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Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

March 2015, Volume 2, 1, pp 1-10

Comparative Assessment of Co2 Emission Factors Estimated Using Stack Flue Gas Measurement Data for Two Types of Brick Kiln: A Case Study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam

Duc Luong Nguyen


Thanh Trung Nguyen


Duy Thai Nguyen


Duy Dong Nguyen

Duc Luong Nguyen 1

Thanh Trung Nguyen 2
Duy Thai Nguyen 3
Duy Dong Nguyen 4

  1. Department of Environmental Technology and Management, National University of Civil Engineering (NUCE),Giai Phong road, Hanoi, Vietnam 1

  2. Department of Energy and Environment, NUCE, Vietnam 2

  3. Department of Construction Machinery, NUCE, Vietnam 3

  4. Department of Building Services and Built Environment, NUCE, Vietnam 4

Pages: 1-10

DOI: 10.18488/journal.80/2015.2.1/

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In Vietnam, the brick production sector is one of the construction material production sectors that has large emission of CO2 – the major greenhouse gas, since it consumes a large amount of fossil fuels. This research aims at preliminarily estimating the CO2 emission factors for two major kiln technologies used in brick production sector in Vietnam, namely tunnel and vertical shaft brick kiln (VSBK). For this purpose, field measurement of CO2 concentration in stack flue gases of two brick factories in Phu Tho province – one of the largest brick production areas in the North of Vietnam were conducted. The results of data analysis have shown that the tunnel kiln has higher CO2 emission factors compared to those of VSBK. The lower specific energy consumption and lower heat losses are the major causes for lower CO2 emission factors of VSBK.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the CO2 emission factors for kiln technologies used in brick production sector in Vietnam. 



  1. International Energy Agency, "CO2 emissions from fuel combustion highlights. IEA statistics," 2011.
  2. Vietnam Construction Material Association, "Overview on the development of Vietnam construction material industry (In Vietnamese)," 2008.
  3. USEPA, "Method 3A - Determination of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in emissions from stationary sources (Instrumental Analyzer Procedure). Part 60 -- Standards of performance for new stationary sources, Appendix A to Part 60," 1991.
  4. USEPA, "Method 1 - sample and velocity traverses for stationary sources method. Part 60 -- Standards of performance for new stationary sources, Appendix A to Part 60," 1991.
  5. USEPA, "Method 2 - determination of stack gas velocity and volumetric flow rate (Type S Pitot Tube), Part 60 -- Standards of performance for new stationary sources, Appendix A to Part 60," 1991.
  6. Giovanetti and Volsteedt, "Vertical shaft brick kiln (VSBK) - An effective South-South technology transfer for climate change mitigation in the clay brick sector," presented at the Paper for the 16th  IUAPPA World Clean Air Congress, 2013.
  7. Asian Institute of Technology, "Small and medium scale industries in Asia: Energy and environment. Brick and ceramic sectors. ISBN 974-8209-03-2," 2003.
  8. USEPA, "Emission factor documentation for AP-42 section 11.3. Brick and structural clay product manufacturing," Final Report, 1997.


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