether the facilities provided in according with the latest Malaysian standards (MS 1184:2014) Universal Design and Accessibility in the Built Environment-Code of Practice. The paper will discuss disability and accessibility issues, current accessibility system in Malaysia, Malaysian Standards and universal design implementation in built environment and the importance of shopping malls in accessibility for Malaysia. It is a part of on-going research on universal design implementation in shopping malls. Universal design addresses the scope of accessibility and suggests making all elements and spaces accessible and usable by all people. Accessibility in the shopping mall for people with disabilities (PwDS) is vital in order to provide and promote security and independence. Thus, in the planning of a shopping malls well as in the design process, special considerations should be applied to accommodate the needs of the PwDs. Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be applied, by using descriptive analysis, observation, questionnaire, access audit simulation, checklist and interview. Photographic documentation is also taken for further analysis of the current facilities condition. Three case studies have been selected to evaluate accessibility of the shopping malls for People with Disabilities (PwDs) which are IKEA in Damansara, Kuala Lumpur convention Centre (KLCC) in Kuala Lumpur and Alamanda in Putrajaya. The expected findings to identify whether the facilities provided match the needs of the people with disabilities, this is further supported by using the Malaysian standard (MS 1184:2014) Universal Design and Accessibility in the Built Environment-Code of Practice that fits and matches the facilities provided for various types of People with Disabilities (PwDs).

Metabolic Variations, Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extract of Nitraria Retusa

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Metabolic Variations, Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extract of Nitraria Retusa

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Amal A. Mohamed , Sami I. Ali , Osama M. Darwesh , Manal Y, Sameeh

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Amal A. Mohamed --- Sami I. Ali --- Osama M. Darwesh --- Manal Y, Sameeh (2015). Metabolic Variations, Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extract of Nitraria Retusa. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
Nitraria retusa is a traditional medicinal plant and its leaves serve as supplement for the tea and are used as poultice. In this work, 6 sub-fractions of hydro-alcoholic extract of N. retusa aerial parts; n-hexane (NHe), diethyl ether (NDe) , dichloromethane (NDm) , ethyl acetate (NEa), n-butanol(NBu) and methanol (NMe) were investigated for their antimicrobial activities. For the antimicrobial activities, the NHe sub-fraction had higher antimicrobial activity as compared to the other sub-fractions, and its highest inhibition zone was 14±1.3 mm against Gram negative bacteria Pasteurella hemolitica. Microbial growth of Escherichia coli and P. hemolitica strains was estimated spectrophotometrically at 600 nm under the stress of NHe and NDe sub-fractions for 24 h of incubation. The NHe sub-fraction at 1000 µg/ml concentration inhibited in vitro growth of E. coli and P. hemolitica strains by 85.4±0.12 % and 85.8±0.18%, respectively as compared to the positive control (media growth without any addition). The GC/MS analysis indicated that 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy anisole (47.16%) was the major compound in the NHe sub-fraction, while, N-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methylbutamide (38.03%) was the major compound in NDe sub-fraction. The above results show that different sub-fractions of N. retusa could be a potential source of compounds with cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities as well as for their utilization in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Photochemistry of Three Selected Pharmaceuticals in Seawater and River Water

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Photochemistry of Three Selected Pharmaceuticals in Seawater and River Water

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Serpil SAVCI

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Serpil SAVCI (2015). Photochemistry of Three Selected Pharmaceuticals in Seawater and River Water. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
The aim of these work was to study the direct photolysis of three pharmaceuticals with relatively high potential ecological risk and high consumption-namely, fluconazole, bicalutamide and anastozole promoted by photochemical processes. By conducting experiments in Milli Q water, Baltic Sea Water and Olandsån River Water. To evaluated this process under laboratory conditions, used chemical actinometer for sunlight measurements. The actinometer is the known bicalutamide, fluconazole and anastozole the half life in sunlight ranging from several minutes to 120 minutes. The systems were relatively persistent against sunlight. It has quantum yield invariant with wavelength to 261 nm for fluconazole 271 nm for bicalutamide and 269 for anastozole.

Improving the Productive Performance of Local Baladi Goats throughout Crossbreeding with South African Boer

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Improving the Productive Performance of Local Baladi Goats throughout Crossbreeding with South African Boer

