Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

June 2014, Volume 1, 1, pp 1-10

Direct Effects of Stubble Burning on Some Edaphic Characteristics of Coastal Plain Sands at Different Heating Intensities

I. D. Edem


P. Okoko


I. M. Etuk

I. D. Edem 1
P. Okoko 2
I. M. Etuk 3

  1. Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management, University of Uyo, Nigeria 1

  2. Department of Agric. and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Uyo 2

  3. Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Uyo, Nigeria 3

Pages: 1-10

DOI: 10.18488/journal.80/2014.1.1/

Share :


Stubble burning had been identified as a contributor to soil structural degradation and loss of plant nutrients. Contrary to this, some studies have suggested that burning activities might increase availability of plant nutrients and also reported that charcoal residues and charred biomass left on kiln sites improve the fertility of tropical soils by direct nutrient addition and retention. The effect is not sufficiently understood or quantify in areas with very high rainfall intensity that evidenced in high leaching and erosion associated with slope. We; (1) examined the effect of stubbles burning on soil conditions in acid sands, and (2) identified any changes in soil chemical and physical properties under burning at different level of intensity. The experimental fire was performed with measured dry biomass of 30, 90, 120 kg m-2,  in three replicates  on the plots to provide three levels of burning and the unburned plots  served as control. At each of the sampling points, random spots were core sampled and augered at 0-15 cm depth, with the aid of a Dutch auger and bulked together to give a composite sample. Laboratory methods of analyses were carried out on soil samples for particle size distribution, pH (soil reaction), organic matter contents, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg and Na). The textural class of the soils within the study area was found to be sandy loam with sand fraction being the dominant particle size in all locations after burning and was found to have significant effect on the particle size distribution.   Coarse sand fraction was higher in the burnt plot with the mean value of 16.00 gkg-1 in 30 and 120 kgm-2, 13.33 gkg-1 in 90 kgm-2 and 12.66 gkg-1 in the unburnt plot. Also soil burnt with 30 and 90 kgm-2 of the dry biomass was found to increase bulk density by 4 and 9 % respectively, while 6 % reduction in bulk density occurred in soil burnt with 120 kgm-2 stubble materials. Total nitrogen content was found to be significantly reduced as a result of burning, while available phosphorus was higher in burnt plots than in the un-burned soil.
Contribution/ Originality



  1. T. L. Bird, "Some effects of prescribed understory burning on tree growth and nutrient cycling, in Pinus patula plantations. MSc. dissertation, school of animal, plant and environmental sciences," The University of the Witwatersrand, vol. 96, p. 71, 2005.
  2. J. Mackensen, D. Holscher, R. Klinge, and H. Folster, "Nutrient transfer to the atmosphere by burning of debris in Eastern Amazonia," Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 86, pp. 121 -128, 1996.
  3. M. I. Bird, E. M. Veenendaal, C. Moyo, J. Lloyd, and P. Frost, "Effect of fire and soil texture on soil carbon in a sub-humid savannah (Matopos, Zimbabwe)," Geoderma, vol. 94, pp. 71–90, 2000.
  4. C. Fernández, J. A. Vega, J. M. Gras, T. Fonturbel, P. Cuiñas, E. Dam Brine, and M. Alonso, "Soil erosion after eucalyptus globulus clear cutting: Differences between logging slash disposal treatments," Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 195, pp. 85 - 95, 2004.
  5. J. C. Alegre and D. K. Cassel, "Dynamics of soil physical properties under alternative systems to slash-and-burn," Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 58, pp. 39 - 48, 1996.
  6. A. A. Oyekanmi and K. A. Okeleye, "Cassava production systems across some agro-ecological zones in South West-North West Axis of Nigeria," Asian J. Plant Sci., vol. 6, pp. 158-162, 2007.
