Jui-Chuang Wu --- Yue-Je Jung(2016). Detection of Gene HLA-B5801 on A Lateral-Flow Membrane. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 6: 8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.6/1001.6
In this study, a sequence-specified DNA segment was detected on a porous polymer surface, incorporated with an immune reaction and a color development by nano-size gold particles. The Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B*5801 DNA, gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, Pda13015, human gene PSMA5, and Avian-Influenza (AI) gene H5 were individually detected on the membrane-based lateral-flow strips. HLA-B5801 was determined a detection limit as 1.2 ng, and with a good selectivity over other species genes.
The Effect of MRET Noise Field Generator on SAR Values of RF Phones
Igor Smirnov --- Sundardas Dharmadas Annamalay (2016). The Effect of MRET Noise Field Generator on SAR Values of RF Phones. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 6: 7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.6/1001.6
This paper is related to the experimental data regarding the ability of MRET Noise Field Generator (MRET NFG) placed at the distance of 7 feet from phantom headť exposed to RF phones radiation to reduce specific absorption rate (SAR) of the water based solution inside śphantom headť. The core part of Generator is MRET polymer compound. Due to the fractal geometry structure of MRET polymer compound and the phenomenon of piezoelectricity, this polymer generates subtle, low frequency, non-coherent electromagnetic oscillations (composite noise field) that can modify RF signals as a result of superposition phenomenon. The superposition of composite noise field generated by MRET Generator on RF microwave signals leads to amplitude modulation of RF signals where random low frequency signal generated by MRET Generator is a modulating signal and original microwave signal is a modulated one. The low frequency, non-coherent electromagnetic oscillations (noise field) can affect the hydrogen lattice of the molecular structure of water and subsequently modify the electrodynamic properties of water [Smirnov 2008]. The increase of dielectric permittivity of water finally leads to reduction of the absorption rate of electromagnetic field (SAR) of the water-based jelly which simulates living tissue. The reduction of SAR values is confirmed by the research conducted at FCC certified RF Exposure Laboratory, Escondido, California. The influence of MRET Noise Field Generator signals on RF phones in this experiment does not change location of Hot Spot The Hot Spotsť remain in the same location as without the influence of generator, and their amplitudes decrease in 80% of data points. This test also confirmed that the placement of MRET Generator at the distance of 7 feet from śphantom headť exposed to RF phones does not significantly affect the air measurements of RF phone signals and subsequently does not lead to any significant distortion of transmitted RF signals [Moulton 2007]. Keywords: SAR value, MRET Noise Field Generator, piezoelectric effect, fractal matrix, optimal random field, superposition, dielectric permittivity, electrical conductivity, water molecules, cell water.
The Flame Propagation of Various Fuels in a Particular Combustion Chamber of 4.-Valve Engines
Zoran Jovanovic --- Zoran Masonicic --- Miroljub Tomic (2016). The Flame Propagation of Various Fuels in a Particular Combustion Chamber of 4.-Valve Engines. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 6: 6. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.6/1001.6
In this paper some results concerning flame propagation of various fuels in a particular combustion chamber with four tilted valves were elucidated. Flame propagation was represented by the evolution of spatial distribution of temperature in various cut-planes within combustion chamber while the flame front location was determined by dint of zones with maximum temperature gradient. The results presented are only a small part of broader on-going scrutinizing activity in the field of multidimensional modeling of reactive flows in combustion chambers with complicated geometries encompassing various models of turbulence, different fuels and combustion models. In the case of turbulence two different models were applied i.e. standard k-ε model of turbulence and k-ξ-f model of turbulence. In addition flame propagation results were analyzed for two different hydrocarbon fuels, such as CH4 and C8H18, for both turbulence models applied. In the case of combustion all differences ensuing from different turbulence models, obvious for non-reactive flows are annihilated entirely. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is invariant as regards both turbulence models applied. The same conclusion is valid for both fuels applied. Namely, as in the previous case with different turbulence models, the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is entirely invariant as regards fuel variation indicating that the flame propagation through unburnt mixture of CH4 and C8H18 fuels is not chemically controlled.
Changes in Growth, Nutrients Uptake and Biochemical Attributes of Four Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Cultivars Under CdCl2 Stress
Abida Kausar --- Muhammad Yasin Ashraf --- Anam Naeem (2016). Changes in Growth, Nutrients Uptake and Biochemical Attributes of Four Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Cultivars Under CdCl2 Stress. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 6: 5. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.6/1001.6
Wheat, a glycophylate which is frequently grown on tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is also most important cereal grain crop being consumed by more than half population of the world. Keeping in view the world consumption of wheat, the present experiment was carried out to determine the deleterious effect of various levels of cadmium chloride (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM) on growth, nutrients uptake and some biochemical attributes of four wheat cultivars i.e., AARI, Lasani, Punjab-2011 and Millat-2011. It has been investigated that fresh and dry weights and lenghts of both shoots and roots, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were reduced with increasing CdCl2 concentrations in the soils. Moreover, CdCl2 adversely affected the uptake of essential nutrients i.e zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in roots and shoots of all the wheat cultivars. However, the uptake of Cd was increased in all levels of cadmium stressed environment in both shoots and roots of four wheat cultivars. The extent of uptake of cadmium was more prominent with increasing concentrations of cadmium chloride in all the four cultivars of wheat.