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Sabry Abd-Allah Elsayed

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Sabry Abd-Allah Elsayed (2015). Improving the Productive Performance of Local Baladi Goats throughout Crossbreeding with South African Boer. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
The aim of this study is to test the effects of crossbreedingEgyptian indigenous local Baladi (LB) does with South African meat-specialized Boer (BO) bucks on the productive performance of the F1 crossbred kids. This study was carried out at the Goat Research Unit in the Department of Animal Production at El-Noubaria Experimental farm, National Research Center, Al-Emam Malek, Noubaria, Behira Governorate, and laboratories of Animal Production Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza. Records from 30 breeding does (10 Boer and 20 local Baladi) and one buck from each breed were used in this study. Pure Boer and Baladi bucks were used to bred the two breed groups; Baladi and Boer goats were on the average of 3-5 years old, while live body weight was on the average of (24.10 to 24.87 kg) for both the two Baladi groups (A and B) and 31.50 for pure Boers. Average daily growth (g/day) of kids after birth was higher (P < 0.05) for F1 crossbred (67.47) as compared to F1 Baladi kids (56.45). At weaning, crossbred kids achieved weights of 10.77kg, while ones from the Baladi kids had an average weight of 8.54kg. Feed conversion ratio, average daily gain and daily DMI/h were higher in F1 crossbred kids in compare with pure Baladi kids.Mortality rateafter birth to weaning was also higher of F1 crossbred kids (30.76%) compared to F1 Baladi kids (28.57%). It was obviously noted that crossbreeding between Boer and Baladi goats resulted in higher weight gain in F1 Boer × Baladi crossbred kids compared to Baladi kids, so they can be considered the conditions in Egypt are favorable for raising crossbred kids due to increased potential for enhance meat production. The present study shows that using Boer bucks significantly improves productive performance of crossbred kids, and might prove valuable for the overall returns of the farms that will adopt this crossbreeding scheme.

Optimized Neural Networks Using Principal Component Analysis for Automatic Road Extraction from Remote Sensing

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Optimized Neural Networks Using Principal Component Analysis for Automatic Road Extraction from Remote Sensing

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Fatiha Benkouider

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Fatiha Benkouider (2015). Optimized Neural Networks Using Principal Component Analysis for Automatic Road Extraction from Remote Sensing. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 6. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
Remote sensing imagery has become an invaluable tool to observe and study the earth’s surface. With the increasingly availability of multi-spectral remote sensing images, color provides another important feature extracting road net works. From a scientific perspective, the extraction of roads in complex environments is one of the challenging issues in Photogrammetry and computer vision since many tasks related to automatic scene interpretation are involved. The aim of this paper is to show the ability of satellite imagery in road mapping by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of multi spectral SPOT imagery. The results demonstrate that the elimination of correlated information in the sample data by PCA improve the MLP estimation performance and reduce the required training time. We have obtained very accurate results (less than 0.03) for the MSE. This approach is distinguished from previous work by the choice of the structure of multilayer neural networks input based mainly on two PCA and the neighbors of the pixel influencing greatly the quality of output (extracted road network image). The system includes different modules: (1) data pre-processing and PCA transformation, (2) neural networks for road extraction (3) procedure of road centerline and vectorization. The results show that the proposed method for road extraction is very effective and demonstrate its performance.

Hydrochemical characterization of alluvial aquifer of Tebessa-Morsott. Eastern Algeria

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Hydrochemical characterization of alluvial aquifer of Tebessa-Morsott. Eastern Algeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Tarek Drias

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Tarek Drias (2015). Hydrochemical characterization of alluvial aquifer of Tebessa-Morsott. Eastern Algeria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 5. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
A study of the hydrogeochemical processes in the Tebessa-Morsott aquifer was carried out with the objective of identifying the geochemical processes and their relation with groundwater quality as well as to get an insight into the hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater. The high salinity coupled with groundwater level decline pose serious problems for current irrigation and domestic water supplies as well as future exploitation. A combined hydrogeologic and hydrpchimical investigation have been carried out using chemical data to deduce a hydrochemical evaluation of the aquifer system based on the ionic constituents, water types, hydrochemical facies and factors controlling groundwater quality. The increase in salinity is related to the dissolution and/or precipitation processes during the water’rock interaction and to the cationic exchange reactions between groundwater and clay minerals.

Modeling of the Flows and Solid Transport in the Catchment Area of Meskiana- Mellegue Upstream (Of medjerda, confin algero-tunisien)

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Modeling of the Flows and Solid Transport in the Catchment Area of Meskiana- Mellegue Upstream (Of medjerda, confin algero-tunisien)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Moufida Belloula , Hadda Dridi

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Moufida Belloula --- Hadda Dridi (2015). Modeling of the Flows and Solid Transport in the Catchment Area of Meskiana- Mellegue Upstream (Of medjerda, confin algero-tunisien). Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 4. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
This article focuses on the study of flows and sediment transport in suspension, according to a probabilistic model flow/Erosion that is the most important modeling point. Furthermore the absence of direct measurements on erosion for experimental stations, on based on operation data from instantaneous sampling liquid fluxes and concentrations of sediment transported during periods of flooding. In this regard a methodology to develop a mathematical model of specific erosion occurs in Meskiana - Mellegue upstream watershed which is part of the great watershed of the medjerda River (northeastern Algeria). It is home to areas vulnerable to erosion the irregularity of precipitation and their intensity, also the remarkable influence of climatic and topographical factors on particle detachment which mean the outbreak of the erosion dynamics in the basin watershed.

