2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062
50th International Scientific Conference on Sport, Medical and Health Sciences Vennue: Hotel Grand Flora Dubai, UAE Al- Rigga Road Deira , Near Al-Rigga Metro station , Deira Dubai UAE Date: 20-Dec-2018 More Details
7th International Academic Conference on Medical and Health Sciences Vennue: Hotel Istana Kuala Lumpur City Centre 73 Jalan Raja Chulan, Kuala Lumpur, 50200, Malaysia Date: 29-Dec-2018 More Details
Objectives (background): Requirement for Vitamin D is high at particular stages of the lifecycle especially during pregnancy and infancy. Severe vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may increase the risk of rickets in childhood. While policies exist in Ireland regarding supplementation of Vitamin D in either pregnancy or infancy, no policy recommendation exists in Saudi Arabia. The main aim of this study was to identify attitudes towards Vitamin D supplementation as well as its prevalence in pregnancy and infancy among Muslim mothers living in Ireland and in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey consisting of 121 Muslim mothers living in Saudi Arabia and 77 Muslim women living in Ireland. Recruitment of mothers took place in three hospitals in Makkah (Saudi Arabia Al-Noor Hospital, Hera’a Hospital and Maternity and Children’s Hospital) and a religious Centre in Ireland between June and September 2012. Results: Only 28.6% of the Irish and 7.4% of the Saudi mothers had taken vitamin D supplements during their pregnancy. While 62.3% of the Muslim mothers in Ireland and 37.2% in Saudi Arabia were aware of the recommendation to give a daily vitamin D supplements to their infants until they were one year of age just 49.4% living in Ireland and 13.2% from Saudi Arabia did so. While a majority of mothers living in Ireland and Saudi Arabia were spending > 30 minutes a day outside, clothing that completely cover the body was worn by the entire sample, sunscreen was used by 44.2% in Ireland and 53.7% in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: Poor vitamin D supplementation practices are evident among Muslim mothers and infants both in Ireland and Saudi Arabia. To improve this situation, mothers should be educated about the importance of vitamin D during pregnancy and infancy.
This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the supplementation practices of vitamin D during pregnancy and infancy among Muslim women in two countries with differing guidelines regarding Vitamin D supplementation as well as different latitudes, climatic conditions and cultures. This study is unique in this respect.
M. Holick, "Vitamin D deficiency," N Eng J Med, vol. 357, pp. 266–81, 2007.
B. Hollis and C. Wagner, "Nutritional vitamin D status during pregnancy: Reasons for concern," Can Med Assoc J., vol. 174, pp. 1287-90, 2006.
M. Holick, "Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 79, pp. 362-71, 2004.
J. Lappe, D. Travers-Gustafson, K. Davies, R. Recker, and R. Heaney, "Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 85, pp. 1586–91, 2007.
R. Vieth and S. Kimball, "Vitamin D in congestive heart failure," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 83, pp. 731-2, 2006.
A. Pittas, J. Lau, F. Hu, and B. Dawson-Hughes, "The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis," J Clin Endocrinol Metab., vol. 92, pp. 2017–29, 2007.
A. Prentice, "Vitamin D Deficiency: A global perspective," Nutrition Reviews, vol. 66, pp. S153-S164, 2008.
A. Lapillonne, "Vitamin D deficiciency during pregnancy may impair maternal and fetal outcomes," Medical Hypotheses, vol. 74, pp. 71-75, 2010.
L. De-Regil, C. Palacios, A. Ansary, R. Kulier, and J. Peña-Rosas, Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy (Review). The cochrane library issue 6. England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
J. Dratva, S. Merten, and U. Ackermann-Liebrich, "Vitamin D supplementation in swiss infants," Swiss Med Weekly, vol. 136, pp. 473-81, 2006.
H. Glerup, K. Mikkelsen, and K. Poulsen, "Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited," J Intern Med., vol. 247, pp. 260–8, 2000.
G. Fuleihan, "Vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East and its health consequences for children and adults," Clinic Rev Bone Miner Metab, vol. 7, pp. 77–93, 2009.
M. Holick, "The vitamin D epidemic and its health consequences," J Nutr., vol. 35, pp. 2739S–48S, 2005.
S. Bahijri, "Serum 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol in infants and preschool children in the Western region of Saudi Arabia etiological factors," Saudi Med J., vol. 22, pp. 973–9, 2001.
