Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation

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A Novel Approach for Lithium Extraction from Sea-Water and Subsequent Battery Fabrication for Solving Energy Crisis: Energizing the Earth for Future Dearth

Pages: 1-7
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A Novel Approach for Lithium Extraction from Sea-Water and Subsequent Battery Fabrication for Solving Energy Crisis: Energizing the Earth for Future Dearth

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.81.2021.51.1.7

Tamojit Poddar , Nirnimesh De , Sagnik Sarkar

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Liu, C., Li, Y., Lin, D., Hsu, P. C., Liu, B., Yan, G., & Chu, S. (2020). Lithium extraction from seawater through pulsed electrochemical intercalation. Joule, 4(7), 1459-1469.

Lu, J., Chen, Z., Pan, F., Cui, Y., & Amine, K. (2018). High-performance anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical Energy Reviews, 1(1), 35-53.

Miao, Y., Hynan, P., von Jouanne, A., & Yokochi, A. (2019). Current Li-ion battery technologies in electric vehicles and opportunities for advancements. Energies, 12(6), 1-20.

Murodjon, S., Yu, X., Li, M., Duo, J., & Deng, T. (2020). Lithium recovery from brines including Seawater, Salt Lake Brine, underground water and geothermal water. Thermodynamics and Energy Engineering: IntechOpen, Chapter 10, 187-226.Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.90371 .

Poddar, T., De, N., & Sarkar, S. (2020). Efficient engineering techniques for segregation and management of non-biodegradable wastes: Saving the earth by replenishing its dearth. International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research, 9(2), 123-137.Available at: 10.18488/journal.13.2020.92.123.137.

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Tamojit Poddar , Nirnimesh De , Sagnik Sarkar (2021). A Novel Approach for Lithium Extraction from Sea-Water and Subsequent Battery Fabrication for Solving Energy Crisis: Energizing the Earth for Future Dearth. Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation, 5(1): 1-7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.81.2021.51.1.7
The Environment seems to be in detrimental health conditions owing to extensive pollution from the vehicles using conventional sources of fuel energy. Renewable energy sources and technologies possess the acumen to provide solutions to the long-standing Global Energy problems and our paper unveils one such novel technique for the extraction of Lithium metal from Seawater (Renewable, Sustainable and Infinite Energy Resource), followed by the fabrication of Lithium batteries that would eventually be employed in the automobile and several other industries. The collected Seawater is first passed through a Graphene mesh network whereby, the water network bifurcates into two halves: one half consisting of pure water and the other half consisting of Brine which is our chief concern. This Brine contains Lithium in the form of insoluble Lithium Carbonate (Li2CO3) which when heated and then treated aptly, produces the target metal Lithium (discussed vividly with associate reactions in the full paper) which may be deployed in the manufacturing of rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs) for use in Green Vehicles. The formation of dendrites can be potentially done away with by effectively creating electrodes with Smoother Surface finishes. Furthermore, on adding small amounts of HF and H2O in the electrolyte, the resultant formation of Li2O and LiF coatings help to vanquish these dendrites and whiskers thereby making the procedure effective, efficient and void of any disparities.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is the introduction of a novel approach for the effective and efficient Lithium Extraction from Sea-water and consequent manufacturing of Lithium-Ion Batteries. The produced Lithium-Ion Batteries can be further utilized in Green Vehicles to promote a sustainable and environment-friendly transport system.

Fabrication, Characterization, Mechanical and Combustion Properties of Bio-Briquettes Derived from Agro-Wastes of Bush Mangonut Shell and Sugarcane Bagasse

Pages: 8-18
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Fabrication, Characterization, Mechanical and Combustion Properties of Bio-Briquettes Derived from Agro-Wastes of Bush Mangonut Shell and Sugarcane Bagasse

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.81.2021.51.8.18

Nkechinyere Olivia Eze , Ikelle Ikelle , Felix Sunday Nworie , Jerome Nworu , Theresa Onuegbu

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Nkechinyere Olivia Eze , Ikelle Ikelle , Felix Sunday Nworie , Jerome Nworu , Theresa Onuegbu (2021). Fabrication, Characterization, Mechanical and Combustion Properties of Bio-Briquettes Derived from Agro-Wastes of Bush Mangonut Shell and Sugarcane Bagasse. Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation, 5(1): 8-18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.81.2021.51.8.18
Sequel to the environmental problems associated with wastes in our environment and coupled with the need for effective waste management, this work produced briquettes from agro-wastes of bush mangonut shell (BMS) and sugarcane bagasse (SB). The agro-wastes were crushed to small particle sizes, and compressed in a screw press with compaction pressure of 13.4kPa to produce the briquettes. The metal content and morphology were determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) respectively. Proximate analyses of the biomasses and briquettes were done using standard methods. Compressive strength and calorific values of the briquettes was determined using compressive strength testing machine and Oxygen Bomb calorimeter respectively. The AAS analyses indicated the presence of Ca (32.19mg/kg), Si (1.43mg/kg), K (0.66mg/kg), P (0.04mg/kg) in SB and Ca (22.20mg/kg), Si (2.05 mg/kg), K (1.21mg/kg), P (0.02mg/kg) for BMS. SEM analyses showed different lignocellulosic structures. The ash contents of the BMS and SB were 4.92 ± 0.05% and 4.16 ± 0.02% respectively. The calorific value of the BMS briquette was 20.9 ± 0.36 MJ/kg and 20.8 ± 0.00 MJ/kg for SB briquette. The low ash content and low concentration of metals in the biomasses presented them as suitable feedstock for bio-fuel production. The briquettes have high calorific values and good mechanical properties, and are recommended for domestic and industrial purposes. Briquetting of agro wastes is economical as it is a way of converting wastes to wealth, and at the same time providing an alternative and renewable source of energy to man.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on bio briquette production. The study used new estimation methodology for fabrication of biobriquette. The paper contributes the first logical analysis of (BMS) and (SB). The paper's primary contribution is finding that (BMS) and (SB) can be a good source of energy. This study documents the fabrication of biobriquettes from waste (BMS) and (SB).