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National Urban Development Policy and the Unanswered Development Question of Slum in Nigeria

Pages: 102-115
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National Urban Development Policy and the Unanswered Development Question of Slum in Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.102.115

Salisu Ojonemi PAUL

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Salisu Ojonemi PAUL (2019). National Urban Development Policy and the Unanswered Development Question of Slum in Nigeria. International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 6(2): 102-115. DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.102.115
Urbanization itself is not a curse if positively managed. This is due to the current fact that there is a fundamental debate that the mobilization of human resources is critical and unavoidable for the political, socio-economic and technological transformation of any nation. Though successive governments in Nigeria have initiated the National Urban Development Policy however, the reverse is the case because the swelled urban towns and cities’ government have not made decisive efforts to meet the development demands of the city overflow which is referred to as “urban slum” that has created a sharp gap between the urban wealthy and urban poor. This paper, therefore, adopted the content analysis and Poverty-Focused Intervention Approach to analyze its major arguments. Hence, through primary and secondary data, the study presented some findings and recommendations. The research concluded with campaigns for efficient, inclusive and sustainable development of all settings of the urban sector in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by the pictorial exposition of the absence of impactful implementation of National Urban Development Policy in Nigeria resulting in –perpetual overcrowding, poor environmental management, inadequate critical infrastructure, poor supervision and abandonment of development projects, and the explosion of road-side-marketing by the slum occupants.

Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance Strategies among Multinational Corporations in Malaysia

Pages: 74-81
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Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance Strategies among Multinational Corporations in Malaysia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.74.81

Fazliza Mohd Kasim , Natrah Saad

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Fazliza Mohd Kasim , Natrah Saad (2019). Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance Strategies among Multinational Corporations in Malaysia. International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 6(2): 74-81. DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.74.81
Tax avoidance has been widely discussed around the globe, particularly among multinational corporations (MNCs). The MNCs are reported to have better opportunities to engage in aggressive tax planning techniques. Hence, this study examines the determinants of MNCs tax avoidance strategies by looking at their effective tax rates (ETRs). This study utilized the tax return form data from the Inland Revenue Board Malaysia (IRBM) to model ETRs of the MNCs in Malaysia, as a proxy of the tax avoidance. Regression analysis was performed in order to meet the objectives of the study. The findings suggest that MNCs in Malaysia can be associated with the tax avoidance since their ETRs are below the statutory tax rates (STRs) as stipulated under the Income Tax Act 1967. The results also suggest that firm’s size, profitability, extensiveness of foreign operation, capital intensity and leverage are the determinants of the tax avoidance of MNCs in Malaysia. The findings would assist the policymakers on the selection criteria of audit cases by focusing on MNCs with high profitability, extensive foreign operation, capital intensity and high leverage.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the literature by examining the determinants of MNCs tax avoidance strategies by looking at their effective tax rates (ETRs).

Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization

Pages: 82-90
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Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.82.90

Xuan Ji

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Xuan Ji (2019). Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization. International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 6(2): 82-90. DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.82.90
With the deepening implementation of the strategy of the rise of central China, the degree of opening up of Anhui Province has increased year by year. It is of great significance to study the impact of foreign direct investment in the optimization of industrial structure in Anhui Province and how to achieve efficient economic development during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. Using the method of empirical analysis, the time series data from 1997 to 2014 reflects the characteristics of the actual utilization of foreign direct investment and industrial restructuring in Anhui Province. There are significant differences in the contribution of the three industries to the added value of each industry. From the short-term effect, the actual use of foreign direct investment in the secondary industry contributes the most to its added value. From the long-term effect, the actual use of foreign direct investment in the second industry contributes the most to the current added value. Foreign direct investment has promoted the industrial structure of Anhui Province to a certain extent, but it has aggravated the imbalance of the industrial structure at the same time.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that foreign direct investment has promoted the evolution of the industrial proportion of Anhui Province from the first industry dominance to the second industry dominance, and also promoted the upgrading of the industrial structure.

Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria

Pages: 91-101
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Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.91.101

Onyeizugbe Chinedu Uzochukwu , Okoroji Nnadozie Uchenna

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Onyeizugbe Chinedu Uzochukwu , Okoroji Nnadozie Uchenna (2019). Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria. International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 6(2): 91-101. DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.91.101
Currently, the rate at which information is flowing from employer to employee makes it almost difficult for employees to ensure that all records have been read before attempting to destroy them. This study therefore examines organizational memory and employee performance in federal parastatals in Enugu state of Nigeria. The specific objective is to determine the extent of relationship that exists between shared knowledge and employee commitment of the parastatals in Enugu state of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and descriptive survey design was used. The study was anchored on Social Learning Theory by Bandura (1976). The population of the study is 120 staff and 92 were sampled. The data used was a primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, 23). The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between shared knowledge and employee commitment. The study recommends among others that parastatals should ensure that their employees are competent so as to measure to the innovative changes in the organization.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the level of relationship that exists between organisational memory and employee performance with specific focus on shared knowledge and employee commitment of Federal parastatals in Nigerian environment.

Fiscal Reaction Functions and Public Debt Sustainability in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism Approach

Pages: 116-132
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Fiscal Reaction Functions and Public Debt Sustainability in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism Approach

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.116.132

Opeoluwa A. Adeosun , Sikiru A. Adedokun

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Opeoluwa A. Adeosun , Sikiru A. Adedokun (2019). Fiscal Reaction Functions and Public Debt Sustainability in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism Approach. International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 6(2): 116-132. DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.116.132
The pervasiveness and persistent spiral of public debt in the country provide needed insights to determine the tendency for achieving sustainable debt. This, essentially, spurs the study to examine the responsiveness of Nigeria’s fiscal authorities to rising debt accumulation. As such, the study employs conventional unit root and cointegration approaches to estimate the fiscal reaction functions used in the study. Findings suggest that the existence of equilibrium relationship, in the models estimated, signals the fulfillment of the necessary condition for achieving debt sustainability. However, the sufficient condition for a sustainable public debt could not be met; this is evident in the negative response of government primary balances to changes in public debt in the long run. These findings readily affirm that government’s fiscal behaviour is not in tandem with the tenet of the intertemporal budget constraint as fiscal authorities could not generate enough surpluses in reaction to public debt increases. Therefore, there is threat to the feasibility of ensuring a sustainable public debt, importantly, as fiscal pressures and excesses still remain endemic issues. The study concludes that the fiscal operations of Nigerian government cannot sufficiently allow for a sustainable debt; hence, consistent running of this fiscal stance could either spur harsh adjustment measures in the long run or result to insolvency and default.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the sparse studies that elucidate the tendency for achieving public debt sustainability in Nigeria through the lens of fiscal reaction functions which are hinged on the government budget constraints.

The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis

Pages: 133-146
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The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.133.146

A.K. M Ismoddoha , Md. Bashir Uddin Khan

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A.K. M Ismoddoha , Md. Bashir Uddin Khan (2019). The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis. International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 6(2): 133-146. DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.133.146
In Bangladesh, a very limited number of studies are prevalent to understand the condition of women prisoners. To know the real situation in this regard, we collected data by in-depth interviewing with 10 released women prisoners of two purposively selected jails (from Dhaka and Tangail district) from the two central districts of Bangladesh. For data collection and analysis for this study, we applied the qualitative method (case study). We analyzed the socio-economic factors behind their crime commission, their perception towards jail administration and the impact of their incarceration on their children. The findings revealed that lower socioeconomic condition can be a factor behind the women’s criminal outbreak. Lack of accommodation, proper food, drugs, prison atmosphere, staff's behavior, and employment opportunities are the major problems faced by the prisoners in jails. Their perception regarding jail administration was considerably adverse. We also found that mothers’ incarceration significantly influences their children regarding various short and long term exposure to behavioral problems. Moreover, children with incarcerated mothers are found to be more likely to suffer from mental health issues and deprived of the mainstream academic curriculum. Extensive separations from children have been shown to have an impact on incarcerated mothers as well. The legal rights and privileges for the women prisoners are in many cases absent in most of the cases analyzed here.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by minimizing the gap of scientific investigation regarding the effectiveness of prison system in Bangladesh in dealing with the inmates.

Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Pages: 147-156
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Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.147.156

Okolo, Marvis Ndu , Irem, Earnest Nnaemeka , Ugwuoke, Chinonso. J

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Okolo, Marvis Ndu , Irem, Earnest Nnaemeka , Ugwuoke, Chinonso. J (2019). Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 6(2): 147-156. DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2019.62.147.156
The study aims to determine the impact of value for money auditing in Ebonyi State with regards to ensuring efficient and effective accountability of public fund, as well as to ascertain how the application of value for money audit helps in enhancing the transparency of accounting system. Two hypotheses were put together in line with the objectives of the study. Survey method was adopted as the research design and data was collected through the use of questionnaire. Data generated was examined using percentages and the formulated hypotheses were tested with the help of chi- square statistical formula at 5% level of significance. It found that value for money audit has a significant impact in ensuring that the public fund is effectively and efficient accounted for; it also reveal that value for money audit is capable of enhancing the transparency of accounting system. The implication of this finding is that the absence of audit department or adequate qualified value for money audit staff in any sector will result to ineffective and inefficient transparency of accounting system and unaccountability of public fund. This study concludes that the impact of value for money audit in the performance of public sector cannot be overemphasized where there is no political and administrative interference of the controlled council officials. Therefore, the study recommends among others, that the government should improve the remuneration and fringe benefits of auditors as this would enhance their efficiency and sincerity in carrying out their duties.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes in the existing literature as to ascertaining the impact of VFM audit as regard to the effectiveness, efficiency and economy of an organizations use of resources in the case of Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State of Nigeria.