Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Journal of Nutrients

March 2015, Volume 2, 1, pp 11-26

Vitamin D Supplementation Practices in Pregnancy and During Infancy and Other Behaviors Related To Vitamin D Status among a Sample of Muslim Women in Ireland and Saudi Arabia

John M Kearney


Imann Khadrawi


Rania Harastani


Mairead Stack

John M Kearney 1 ,

Imann Khadrawi 1 Rania Harastani 1 Mairead Stack 1 
  1. Lecturer in Nutrition and Epidemiology, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT), Kevin Street, Dublin, Ireland 1

Pages: 11-26

DOI: 10.18488/journal.87/2015.2.1/2015.1.11.26

Share :


Objectives (background): Requirement for Vitamin D is high at particular stages of the lifecycle especially during pregnancy and infancy. Severe vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may increase the risk of rickets in childhood. While policies exist in Ireland regarding supplementation of Vitamin D in either pregnancy or infancy, no policy recommendation exists in Saudi Arabia. The main aim of this study was to identify attitudes towards Vitamin D supplementation as well as its prevalence in pregnancy and infancy among Muslim mothers living in Ireland and in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey consisting of 121 Muslim mothers living in Saudi Arabia and 77 Muslim women living in Ireland. Recruitment of mothers took place in three hospitals in Makkah (Saudi Arabia Al-Noor Hospital, Hera’a Hospital and Maternity and Children’s Hospital) and a religious Centre in Ireland between June and September 2012. Results: Only 28.6% of the Irish and 7.4% of the Saudi mothers had taken vitamin D supplements during their pregnancy.  While 62.3% of the Muslim mothers in Ireland and 37.2% in Saudi Arabia were aware of the recommendation to give a daily vitamin D supplements to their infants until they were one year of age just 49.4% living in Ireland and 13.2% from Saudi Arabia did so.  While a majority of mothers living in Ireland and Saudi Arabia were spending > 30 minutes a day outside, clothing that completely cover the body was worn by the entire sample, sunscreen was used by 44.2% in Ireland and 53.7% in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: Poor vitamin D supplementation practices are evident among Muslim mothers and infants both in Ireland and Saudi Arabia. To improve this situation, mothers should be educated about the importance of vitamin D during pregnancy and infancy.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the supplementation practices of vitamin D during pregnancy and infancy among Muslim women in two countries with differing guidelines regarding Vitamin D supplementation as well as different latitudes, climatic conditions and cultures. This study is unique in this respect.