M. Sadat-Ali, A. AlElg, H. Al-Turki, F. Al-Mulhim, and A. Al-Ali, "Vitamin D levels in healthy men in eastern Saudi Arabia," Ann Saudi Med., vol. 29, pp. 378–82, 2009.
J. Aloia, M. Patel, R. Dimaano, M. Li-Ng, S. Talwar, M. Mikhail, S. Pollack, and J. Yeh, "Vitamin D intake to attain a desired serum 25–hydroxy vitamin D concentration," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, pp. 1952-58, 2008.
D. Dror and L. Allen, "Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy: Biology, outcomes and interventions," Nutrition Reviews, vol. 68, pp. 465-77, 2010.
Institute of Medicine, Food and nutrition board. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2010.
C. Gratton and I. Jones, Research methods for sports studies. London: Routledge, 2004.
J. Creswell, Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: Sage, 2009.
M. Elsammak, A. AL-Wossaibi, A. AL-Howeish, and J. Alsaeed, "High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Sunny Eastern region of Saudi Arabia: A hospital-based study," East Mediterr Health J., vol. 17, pp. 317-22, 2009.
G. MacSharry, "Finally the issue of vitamin deficiency in Ireland is highlighted," Western Herbal Medicine and Nutrition, 2007.
M. Calvo, S. Whiting, and C. Barton, "Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: Current status and data needs," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 80, pp. 1710S-6S, 2004.
A. Siddiqui, "Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency rickets in adolescent school girls in Western region, Saudi Arabia," Saudi Med J., vol. 28, pp. 441–4, 2007.
F. Christie and L. Mason, "Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding vitamin D deficiency among female students in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative exploration," Int J Rheum Dis., vol. 14, pp. 1-8, 2011.
D. Elshafie, H. Al-Khashan, and A. Mishriky, "Comparison of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples," Eur J Clin Nutr., vol. 66, pp. 742-5, 2012.
W. Azhar, "A determination of vitamin D status and intake of pregnant and non-pregnant Saudi Arabian women in Mecca, Saudi Arabia," B.Sc. Unpublished Dissertation, Eastern Michigan University, Michigan,USA, 2009.
R. Tarrant, M. Sheridan-Pereira, R. McCarthy, K. Younger, and J. Kearney, "Maternal and infant nutritional supplementation practices in Ireland: Implications for clinicians and policymakers," Irish Medical Journal, vol. 104, pp. 173-77, 2011.
Food Safety Authority of Ireland, Vitamin D – Q&A on vitamin D report recommendations for a national policy on vitamin D supplementation for infants in Ireland [Online]. Available: http://www.fsai.ie/faq/vitamin_d.html. [Accessed August 2014], 2001.
A. Elidrissy, S. Sedrani, and D. Lawson, "Vitamin D deficiency in mothers of rachitic infants," Calcif Tissue Int., vol. 36, pp. 266-68, 2006.
C. Garland, E. Gorham, S. Mohr, and F. Garland, "Vitamin D for cancer prevention: Global perspective," Ann Epidemiol, vol. 19, pp. 468-83, 2009.
S. Al Faraj and K. Al Mutairi, "Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia," Spine, vol. 28, pp. 177–9, 2003.
M. Holick Sunlight, "D’’ Ilemma: Risk of cancer or bone disease and muscle weakness," Lancet, vol. 357, pp. 4–6, 2001.
S. Reed, M. Laya, J. Melville, S. Ismail, C. Mitchell, and D. Ackerman, "Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and clinical associations among veiled East African women in Washington State," J Womens Health, vol. 16, pp. 206-13, 2007.
R. Glew, M. Crossey, J. Polanams, H. Okolie, and D. Vander Jagt, "Vitamin D status of semi-nomadic fulani men and women," Journal of the National Medical Association J Natl Med Assoc., vol. 102, pp. 485-90, 2010.
S. Pietras, B. Obayan, M. Cai, and M. Holick, "Vitamin D2 treatment for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency for up to 6 years," Arch Int Med, vol. 169, pp. 1806-8, 2009.
A. Dawodu and C. Wagner, "Mother-child vitamin D deficiency: An international perspective," Arch Dis Child., vol. 92, pp. 737–40, 2007.
C. Rosen, Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism, 7th ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2009.
M. Al-Ghamdi, S. Lanham-New, and J. Kahn, "Differences in vitamin D status and calcium metabolism in Saudi Arabian boys and girls aged 6 to 18 years: Effects of age, gender, extent of veiling and physical activity with concomitant implications for bone health," Public Health Nutr, vol. 15, pp. 1845-53, 2012.