  7. R. S. DeFries, C. B. Field, I. Fung, G. J. Collatz, and L. Bounoua, "Combining satellite data and biogeochemical models to estimate global effects of human-induced land cover change on carbon emissions and primary productivity," Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 13, pp. 803–815, 1999.
  8. World Bank, "Agriculture for development policy brief," Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture, 2008.
  9. E. Electric and P. Corporation, "Comparison among 22 different countries by installed power per person," Working Paper on Power Expansion Options. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2000.
  10. R. Lal, M. Griffin, J. Apt, L. Lave, and M. G. Morgan, "Ecology: Managing soil carbon," Science, vol. 304, pp. 393–393, 2004.
  11. J. Booysen and D. J. Rowswell, "The drought problem of the Karoo areas," in Proceedings of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa, 1983, pp. 40–45.
  12. H. A. Snyman, "Fire and the dynamics of semi-arid grassland: Influence on soil characteristics," Africa J. of Range and Forage Sci., vol. 19, pp. 137–145, 2002.
  13. H. A. Snyman, "Short-term response of rangeland following unplanned fires in terms of soil characteristics in a semi-arid climate of South Africa," J of Arid Environ, vol. 55, pp. 160–180, 2004.
  14. T. D. Auld and A. J. Denham, "How much seed remain in the soil after a fire?," Plant Ecol., vol. 187, pp. 15 – 24, 2006.
  15. F. P. Valzano, R. S. B. Grene, and B. W. Murphy, "Direct effects of stubble burning on soil hydraulic and physical properties in a direct drill tillage system," Soil Tillage Res., vol. 42, pp. 209-219, 1997.
  16. M. Sommer, Y. Kaczorek, Kuzyakov, and J. Breuer, "Silicon pools and fluxes in soils and landscapes – a review," J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., vol. 2, pp. 99-122, 2006.
  17. K. A. Nichols, S. F. Wright, M. A. Liebig, and J. J. L. Pikul, "Functional significance of glomalin to soil fertility," in Proceedings from the Great Plains Soil Fertility Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO, 2004.
  18. B. Glaser, J. Lehmann, and W. Zech, "Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal-A review," Biol. Fertile. Soils, vol. 35, pp. 219-230, 2002.
  19. A. T. Ogundele, O. S. Eludoyin, and O. S. Oladapo, "Assessment of impacts of charcoal production on soil properties in the derived savanna, Oyo State, Nigeria," J. Soil Sci. Environ. Manage., vol. 2, pp. 142-146, 2011.
  20. A. D. Isah and A. O. Adegeye, "Effects of burning on soil properties and growth of gmelina arborea seedlings in a savanna ecosystem," Journal of Agriculture and Environment, vol. 3, pp. 349-357, 2002.
  21. E. N. O. Iwuafor, B. D. Tarfa, E. Pam, and D. T. Yaro, "Effect of soil heating on soil properties and maize growth in an alfisol in Northern Guinea Savanna," Nigeria Journal of Soil Research, vol. 1, pp. 35-41, 2000.
  22. Q. M. Ketterings, J. M. Bigham, and V. Laperche, "Changes in soil mineralogy and texture caused by slash-and-burn fires in Sumatra, Indonesia," Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 64, pp. 1108–1117, 2000.
  23. A. L. Ulery and R. C. Graham, "Forest fire effects on soil color and texture," Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 57, pp. 135–140, 1993.
  24. Q. M. Ketterings and J. M. Bigham, "Soil color as an indicator of slash-and-burn fire severity and soil fertility in Sumatra, Indonesia," Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 64, pp. 1826–1833, 2000.
  25. I. D. Edem, R. A. Essien, and U. H. Udoh, "Heavy metal runoff dynamics from farmland around Ikpa river basin, Nigeria," Current World Environment, vol. 8, pp. 241-250, 2013.
  26. W. O. Enwezor, E. J. Udo, and R. A. Sobulo, "Fertility status and productivity of acid sand, In acid sand of South Eastern Nigeria," Soil Sci., vol. 123, pp. 110-116, 1981.