  1. M. Holick, "Vitamin D deficiency," N Eng J Med, vol. 357, pp. 266–81, 2007.
  2. B. Hollis and C. Wagner, "Nutritional vitamin D status during pregnancy: Reasons for concern," Can Med Assoc J., vol. 174, pp. 1287-90, 2006.
  3. M. Holick, "Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 79, pp. 362-71, 2004.
  4. J. Lappe, D. Travers-Gustafson, K. Davies, R. Recker, and R. Heaney, "Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 85, pp. 1586–91, 2007.
  5. R. Vieth and S. Kimball, "Vitamin D in congestive heart failure," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 83, pp. 731-2, 2006.
  6. A. Pittas, J. Lau, F. Hu, and B. Dawson-Hughes, "The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis," J Clin Endocrinol Metab., vol. 92, pp. 2017–29, 2007.
  7. A. Prentice, "Vitamin D Deficiency: A global perspective," Nutrition Reviews, vol. 66, pp. S153-S164, 2008.
  8. A. Lapillonne, "Vitamin D deficiciency during pregnancy may impair maternal and fetal outcomes," Medical Hypotheses, vol. 74, pp. 71-75, 2010.
  9. L. De-Regil, C. Palacios, A. Ansary, R. Kulier, and J. Peña-Rosas, Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy (Review). The cochrane library issue 6. England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
  10. J. Dratva, S. Merten, and U. Ackermann-Liebrich, "Vitamin D supplementation in swiss infants," Swiss Med Weekly, vol. 136, pp. 473-81, 2006.
  11. H. Glerup, K. Mikkelsen, and K. Poulsen, "Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited," J Intern Med., vol. 247, pp. 260–8, 2000.
  12. G. Fuleihan, "Vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East and its health consequences for children and adults," Clinic Rev Bone Miner Metab, vol. 7, pp. 77–93, 2009.
  13. M. Holick, "The vitamin D epidemic and its health consequences," J Nutr., vol. 35, pp. 2739S–48S, 2005.
  14. S. Bahijri, "Serum 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol in infants and preschool children in the Western region of Saudi Arabia etiological factors," Saudi Med J., vol. 22, pp. 973–9, 2001.
  15. M. Sadat-Ali, A. AlElg, H. Al-Turki, F. Al-Mulhim, and A. Al-Ali, "Vitamin D levels in healthy men in eastern Saudi Arabia," Ann Saudi Med., vol. 29, pp. 378–82, 2009.
  16. J. Aloia, M. Patel, R. Dimaano, M. Li-Ng, S. Talwar, M. Mikhail, S. Pollack, and J. Yeh, "Vitamin D intake to attain a desired serum 25–hydroxy vitamin D concentration," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, pp. 1952-58, 2008.
  17. D. Dror and L. Allen, "Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy: Biology, outcomes and interventions," Nutrition Reviews, vol. 68, pp. 465-77, 2010.
  18. Institute of Medicine, Food and nutrition board. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2010.
  19. C. Gratton and I. Jones, Research methods for sports studies. London: Routledge, 2004.
  20. J. Creswell, Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: Sage, 2009.
  21. M. Elsammak, A. AL-Wossaibi, A. AL-Howeish, and J. Alsaeed, "High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Sunny Eastern region of Saudi Arabia: A hospital-based study," East Mediterr Health J., vol. 17, pp. 317-22, 2009.
  22. G. MacSharry, "Finally the issue of vitamin deficiency in Ireland is highlighted," Western Herbal Medicine and Nutrition, 2007.
  23. M. Calvo, S. Whiting, and C. Barton, "Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: Current status and data needs," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 80, pp. 1710S-6S, 2004.
  24. A. Siddiqui, "Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency rickets in adolescent school girls in Western region, Saudi Arabia," Saudi Med J., vol. 28, pp. 441–4, 2007.
  25. F. Christie and L. Mason, "Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding vitamin D deficiency among female students in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative exploration," Int J Rheum Dis., vol. 14, pp. 1-8, 2011.
  26. D. Elshafie, H. Al-Khashan, and A. Mishriky, "Comparison of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples," Eur J Clin Nutr., vol. 66, pp. 742-5, 2012.
  27. W. Azhar, "A determination of vitamin D status and intake of pregnant and non-pregnant Saudi Arabian women in Mecca, Saudi Arabia," B.Sc. Unpublished Dissertation, Eastern Michigan University, Michigan,USA, 2009.
  28. R. Tarrant, M. Sheridan-Pereira, R. McCarthy, K. Younger, and J. Kearney, "Maternal and infant nutritional supplementation practices in Ireland: Implications for clinicians and policymakers," Irish Medical Journal, vol. 104, pp. 173-77, 2011.
  29. Food Safety Authority of Ireland, Vitamin D – Q&A on vitamin D report recommendations for a national policy on vitamin D supplementation for infants in Ireland [Online]. Available:  [Accessed August 2014], 2001.
  30. A. Elidrissy, S. Sedrani, and D. Lawson, "Vitamin D deficiency in mothers of rachitic infants," Calcif Tissue Int., vol. 36, pp. 266-68, 2006.