Aleppine Polychrome Wooden (ajami) Rooms in Syria

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Aleppine Polychrome Wooden (ajami) Rooms in Syria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Rami Alafandi , Asiah Abdul Rahim

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Rami Alafandi --- Asiah Abdul Rahim (2015). Aleppine Polychrome Wooden (ajami) Rooms in Syria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 3. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
The objective of this paper is to show the importance of the forgotten architectural and artistic heritage of Aleppo, Syria, particularly the polychrome wooden (`ajami) rooms. Aleppo is the second largest city in Syria (after the capital Damascus) and is the commercial capital of Syria. Aleppo has a long history, extending from the third millennium B.C to the Islamic era. The remains and monuments are evidence from those great civilizations. Many pieces of literature mention that the Amorites were the first inhabitants in Aleppo during the third millennium BC. In 223 BC, the Greek commander (Seleucus Nikator) re-organized and planned the city.  Later, Islamic rulers made Aleppo great by re-building its walls, gates, towers and citadel. The Muslims also built mosques, schools, houses, inns, markets, hospitals, bathrooms, and public facilities. Consequently, Aleppo flourished and became a very important station for the Silk Road; the third largest city in the Ottoman Empire after Istanbul and Cairo. Aleppo was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918.  As part of this empire, local Aleppine craftsmen combined their techniques and cultural heritage with Ottoman architecture and design. Due to growth in population the Ottomans expanded the city, provided facilities, and established neighborhoods outside of the walls. These neighborhoods outside the walls were mostly for rich people and contained the biggest treasure of polychrome wood (`ajami)  in Aleppo, which has become the icon of Ottoman- Syrian art.  Polychrome wood includes several geometric, floral motifs, and inscriptions. These motifs have rich symbolic backgrounds, originating from house owners, artists, their native culture, and religion. This research employs a historical and descriptive approach to explore the thought and principles exemplified in the polychrome wooden (`ajami)  motifs, and to analyze the connection between different types of Islamic art and polychrome wooden motifs. In 1986, UNESCO added Old Aleppo City to the World Heritage List.  Since 2012 much of Syria’s architectural heritage has been destroyed due to internal war.  In Aleppo the losses in both the ancient and modern parts of the city have been tremendous. Some traditional houses with polychrome wooden interior room have been damaged. This paper will highlight some recommendations to protect and restore the traditional houses in Aleppo for future use.

Green Building as Concept of Sustainability Sustainable Strategy to Design Office Building

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Green Building as Concept of Sustainability Sustainable Strategy to Design Office Building

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

Mouhamed Ragab Radwan , Abd El-Hady B. Kashyout , Hisham Galal Elshimy , Shimaa Fatehy Ashour

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Mouhamed Ragab Radwan --- Abd El-Hady B. Kashyout --- Hisham Galal Elshimy --- Shimaa Fatehy Ashour (2015). Green Building as Concept of Sustainability Sustainable Strategy to Design Office Building. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 2. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
The design, construction, operation , maintenance of buildings normally requires enormous amounts of energy, water and raw materials; generating large quantities of waste causing air an water pollution; whereas green buildings is the only answer through creating healthier and more resource efficient models of const, renovation , operation and maintenance. Green Architecture and sustainable buildings are considered a modern trend in architectural thinking which manipulates the relationship between the building and the environment. Generally office buildings are one of the highest types of buildings in energy consumption comparing to other buildings types. So it’s very important for an architect to implement specific strategies in order to decrease energy consumption especially in this type of buildings, by using renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy and other sources which contribute in electric energy rationalization.

Facies Associations and Evolution of Jurassic Carbonate Platform, Northern Atlasic Fringe (Ne Algerian)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2

El Hadj YOUCEF BRAHIM

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El Hadj YOUCEF BRAHIM (2015). Facies Associations and Evolution of Jurassic Carbonate Platform, Northern Atlasic Fringe (Ne Algerian). Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2: 1. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2015.2/1001.2
This study focuses on an area located at the convergence of the allochthonous and the Atlasic forelands of the Northren Algerian Alpine Belt. The objective of this work is to reconstruct the drowning history of the Jurassic carbonate platform, and discuss its relationship with the geodynamic evolution of the Southern Tethysian margin. The identification and interpretation of drowning events in the platforms can help significantly to the reconstruction of the depositional, tectonics and eustatic history of these platforms. The drowning of carbonate platforms was the subject of several stratigraphic and sedimentological researches in different places on the planet, at different periods of Phanerozoic times (Read, 1980, 1982, 1985, Kendall & Schlager, 1981, Schlager, 1981, 1989, Santantonio 1993). The stratigraphic interpretation and correlation of the study area Jurassic series from a few cross-sections, have allowed the highlighting of the platform physiography during this geological period and individualizing three stratigraphic units. The synthesis of bio-sedimentological data reveals diversified facies, involving various deposits environments ranging from supratidal to deep pelagic peleoenvironments. These facies have evolved within subsidante carbonate ramp. Thereof has experienced drowning (Toarcian) and filling (Tithonian, Berriasian) phases, in relation with the eustatic sea level changes at the global scale and regional tectonics.