One-Step Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized by Oligonucleotides
Taotao Li --- Zunliang Wang --- Xianbo Mou --- Nongyue He (2016). One-Step Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized by Oligonucleotides. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 6: 4. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.6/1001.6
DNA templated metal nanoparticles have attracted a lot of interest and have been widely applied in biomedical fields. Silver, platinum, palladium and copper nanostructure templated by DNA have been widely reported. While the synthesis of DNA templated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) was limited. In this article, we presented a novel one-step method for synthesizing Au NPs stabilized by oligonucleotides. UV absorption spectroscopy showed that the formation of Au NPs was associated with pH value, DNA sequence, and DNA concentration. Under neutral pH condition, the UV absorption spectra of Au NPs showed that the peak width was narrow. The blue-shift (from about 540 to 524 nm) of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak occurred when Au NPs formed under higher pH (9.6) condition comparing with neutral pH condition. Slight red-shift of the SPR peak occurred with increase in concentration of oligonucleotides. For C10 oligonucleotide stabilized Au NPs, the peak width of UV absorption spectra was wider than A10 and T10 oligonucleotide stabilized Au NPs, especially under lower pH value and lower oligonucleotide concentration. The wider peak width and red-shift were due to aggregation of Au NPs which can be proved by SEM image.
Extraction and Purification of L-Asparaginase Produced by Acinetobacter Baumannii and Their Antibiofilm Activity against Some Pathogenic Bacteria
Sahira Nsayef Muslim --- Israa M.S. AL_Kadmy --- Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali --- Nadheema Hammood Hussein --- Ahmed Sahi Dwaish --- Ban Talib El-Haboby --- Sraa Nsayef Muslim --- Suhad abbas abid (2016). Extraction and Purification of L-Asparaginase Produced by Acinetobacter Baumannii and Their Antibiofilm Activity against Some Pathogenic Bacteria. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 6: 3. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.6/1001.6
L-asparaginase is an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of L-asparagine and formation of L-aspartate and ammonia and widely used as anticancer drug in pharmaceutical and food industry. Eight Acinetobacter baumannii isolates of were isolated from different blood and sputum samples and screened for higher L-asparaginase production, Acinetobacter baumannii Sp3 gave higher asparaginase activity of 7.32 U/ml. L-asparaginase was purified to homogeneity with ammonium sulfate at 45% saturation followed by DEAE-Cellulose ion exchange chromatography and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography with a recovery yield of 68% and 22.65 fold of purification. L-asparaginase had antibiofilm activity against all tested pathogenic bacteria after using Congo Red agar and Microtitration plates methods. Highly antibiofilm of L-asparaginase recorded against Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with reduction of biofilm formation ratio to 32 and 41% ,respectively compared with (100)% of control. Thus L-asparaginase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria.
Self-Healing Multilayer Polyelectrolyte Composite Film with Chitosan and Poly (Acrylic Acid)
Yanxi Zhu --- Liqin Ge (2016). Self-Healing Multilayer Polyelectrolyte Composite Film with Chitosan and Poly (Acrylic Acid). Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 6: 2. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.6/1001.6
If self-healing materials can be prepared via simple technology and methods using nontoxic materials, this would be a great step forward in the creation of environmentally friendly self-healing materials. In this paper, the specific structural parameters of the various hydrogen bonds between chitosan (CS) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were calculated. Then, multilayer polyelectrolyte films were fabricated with CS and PAA based on layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assemble technology at different pH values. The possible influence of pH on the (CS/PAA)*30 multilayer polyelectrolyte film were investigated. The results show that the interactions between CS and PAA, swelling capacity, microstructure, wettability, and self-healing ability are all governed by the pH of the CS solution. When the pH value of the CS solution is 3.0, the prepared multilayer polyelectrolyte film (CS3.0/PAA2.8)*30 has fine-tuned interactions, a network-like structure, good swelling ability, good hydrophilicity, and excellent self-healing ability. This promises to greatly widen the future applications of environmentally friendly materials and bio-materials.
Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For Their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies
Subbarayan Bothi Gopalakrishnan --- Thangaraj Kalaiarasi --- Shanmugam Gnanendra (2016). Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For Their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies. Abstract of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 6: 1. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1001/2016.6/1001.6
Cucumis sativus Linn. (Fam. Cucubitaceae) is commonly known as “Vellari” in Tamil, “Cucumber” in English and “Sakusa” in Sanskrit. Cucumis sativus fruit is shown to possess various activities such as ameliorative, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, carminative and ameliorative and antacid properties. It is used in Cosmetics as treatment for skin-inflamation and skin protectant. Pulp of the fruit is useful in dysentery, diarrhea, dropsy, piles and leprosy. It is also used as a liver tonic. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a metabolic disorder which is emerging as a severe problem and is a disease involving liver disorder. In the present study, six phytochemical constituents isolated and identified from the ethanolic extract of the fruits of Cucumis sativus Linn. by GC-MS analysis have been screened for inhibitory activity against Hepatitis B X and Heme oxygenase I using molecular docking studies. The binding affinities of the Phytochemical constituents were compared with that of the known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin.The ACD/Chemsketch tool was used to generate 3D structures of ligands. A molecular file format converter tool has been used to convert the generated data to the protein Data Bank (PDB) and has been used for docking studies. The active site of the target protin was identified using Q-site finder tool. The energy values for docking interactions between the active site and the phytochemical constituents have been studied by using Flex X tool. Out of all inhibitors, silymarin, followed by 2-(2-methyleyclohexylidene)-hydrazinccarboxamide possess the highest energy value indicating them as efficient inhibitors with the target proteins to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. The effective properties may be due to the presence of carbonyl and alholic OH groups present in the ligand molecules. The findings will be discussed in detail.