  31. C. Garland, E. Gorham, S. Mohr, and F. Garland, "Vitamin D for cancer prevention: Global perspective," Ann Epidemiol, vol. 19, pp. 468-83, 2009.
  32. S. Al Faraj and K. Al Mutairi, "Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia," Spine, vol. 28, pp. 177–9, 2003.
  33. M. Holick Sunlight, "D’’ Ilemma: Risk of cancer or bone disease and muscle weakness," Lancet, vol. 357, pp. 4–6, 2001.
  34. S. Reed, M. Laya, J. Melville, S. Ismail, C. Mitchell, and D. Ackerman, "Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and clinical associations among veiled East African women in Washington State," J Womens Health, vol. 16, pp. 206-13, 2007.
  35. R. Glew, M. Crossey, J. Polanams, H. Okolie, and D. Vander Jagt, "Vitamin D status of semi-nomadic fulani men and women," Journal of the National Medical Association J Natl Med Assoc., vol. 102, pp. 485-90, 2010.
  36. S. Pietras, B. Obayan, M. Cai, and M. Holick, "Vitamin D2 treatment for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency for up to 6 years," Arch Int Med, vol. 169, pp. 1806-8, 2009.
  37. A. Dawodu and C. Wagner, "Mother-child vitamin D deficiency: An international perspective," Arch Dis Child., vol. 92, pp. 737–40, 2007.
  38. C. Rosen, Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism, 7th ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2009.
  39. M. Al-Ghamdi, S. Lanham-New, and J. Kahn, "Differences in vitamin D status and calcium metabolism in Saudi Arabian boys and girls aged 6 to 18 years: Effects of age, gender, extent of veiling and physical activity with concomitant implications for bone health," Public Health Nutr, vol. 15, pp. 1845-53, 2012.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Protective Effect of L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) On Mercury Detoxication and Physiological Aspects of Albino Rats
( 2 ) Vitamin D Supplementation Practices in Pregnancy and During Infancy and Other Behaviors Related To Vitamin D Status among a Sample of Muslim Women in Ireland and Saudi Arabia
( 3 ) Gendered Perspectives of Men’s Health and Help Seeking: Implications for Public Health and Health Promotion
( 4 ) Antibody Titers Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Health Care Workers in Khartoum State, Sudan
( 5 ) Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude and Associated Factors of Food Handlers Working in Substandard Food Establishments in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2013/14
( 6 ) Old Theories Revisited on Cancer Assistant Therapy
( 7 ) Access to HIV Prevention Services for Injecting Drug Users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: Qualitative Results
( 8 ) Management of Difficult Airway Due To Chop Wound In Posterior Neck
( 9 ) A Systematic Review to Explore the Scope of Global Interventions to Reduce the Incidence of Gastric Cancer
( 10 ) EuroFIR Project – A Key Role in Creation and Compiling of Bulgarian Food Composition Database
( 11 ) Prevalence and Infection Patterns of Geo-Helminthiasis in a Rural Community along River Okumeshi, Delta State, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study
( 12 ) Ultrasound Guided Axillary Node Sampling in Patients of Carcinoma Breast with Clinically Negative Axilla: A Pilot Study
( 13 ) Prognostic Factors in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue Treated With Adjuvant Therapy Following Surgery
( 14 ) Nutritive Value of Some Agro–Industrial By–Products as Supplement to Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) By Sokoto Gudali Calf
( 15 ) Prevalence and Factors Associated With Refractive Error among Primary School Children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
( 16 ) The Level and Associated Factors Of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Blood Donation among Health Science Students of Addis Ababa University
( 17 ) Genetic Evaluation and Activity of Antifungal against Clinical Isolates Candida Albicans Biofilms
( 18 ) Non Syndromic, Bilateral, Dentigerous Cysts Associated with Inverted Mandibular Third Molars: A Case Report
( 19 ) Anthropometric Parameters as Predictors of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Central Indian Children 5-15 Years
( 20 ) Application of Saliva as Diagnostic Bio-Fluid- An Overview
( 21 ) Retrospective Study on Outcome of In-Patient Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Jimma University Specialized Hospital from September 2011-September 2012
( 22 ) Serum Rankl/Osteoprotegerin Complex and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Chronic Heart Failure
( 24 ) Impact of Ramadan Fasting on Some Biochemical Aspects in Healthy Subjects
( 25 ) Update on Nutritional Aspects of Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Patients
( 26 ) Chondrosarcoma of the Upper Extremity of the Humerus: A Case Report
( 27 ) Effect of Different Chronotype on Comorbidity and Resistance to Psycho-Emotional Stress in Hypertension Associated With Hepato-Biliary Pathology in the North