  27. E. J. Udo, T. O. Ibia, J. A. Ogunwale, A. O. Ano, and I. E. Esu, Manual of soil, plant and water analysis. Lagos: Sibon Books Limited, 2009.
  28. R. B. Grossman and T. G. Reinsch, Bulk density and linear extensibility: Core method. Methods of soil analysis. Part 4, physical methods. Madison: SSSA, Incorporated, 2002.
  29. G. W. Gee and D. Or, Particle size analysis. Methods of soil analysis. Part 4, physical methods. Madison: SSSA, Incorporated, 2002.
  30. A. Klute, Methods of soil analysis M, No. 9. Part. 2 physical and mineralogical properties. Madison, Wisconsin: AM. Soc. Agron, 1986.
  31. K. R. Hubbert, H. K. Prcisler, P. M. Wohlgemuth, R. G. Araham, and M. G. Narog, "Prescribed burning effects on soil physical properties and water repellency in a steep chaparral watershed," Southern California. USA Geoderma 2006, vol. 130, pp. 284-298, 2006.
  32. J. R. Nimmo and K. S. Perkins, Aggregate stability and size distribution. Method of soil analysis, part A, physical methods. Madison WI: SSA Inc, 2002.
  33. A. Walkley and A. Black, "An examination of degtjareff method of determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method," Soil Science, vol. 37, pp. 29-38, 1934.
  34. D. W. Nelson, "Determination of ammonium in KCl extracts of soils by the salicylate method," Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 14, pp. 1051-1062, 1983.
  35. F. O. R. Akamigbo, "The accuracy of field texture in humid tropical environment," Soil Surv. Land Eval., vol. 493, pp. 63-70, 1984.
  36. C. Chandler, P. Cheney, P. Thomas, L. Trabaud, and D. Williams, Fire in forestry. Forest fire behavior and effects vol. 1. New York: John Willey, 1983.
  37. L. F. DeBano, D. G. Neary, and P. F. Ffolliott, Fire effects on ecosystems. New York: Wiley, 1998.
  38. F. Caravaca and J. Albaladejo, "Aggregate stability and carbon characterization and forested soil of semi arid sprain," Soil Tillage Res., vol. 78, pp. 83-90, 2004.
  39. M. C. Carter, T. J. Dean, M. Zhou, M. G. Messina, and Z. Wang, "Short-term changes in soil C,N, and biota following harvesting and regeneration of loblolly pine (Pinus Taeda L.) for ecol," Manage., vol. 164, pp. 67–88, 2002.
  40. R. Lal and B. A. Stewart, Land degradation: A global problem. Advances in soil science 11. New York: Spring-Verleg Inc, 1990.
  41. M. S. Dolan, R. H. Dowdy, W. B. Voorhes, J. F. Johnson, and S. A. M. Bidwell, "Corn and potassium uptake in response to soil compaction," Agron. J., vol. 84, pp. 639-642, 1992.
  42. D. Badia and C. Marti, "Effect of simulated fire on organic matter and selected micro biological properties of two contrasting soils," Arid Land Res. and Manage., vol. 17, pp. 55 – 70, 2003.
  43. S. A. Materechera, O. T. Mandriringana, P. M. Mbokodi, and K. Nyamapfene, "Organic matter, PH and nutrient distribution in soil layer of a savannah thornveld subjected to different burning frequencies at alice, in the Eastern Cape," South Afr. J. of Plant and Soil vol. 15, pp. 109 –115, 1998.
  44. H. Knight, "Loss of nitogen from the forest floor following burning," For. Chron., vol. 42, pp. 149-152, 1966.
  45. A. D. Wan, R. L. Blevin, W. W. Frye, S. E. Peter, D. R. Christenson, F. J. Pierce, and M. L. Vitosh, "Impacts of agricultural management practices on C sequestration in forest-derived soil of the eastern corn belt," Soil &Tillage Res., vol. 47, pp. 235-244, 2005.