( 28 ) Interventions for Reducing Coercion in Mental Health for Adults: A Systematic Review and the Impact of Updating
( 29 ) Treatment of Adamantinoma in Tibial Diaphysis by Hemicortical Resection and Strut Allograft
( 30 ) Clinical Significance of Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Oral Precancerous Conditions and Oral Cancer
( 31 ) Cause, Magnitude and Contributing Factors for Maternal Death in Selected Hospitals in Snnpr between 2007/2008 and 2009/2010
( 32 ) Determinants of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Modeling Progression of Adherence Level: At Yirgalem Regional Hospital, Ethiopia; January, 2012
( 33 ) Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Cyphostemma Digitatum on Serum Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hyperlipidemic Subjects
( 34 ) Ethanolic Extract of Ginger on the Histology of the Pancrease in Adult Wistar Rats
( 35 ) Effectiveness of Treatment of Water Surface with Ferric Chloride and Aluminium Sulphate
( 36 ) Prosthodontic Rehabilitatative Therapy through Surgical Obturator for Maxillectomy Patients: A Review
( 37 ) Prevalence of Stunting and Associated Factors among Under Five Children in Wondo Genet Woreda, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia
( 38 ) Xerostomia in Geriatric Population: An Insight into Etiopathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management
( 39 ) Contribution of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices for Sustainable Crop Productivity, Nutrient Uptake and Soil Nutrient Status in Maize Based Cropping Systems
( 41 ) Acute Renal Failure, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Changes in Three Cases with Ileostomy
( 42 ) Comparison of Reading Speed Using Malay Unrelated Word Reading Chart with Standardized English Reading Charts
( 43 ) Correlation between Her2/Neu and Histopatholoical Finding among Sudanese Female Breast Cancer Patients
( 44 ) Radiographic Assessment of Alveolar Bone Crest Levels in 9-12 Year Old Children in Davangere, India
( 45 ) Review on Preparation and Description of Some First Series Divalent Transition Metal Complexes with Novel Schiff’s Base Ligands
( 46 ) Gene Therapy in the Developing Countries
( 47 ) Locus Coeruleus Neuronal and Behavioral Activity Following Acute and Chronic Methylphenidate
( 48 ) Evidence of A Pharmacological Dissociation Between The Robust Effects of Methylphenidate on Adhd Symptoms and Weaker Effects on Working Memory
( 49 ) Suicides and Factors Associated With Suicides-A Study in a Rural Setup of Pondicherry in South India
( 50 ) Gene Expression during the Cell Cycle: Obfuscation of Original Cell-Cycle Gene Expression Data by Normalization
( 51 ) Heart Failure in a Young Lady: A Reversible Cause
( 52 ) Dietary Polyamines and Diseases: Reducing Polyamine Intake Can Be Beneficial In Cancer Treatment
( 53 ) The Effect of Regular Hazelnut Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Acceptance in Māori and European
( 54 ) Apoptotic Analysis of Cumulus Cells for the Selection of Competent Oocytes to Be Fertilized by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
( 55 ) Impaired Immune Phenotype of Circulating Endothelial-Derived Microparticles in None-Diabetic Patients with Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Insulin Resistance
( 56 ) Re-Irradiation for Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma after Primary Radical Therapy
( 57 ) Patient Satisfaction with the Supportive Services in Gulhane Military Medical Faculty Training Hospital
( 58 ) FNAC of Normal Size Paediatric Lymph Nodes: Is It Justified?
( 59 ) Malaysian Translation and Psychometric Evaluation for Parent and Child Questionnaires of Children Health Survey for Asthma
( 60 ) The Successful Treatment of Obstructive Uropathy Caused By Retroperitoneal Fibrosis with Steroids in the Latent Tuberculosis Case
( 61 ) About the Pathogenesis of Myasthenia Gravis Associated With Thymic Enlargement
( 62 ) Evaluation of Techniques for the Diagnosis of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Paediatric Patients
( 63 ) Influence of Seed Location in the Fruit Pod of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook. F.) and Poultry Wastes on Plant Sex Ratio
( 64 ) Reliability of the Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (Lrinec) Score for Early Diagnosis of Necrotizing Fasciitis
( 65 ) Localized Amyloidosis of the Neck: A Rare Case and Literature Review
( 66 ) The Correlation between Educational Level and Incidence of Syphilis among Female Sex Workers within 7 Cities in Indonesia in 2007
( 67 ) The Role of Health and Medical Professions in Indonesia
( 68 ) Free Maternal and Child Health Services in Enugu State, South East Nigeria: Experiences of the Community and Health Care Providers
( 69 ) Biological Functions of Plasma Membrane-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Their Role in Diseases
( 70 ) Spectrum of Morphological Changes and Prevalence of “P53 Signatures” In Tubal Fimbrial Epithelium in General Population and In Patients with Pelvic Serous Carcinomas
( 71 ) The Importance of Clinical Genotype in Patients with Klinefelter Syndrome. A Genetic Disorder Asociated to Taurodontism
( 72 ) A Review on the Use of Moxifloxacin in Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis
( 73 ) Anti-Proliferative Effect of Asiatic Acid on Hep-G2 Cell Line
( 74 ) Correlation between Certain Complications and Health Education Program among Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Miletus Patients
( 75 ) Pleural Effusion in Gorham-Stout Syndrome: A Case Report and a Literature Review
( 76 ) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Egyptian Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Single Center Study
( 77 ) Personalized Medicine: Futuristic Predictive Nanomedicines for Diagnosis and Therapeutics
( 78 ) Study of Hepatic Dysfunction in Patientsinfected with Dengue Virus
( 79 ) Investigation of Kidney Stone Using a Microstrip Patch Antenna Scanning System
( 80 ) The Potential Protective Role of Chamomile Extract on Rat Liver Ultrastructural Changes Induced by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid
( 81 ) A Sample Survey on Reproductive Women to Assess Level of Stress in Sub-Urban Population, South Chennai, India
( 82 ) How Do Patients Evaluate the New Health Care System in General Practice? Results from the European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care (Europep) in Adana, Turkey
( 83 ) Scedosporium Prolificans, An Unusual Cause of Frontal Abscess
( 84 ) The Role of Demography in Moderation the Influence of Nonverbal Communication to Patient’s Satisfaction
( 85 ) Stevia Derivative and its Potential Uses in Diabetic-Directed Foods. Review
( 86 ) Strategies for Addressing Poor Statistical Literacy among Health Scientists and Science Communicators
( 87 ) Diagnosis of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Systematic Review
( 88 ) Ontology with SVM Based Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Statistical Analysis
( 89 ) Model for Absorption of Perfluoropropane Intraocular Gas after Retinal Surgeries
( 90 ) Current Issue: Smoking Cessation, The Patient, The Physician and The Policy Makers
( 91 ) Patterns of Hazardous Drinking and Socio Demographic Characteristics among Selected Tribal Community, in Bangladesh
( 92 ) Dyspnea as an Unusual Presentation of Rickets in A 3-Month-Old Infant: A Case Report
( 93 ) Unsteady Plane Couette Flow of an Incompressible Couple Stress Fluid with Slip Boundary Conditions
( 94 ) Prospects of Molecular Genetics in Sports Medicine
( 95 ) How to Treat Diastasis Recti Abdominis with Physical Therapy: A Case Report
( 96 ) Lifetime Cancer Risk of Gamma Radioactivity Results from Smoking
( 97 ) Serum Lipid Profile and Leptin Levels in Asthmatic Libyan Children
( 98 ) Profile of Physiotherapist Educators in Anglophone West African Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study
( 99 ) The Superinfection of Dermoid Cysts in Nigeria
( 100 ) Empirical and Practical Implementation Methodology for Clinical Integration of E-Health Iot Technology
( 101 ) The Right to Dignity and Consensus in the Psychiatric Health Treatment
( 102 ) Profile of Patients Visiting a Tertiary Eye Hospital and their Perception Regarding Barrier for Eye Care Services in the Western Saudi Arabia
( 103 ) Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Infection Among HIV Patients Accessing Healthcare at Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria
( 104 ) Risk-Based Disease Management in the Fight Against to Bovine Tuberculosis; Area Prioritization
( 105 ) Development of Periodontitis after Antihelicobacter Therapy in Patients with Ulcer Disease
( 106 ) Unprotected Sex among Sexually Active Unmarried Young Adults: A Pariah or Preemptive Incidence
( 107 ) Exploring Social Opportunities for and Constraints to Primary Healthcare Seeking behavior in Urban Bangladesh: A Study on Rajshahi City
( 108 ) Evaluation of the Relative Viability of Anthropometric Parameters, Aerobic Capacity, Spinal Mobility, Abdominal Muscular Endurance, Back and Lower Limb Muscle Strength in Predicting the Balance Performance of Young Adult Males
( 109 ) Contribution of Meat towards Nutritional Security - An Analysis through Consumption of Different Food Items among Meat and Non-Meat Consumers in Karnataka
( 110 ) The Risk of Ovarian Cancer in Women Fed with Milk Obtained from Goats Having Different Birth Type and Kid Sex
( 111 ) Determination of the Seasonality of Bovine Tuberculosis Disease from the Risk Based Disease Management
( 112 ) Assessment of the Quality of Antenatal Care Rendered at a Northern Nigeria Primary Health Care Center, Zaria, Nigeria
( 113 ) Hypersensitivity to Natural Rubber Latex Gloves among Albanian Dental Students: The Role of Exposure Duration
( 114 ) The Effect of Phacoemulsification Surgery on Corneal Endothelium
( 115 ) Nano Formulations of Natural Compounds for Enhanced Delivery