  46. R. J. Raison, "Modification of the soil environment by vegetation fires, with particular reference to nitrogen transformation," A Review. Plant Soil, vol. 51, pp. 73-108, 1985.
  47. J. C. Neff, J. W. Harden, and G. Gleixner, "Fire effects on soil organic matter content composition, and nutrients in boreal interior Alaska," Can. J. Forest Res., vol. 35, pp. 2178-2187, 2005.
  48. Q. M. Ketterings and J. M. Bigham, "Soil color as an indicator of slash-and-burn fire severity and soil fertility in Sumatra, Indonesia," Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 64, pp. 1826–1833, 2000.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Direct Effects of Stubble Burning on Some Edaphic Characteristics of Coastal Plain Sands at Different Heating Intensities
( 2 ) Presentation of Empirical Equations for Estimating Internal Friction Angle of SP and SC Soils in Mashhad, Iran Using Standard Penetration and Direct Shear Tests and Comparison with Previous Equations
( 3 ) Soil Thermal Properties and the Effects of Groundwater on Closed Loops
( 5 ) Effects of Climatic Change On Gsm Signal in Lagos Metropolitan Terrain
( 6 ) Agrochemicals and Personal Care Products: Occurrence, Effects, Analytical Determination and Treatment Processes
( 7 ) An Exploratory Study of Effects of Prepaid Metering and Energy Related Behaviour among Ghanaian Household
( 8 ) Likely Effects of Geological Features on Carbonate Rock Strength
( 9 ) Mössbauer Research of Surface-Surface Concentric-Zonal Color Effects in Zoloceramic Materials
( 10 ) Economic Contributions and Environmental Effects of Geothermal Energy: Çanakkale-Tuzla Geothermal Example
( 11 ) Effects of Municipal Abattoir Waste on Water Quality of Woji River in Trans-Amadi Industrial Area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Implication for Sustainable Urban Environmental Management
( 12 ) Effects of Hydroclimatic Variability on the Spatial Dynamics of Ponds (Simenti, Kountadala and Oudassi) of the Gambia River Basin in the Niokolo Koba National Park (Senegal)
( 13 ) Occupational Health Exposure and Perceived Effects of Portland Cement Dust Pollution on Cement Factory Workers
( 16 ) Lease of Noxious Gases During Burning of Mosquito Coils: A Pilot Study
( 18 ) Reliability and Rationing Cost: Some Analytical Implications for a Power System
( 19 ) Petrographic Study of Some Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in the Chagupana and Tarkwa Areas of Ghana
( 22 ) Geographical Distribution of Egyptian Lot-Chosen and Civil Associations’ Pilgrims - Chronic Diseases and their Demographic Characteristics
( 23 ) Climate Characteristics of Safranbolu (Karabuk) and Saffron Cultivation
( 24 ) Effect of Local Admixture Ipomoea Asarifolia (Ajara) on the Strength Characteristics of Stabilized and Unstabilized Lateritic Blocks
( 27 ) Application of Fractal Geometry to Study the Geological Structure of the Zarin Plain (Plain Razak)
( 28 ) Assessment of Landuse and Landcover Changes and its Implications to Flooding Along Omambala Flood Plain, Anambra State
( 30 ) Granulometric Study of the Lokoja Sandstone, Mid Niger Basin, Nigeria
( 31 ) Trace Metal Distribution in Surface Water, Sediment, and Tissues of Freshwater Catfish (Clarias. Gariepinus), From Oke- Afa Canal, Lagos Nigeria
( 32 ) Supercapacitors Based on Activated Carbon and Polymer Electrolyte
( 33 ) Qanat and Its Challenges in Ferdows County-Iran
( 34 ) A Comparative Study of Physical and Chemical Parameters in Sistan and Baluchistan University Wastewater and Its Re-Use of Wastewater
( 35 ) The Remote Sensing Imagery, New Challenges for Geological and Mining Mapping in the West African Craton - The Example of Cote D’ivoire
( 36 ) A Study of Stream Sediments from Soltan Meydan Basaltic Formation Area, Northern Iran
( 37 ) Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Agricultural Development A Block-Wise Study of Dehradun District
( 38 ) Investigation into the Realization of Naturalism in Hashtgerd New Town Based On the Iranian Islamic Model
( 39 ) Optimal Density Determination of Bouguer Anomaly Using Fractal Analysis (Case of Study: Charak Area, Iran)
( 40 ) Sea oil Spill: An Approach Difficult to Overcome by Insurance and International Regulation
( 41 ) An Investigation of Mineralogy and Microscopic Structure in Kerman City Sediments
( 42 ) Exsolution Lamellae in Orthopyroxene of Lherzolite from the Pauza Ultramafic Rocks, Ne Iraq: Evidence of Deep Mantle Signature in the Zagros Suture Zone
( 43 ) Land Degradation Due To Mining: The Gunda Scenario
( 44 ) Resolving Optimum Magnetic Signatures for Drill-Hole Targeting in Gold Exploration – A Case Study for Mbudzane in Gwanda, Zimbabwe
( 45 ) Tectomagmatic Origin of the Zahedan Batholiths – South East Iran (Reling on Intergrated Outcrop Study of the Petrology of High Mass in Loochan, Southwest Zahedan)
( 48 ) Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Achieving Desire BA in the Biotransformation of Benzaldehyde Using Free Cells of Saccharomyces Cerevisae and the Effect of Β-Cyclodextrin
( 49 ) Solvent Extraction of Oil from Soursop Oilseeds & its Quality Characterization
( 50 ) Professor: The Animal Planet Optimization
( 51 ) Micro Biostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)
( 52 ) Flood Hazard Assessment and Decisions Support Using Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Uyo Capital City, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 53 ) Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data by VES Method for Water Exploring Case Study: South West of Iran
( 54 ) Valorization of Hazelnut Biomass Framework in Turkey: Support and Model Guidelines from the Italian Experience in the Field of Renewable Energy
( 55 ) Geographic Information System (GIS) and Its Application in Urban Planning and Environment
( 56 ) Evaluate the Capabilities and Limitations Sustainable Rural Development in the Kermanshah District
( 57 ) Numerical Modeling of Wires Incorporation Response Applied To a Concealed Cable
( 58 ) Problems of Mechanized Tunneling In Gassy Ground Conditions a Case Study: Nousoud Water Transmission Tunnel
( 59 ) Temporal and Spatial Trend of Climate Variability in Vietnam
( 60 ) Energy Education as a Necessary Condition to Transition to a Robust Future Energy Security in Suriname
( 61 ) Transesterification of Caso With Low Amount of Free Fatty Acids and Its Optimization
( 62 ) Identifying Potential Zones of Crime Commitment against Tourists in a Park: Conceptual and Logical Spatial Data Modeling
( 63 ) Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Mineral Exploration and Exploitation in South-Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Igarra in Edo State
( 64 ) Environmental Conservation and Use of Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources in Nigeria
( 65 ) Analytical Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Residual Resistance Loss of Broken Wire Ropes Lifting
( 66 ) Micro Level Geo-Resistivity Survey through V.E.S. Test for Groundwater Feasibility Study and Selection of Bore Well Sites in Pipili Block of Puri
( 67 ) Improved Analytical Approach of Vibration Behavior Destined To Ball Bearings in The Case of Angular Contact
( 68 ) Thermodynamic Parameters for Solvation of Nano ZNO and Its Dopes In 50% DMSO - 50% DMF (V/V) Solutions at Different Temperatures
( 71 ) Modeling and Optimization of Phenylacetyylcarbinol Synthesis via Benzaldehyde: A Case of Artificial Neural Network vs. Response Surface Methodology
( 72 ) Carbon Sequestration Potential of Kpashimi Forest Reserve, Niger State, Nigeria
( 73 ) UPFC Integrated With Battery Energy Storage Systems for Stability Improvement
( 74 ) Eutrophication State Monitoring for Unhealthy Aquatic Ecosystem via Free-Floating Macrophytes Pattern and Behavioral
( 75 ) Aquatic Plants as Ecological Indicator for Urban Lakes Eutrophication Status and Indices
( 76 ) Sequestration Rate of Heavy Metal Contaminants Using Riccia Fluitans as Potential Phytoremediation Agent in Polluted Aquatic Ecosystem
( 78 ) Well Log Sequence Stratigraphic and Palynological Analysis of Late Miocene to Pliocene Agbada Formation, Southwestern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria
( 79 ) Effect of Active Mass in Electrode Disc on Performance of Li1.06ni0.313co0.313mn0.313o2cathode
( 80 ) Economic Load Dispatch in Thermal Power Plant Considering Additional Constraints Using Curve Fitting and Ann
( 81 ) Strategies for Tourism Development in National Parks with the Use of Swot Model (Case: Golestan National Park)
( 82 ) Laterite Sampling Preparation for Gold Exploration Survey at Western Burkina Faso, Northern Extension of the Lawra Belt
( 83 ) Application of Geospatial Analysis and Augmented Reality Visualization in Indoor Advertising
( 84 ) Phytoremediation Model System for Aquaculture Wastewater Using Glossostigma Elatinoides and Hemianthus Callitrichoides
( 85 ) An Estimate of the Tensile Strength Based On P-Wave Velocity and Schmidt Hardness Rebound Number
( 86 ) Investigating the Density Ratios of Geological Structure through Fractal Geometry Case Stady: (Dehno Region in Farss of Iran)
( 87 ) Comparative Assessment of Co2 Emission Factors Estimated Using Stack Flue Gas Measurement Data for Two Types of Brick Kiln: A Case Study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam
( 89 ) Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Two Species of Crabs from Chilika Lagoon, East Coast of India
( 90 ) Wind To Select the Recreation Flying Site
( 91 ) Microbiostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation in Kuh-E-Surmeh (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)
( 92 ) The Roles of Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) On the Practices of Soil and Water Conservation in the Case of Sekela District, Amhara State, Ethiopia
( 94 ) Governments Policy Reforms from 1970s Onward and It’s Implications on Land Use and Land Cover With the Help of GIS And RS Techniques In Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia
( 95 ) Urban Park Use, Quality Evaluation, and Resident Satisfaction Indicators in the City of Zahedan, Iran
( 96 ) Determining the Optimal Density of Neka Using Fractal Method and the Study of Its Geological Situation
( 97 ) A Study on Gravimeteric Situation in East of Uromieh Lake Region with Determination of Suitable Bouguer Density
( 98 ) Time Dependent Advection Diffusion Equation in Two Dimensions
( 99 ) Enhancement of Pyrolysis Yield Distribution and Particulate Emission of Empty Fruit Bunches by Washing Pre-Treatment
( 100 ) Characterization of Sedimentary Anzali Sand for Static and Seismic Studies Purposes
( 101 ) Chemical Composition and Facieses of Water from Vaskareh Village, Damavand: Implication for Industrial, Agricultural and Human Consumptions
( 102 ) Analysis of Farmers’ Vulnerability, Perception and Adaptation to Climate Change in Kwara State, Nigeria
( 103 ) Climate Change and Flood Disaster Management in Nigerian Urban Centres: The Architects’ Perspective
( 104 ) Assessment of Physico-Chemical Quality of Water in Aliero Dam (Kebbi State, Nigeria)
( 105 ) Geomorphology of the Piramagroon–Kanikhan Valley, Sulaimani Governorate, Kurdistan Region, North Iraq
( 106 ) Characterization of Sand Dunes to Detect the Sand Source and their Stabilization, Abardej, Iran
( 107 ) Satisfaction Assessment of the Quality of Life of Urban Families and their Roles in the Development of Zabol
( 108 ) The Relationship Between P-Wave Velocity and Slake Durability Index
( 109 ) Analysis of Dioxins Concentration in Domestic Waste and Burnt Tyre Residue at Gosa Dumpsite in Abuja, Nigeria
( 110 ) The Problems of Legal Regulations, Protection and Use of Groundwater (International Experience and Practice in Kazakhstan)
( 111 ) Experimental Research Concerning the Energy Performance Determination of a New Type of Rotating Working Machine
( 112 ) Improving the Geological Understanding of the Niger Delta Basin of Nigeria Using Airborne Gravity Data
( 114 ) An Analysis of Effective Factors on Spatial Distribution of Poverty in Rural Regions of Hamedan Province
( 115 ) Theoretical Solution of the Diffusion Equation in Unstable Case
( 116 ) Prioritization of Museums in Terms of Performance in Attracting Tourists (Case Study: Museum of North of Sistan and Baluchestan Province)
( 118 ) Indicators of Sustainability in Vernacular Settlements Hot Dry Region of Iran, [Case Study: Kerman-Meymand]
( 119 ) On Generation of Renewable Energy from Road Traffic
( 120 ) “Structural Post-Disaster Damage Classification with Consideration of Liquefaction Due To Flood: Manek Urai, Kelantan, Malaysia”
( 121 ) Forest as a Redeemer: Experiences Drawn from Selected Rural Ejagham Communities in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria
( 122 ) Attritional Structures the Major Factor in Increasing Endangerment by Earthquakes in Cities
( 123 ) Preliminary Study of Activated Carbon Filters for Pollutants Removal in Diesel Engines
( 124 ) Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Behavior of Shallow Foundation Resting on the Reinforced Sand with Embedded Pipes
( 125 ) Assessing the Catalytic Influence of Modern Information System and Socio-Economic Status on Communities’ Attitude and Awareness to Forest Resource Sustainability in Boki Local Government Area, Nigeria
( 126 ) Microbiostratigraphy, Microfacies and Depositional Environment of the Sarvak Formation in Bi Bi Hakimeh Oil Field (Well No. 29), Southwest Iran
( 127 ) Investigation of the Effect of Weather Conditions on Solar Energy in Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
( 128 ) Retracted: Pierced Salt Domes in the Persian Gulf and in the Zagros Mountain Ranges in Southern Iran and their Relationship to Hydrocarbon and Basement Tectonics
( 129 ) Retracted: Study Hydrogeochemistry Exploration of Thermal Spring in Ramsar Area, (North of Iran)
( 130 ) Strategic Management of Rural Tourism Towards Gender - Sensitive Planning
( 131 ) The Role of Stratigraphy in Growth Strata Studies: A Case Study from the Middle-Late Cretaceous Deposits in Persian Gulf, SW Iran
( 132 ) Is the Sosiani River Healthy? Investigating the Relationship between Water Quality Indicators and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Sosiani River
( 133 ) Technogenic Transformations of Sea Coasts on the Example of the Baltic Sea
( 134 ) Gaseous Air Quality Indicators along Traffic Routes in Greater Freetown, Sierra Leone
( 135 ) Challenges of Enforcement of Forestry Legislation in Taraba State, Nigeria
( 136 ) Urban Sprawl Analysis in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria
( 137 ) Zoning of Natural and Man-Made Disasters for Relief and Rescue Centers Site Selection Using the Model Logic (Case Study: Guilan Rural Area)
( 139 ) Simulation of Solar Photovoltaic, Biomass Gas Turbine and District Heating Hybrid System
( 140 ) Possibilities of Creating Swimming Pools with Zero Co2 Emissions Due to Energy Use in Them
( 141 ) Assessment of Environmental Effect of Abandoned Uranium Mine Site in Mika Village of Taraba State Nigeria
( 142 ) 'Manifestations and Extent of Climate Change'. The Case of Merti District, Arsi Zone, Oromiya Region, Ethiopia
( 143 ) Microfacies and Morphotectonic of the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (North of Chenaran)
( 144 ) The Impact of Al-Yarmouk University on the Commercial Uses Types (Retail Activities) of Shafeeq Irshedat Street (University Street in Irbid City- Jordan)
( 145 ) Promoting Climate Change Adaptation Measures for Improving Productivity among Smallholder Farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria
( 146 ) The Influence of Climate Variability on Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands, Yobe State, Nigeria
( 147 ) Analysis of the Trends in Temperature and Rainfall in Thika River Basin in Kenya
( 148 ) Spatial Appraisal of Problems and Prospects of Fertilizer Use for Agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area, Imo State Nigeria
( 149 ) Using Rubber Aggregate Derived from Discarded Tires for Producing Cement Concrete towards Resource Recovery and Environmental Protection in Vietnam
( 150 ) Microbiostratigraphy and Sedimentary Environment of the Sarvak and Kazhdumi Formations in Bahregansar Oil Field
( 151 ) Evaluation of Road Traffic Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectricity
( 152 ) Reinforcing Kenya Power National Grid Using Statcom Devices
( 154 ) Determinants of Farmers’ Engagement in Off-Farm (Non-Farm Activities) as Copping Strategies to Climate Change: The Case of Merti, Arsi Zone, Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia
( 155 ) Analysis of the Factors Affecting Changes in Land Cover Patterns in Rural Districts in East of Guilan Province (Iran) for Foresight
( 156 ) The Impact of Human Activities on the Ndivana Forest Reserves, Kwaya Kusar Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria
( 157 ) Porous Carbon Materials for Clean and Sustainable Energy
( 158 ) Dynamic Simulation and Modeling of a Novel Combined Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal Panel Hybrid System
( 159 ) Probable Deep Erosion by Continental Ice Sheet Melt Water Floods: Chalk Buttes Area of Carter County, Montana, USA
( 160 ) The Impact of Land Use on Spatial Variations of Begging in District Lahore_Pakistan
( 161 ) Landslide Hazard Evaluation and Zonation of Karaj-Chalus Road (North of Iran)
( 164 ) Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of Maastrichtian and Paleocene Sediments in the Northern Alborz, Iran, Using Foraminifera
( 165 ) The Relationship Between Low-Carbon Finance and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Industrial Bank of China
( 166 ) Climate Change, Cattle-Rearing and Creation of Ranches to Protect the Environment in Southwest, Nigeria
( 167 ) Did Global Warming and Climate Change Cause the Degradation of Lake Chad, Africa's Most Important 'Ecological Catastrophe'?
( 168 ) Variations of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Stability Conditions Over Climate Belts in Nigeria
( 169 ) Assessing the National Sanitation Policy in Rwanda
( 170 ) Analysis of the Effect of Variations in Refractivity Gradient on Line of Sight Percentage Clearance and Single Knife Edge Diffraction Loss
( 171 ) Determination of Refractivity Gradient and Modified Refractivity Gradient for Cross River State
( 172 ) Impact of the Optimal Tilt Angle on the Solar Photovoltaic Array Size and Cost for a 100 kWh Solar Power System in Imo State
( 173 ) Optimal Planning of Energy Hubs Considering Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Energy Storage System
( 174 ) Optimal Design of Hybrid Energy System Drives Small-Scale Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant
( 175 ) Using Refined Phosphogypsum to Replace Natural Gypsum in Portland Cement Production in Vietnam
( 176 ) Climate Change Vulnerability in Rwanda, East Africa