( 116 ) Reducing Surgical Site Infection by Placing Subcutaneous Drain in the Obese Patients
( 117 ) Gender as Determinant of the Effect of Yeast Selenium on CD4 T Cells Count Among HIV 1 Positive Children
( 118 ) Staff Nurses and Physicians Attitudes toward the Use of Electronic Patient Record
( 119 ) Depression in Business: Herbal or Modern Medicine
( 120 ) Prevalence of Prehypertension and Assessment of Renal Function among the Prehypertensive Students of the College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
( 121 ) Influence of Parity and Index Child Factors on Adoption of Exclusive Breastfeeding by Nursing-Mothers in Imo State Nigeria
( 122 ) Major Depression with Delusional Prevalence and Fixation in Neurotransmitters
( 123 ) Development and Evaluation of the Readability, Stability and Internal Consistency of a Psychometric Instrument Designed to Assess Physiotherapists Knowledge and Attributes of Professionalism
( 124 ) Prevalence of Prediabetes and the Associated Risk of Kidney Disease in Apparently Healthy Subjects in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
( 125 ) Value of Radiology Modalities in Diagnosing Benign and Malignant Tumours of Breast: An Observational Study
( 126 ) The Value of Nuclear Medicine Versus Ultrasonography in Diagnosing Renal Disease
( 127 ) Comparison of Psychiatric Comorbidity and Quality of Life (QOL) in Persons with Tuberculosis and People Living with HIV in South-South Nigeria
( 128 ) Contribution of Planting Space and Harvesting Period on the Nutrient Compositions of Some OFSP Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Southeast Nigeria Ultisol
( 129 ) Domiciliary Care Providers Views on Provision of Palliative Care for their Cancer Patients
( 130 ) Effect of Plasmodium Falciparum on Liver Function Parameters of Children in Akoko Area of Ondo State, Nigeria
( 131 ) Ethnobotanic Study of Use of Medicinal Plants Utilized in the Quilombola Community of Chapada Da Natividade, Tocantins, Brazil
( 132 ) An Observational Study Evaluating the Impact of Chikungunya Virus Infection on Oral Cavity and Temporomandibular Joint
( 133 ) Genetic Insights of Cholesterol and Atherosclerosis; Complex Biology
( 134 ) Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Clinical and Environmental Samples
( 135 ) Differential Responses to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy Versus Combined Therapy in Young Adolescents with Depression
( 136 ) Oral Mucosal Lesions in Patient With Bullous Pemphigoid - A Rare Case and Literature Review
( 137 ) Preparing Nurses for Community Health Care: A Comparative Study of the ADN and BSN Programs
( 138 ) Hawaii Dementia Prevention Trial: A Randomized Trial Evaluating a Multifaceted Nutritional Intervention to Slow Cognitive Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients
( 139 ) Gender Based Differences in Epidemiologic and Clinical Profile of Adult Vitiligo
( 140 ) Staining Effect of Methanolic Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx on Thin Peripheral Blood Smear
( 141 ) Renal-Biofunction Potentials of Ethanolic Extract of Solanum Melongena Linn Fruit on Monosodium Glutamate- Intoxicated Rats and Kidney Histology
( 142 ) Development and Quality Evaluation of Complementary Food Formulated from Sorghum, Soybean and Sesame Flour Blends
( 143 ) Cola Nitida (Kola-Nut) Enhances Gastric Ulceration and Secretion Via Ileum Motility Increase
( 144 ) Mortalities Profile among Dubai Population 2017, Utilizing Breakdown Fractions for Intervention and Forecasting of Future Epidemiologic Transition - Dubai, UAE 2019
( 145 ) Self-Esteem, Optimism and Burden of Care among Relatives of Cardiovascular Disease Patients in Selected Tertiary Hospitals in Southwest, Nigeria
( 146 ) The Efficacy of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Insecticide Treated Nets against Anopheles Mosquitoes
( 147 ) Patterns, Correlates and Knowledge of Health Implications Associated with Alcohol Consumption: A Mix-Method Approach
( 148 ) Determinant Factors and Spatial Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis in North Gondar in Selected Hospitals
( 149 ) The Outcome and Hepatic Function of an Extended Category II Treatment in a HIV-Seronegative Suspected Extensively Drug-Resistant TB Patient
( 150 ) Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Four (4) Asymptomatic Prospective Employees: A Short Correspondence
( 151 ) Descriptive Assessment of Medical Outreach Services, Benefits and Factors Influencing Success of Outreach Program in Rural Communities of Enugu State
( 152 ) Evaluating the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Nursing Mothers towards Exclusive Breastfeeding in Tano North District
( 153 ) The Outbreak of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: Consequences on Public Mental Health
( 154 ) Vital Statistics for Leading Countries in COVID-19 Cases
( 155 ) Knowledge and Utilization of E-Health Care Delivery among Health Care Professionals in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria