Citations


Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062
USA

Conference List

Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density

Ahukaemere, C.M

,

Obasi, S.N

,

Egbuche, C.T

,

Aririguzu, B.N.

Ahukaemere, C.M 1 ,

Obasi, S.N 2
Egbuche, C.T 3
Aririguzu, B.N. 1 
  1. Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. 1

  2. Department of Crop and Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, National Open University of Nigeria, Kaduna Campus, Nigeria. 2

  3. Department of Forestry and Wildlife Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria. 3

Pages: 84-92

DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.84.92

Share :

Article History:

Received: 06 December, 2019
Revised: 09 January, 2020
Accepted: 14 February, 2020
Published: 12 March, 2020


Abstract:

Accurate quantification of the changes in carbon stocks of different horizons of the soil profile pit in relation to soil bulk density is a prerequisite to understand the role of soil in the global carbon cycling and climate change mitigation. This paper seeks to draw attention to the carbon storage capacity of the individual soil horizon with particular emphasis on soil bulk density. Three (3) profile pits were dug at equal distance of 100 meters. These profile pits were carefully sampled and analysed in the laboratory using standard methods. Soil data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), regression and coefficient of variation analyses using SPSS. Results showed that A, Ap, AB and Bt were the soil horizons identified in the three different soil profiles at the time of sampling. Bulk density values ranged from 1.43 – 1.66 g cm-3 (mean = 1.49 g cm-3) in profile pit 1, 1.43 – 1.62 g cm-3 (mean = 1.53 g cm-3) in profile pit 2 and 1.15 – 1.64 g cm-3 (mean = 1.40 g cm-3) in profile pit 3 respectively. In profile 1, 2 and 3, the average carbon stock ranged from 4500.6, 3791.67 and 3689.2 g C m-2 respectively. From the PCA results, four variables were observed, they include organic carbon, inorganic carbon, water stable aggregate and carbon stock. The first PC (PC1 = organic carbon) had a value of 0.968, PC2 (inorganic carbon) = 0.968, PC3 (water stable aggregate) = 0.874 and PC4 (carbon stock) = 0.844, indicating positive effects. From the PC plot, the eigenvalues are 3.57, 3.08, 1.78 and 1.10. However, the first PC explains 32.47 % of total variation whiles the second, third and fourth PCs explain 60.47, 76.67 and 86.72 % respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributed substantially to the effective understanding of carbon accumulation in soil in relation to soil compaction; hence, for the comprehension of the exact quantity of carbon accumulated in the soil, accurate measurement of the amount of carbon sequestered by individual natural horizon of the soil profile is imperative.

Keywords:

Carbon stock, Horizon, Bulk density, Organic carbon, Climate change.

Video:

Reference:

Abebayehu, A. (2013). Evaluating organic carbon storage capacity of forest soil: Case study in Kafa Zone Bita District, Southwestern Ethiopia. American Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 13(1), 95-100.

Ahukaemere, C. (2016). Sub-soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration: Soil profile measurement approach. Malaysian Journal of Soil Science, 20, 37-48.

Ahukaemere., C. M., Onweremadu, E. U., C., C. M., Uzoho, B. U., Ndukwu, B. N., Egbuche, T. C., & Akamigbo, F. O. R. (2017). Soil carbon sequestration capacity measurement per centimetric depth unit: A rational approach. European Journal of Physical and Agricultural Sciences, 5(1), 40-48.

Arshad, M. A., Lowery, B., & Grossman, B. (1996). Physical tests for monitoring soil quality. In: J.W Doran and A.J.Jones (Eds.), methods for assessing soil quality (pp. 123-142). Madison, W.I: Soil Science Society of America Special Publication.

Barros, H. S., & Fearnside, P. M. (2015). Pedo-transfer functions for estimating soil bulk density in central Amazonia. Brazilian Journal of Soil Science, 39(2), 397-407.

Batjes, N. H. (1996). Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. International Soil Reference and Information Center (ISRIC): European Journal of Soil Science, 47, 151-163.

Bernoux, M., Carvalho, M. D. S., Volkoff, B., & Serri, C. C. (2002). Brazils soil carbon stocks. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 66, 888- 896.

Brahim, N., Bernoux, M., Blavet, D., & Gallali, T. (2010). Tunisian soil organic carbon stocks. International Journal of Soil Science, 5(1), 34-40. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijss.2010.34.40.

Don, A., Schumacher, J., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Scholten, T., & Schulze, E.-D. (2007). Spatial and vertical variation of soil carbon at two grassland sites—implications for measuring soil carbon stocks. Geoderma, 141(3-4), 272-282. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2007.06.003.

FAO. (2006). World reference base for soil resources 84 world soil resources report. Italy: ISSS-AISSIBG, FAO Rome.

FDALR. (1985). The reconnaissance soil survey of Imo State (1: 250, 000) (pp. 133). Owerri: Federal Department of Agricultural Land Resources.

Gee, G. W., & Or, D. (2002). Particle size analysis. In: J.H. Dane and G.C. Topp (eds). Methods of soil analysis, part 4. physical methods. Soil Science Society of America.  Book series (255-293 ed.). Madison: ASA and SSA.

Grossman, R. B., & Reinch, T. G. (2002). Bulk density and linear extensibility in: Methods of soil analysis part 4. Physical methods. Dane, J.H and G.C. Topp (Eds.), Soil Science Soc. Am. Book series No. 5 (pp. 201-228). Madison, W.I: ASA and SSA.

Haney, R., Franzluebbers, A., Porter, E., Hons, F., & Zuberer, D. (2004). Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68(2), 489-492.

Mbah, C., & Idike, F. (2011). Carbon storage in tropical agricultural soils of south eastern Nigeria under different management practices. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science, 1(2), 53-57.

Nelson, D. W., & Sommers, L. E. (1996). Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods (pp. 103). Nsukka: Soil Science Society of American Book Series.

NIMET. (2017). Climate weather and water information, for sustainable development and safety. Agrometeorlogical Bulletin No. 3, Dekad 3. Jan. 21 – 31.

Obi, M. E. (1990). Soil physics: A compendium of lectures, University of Nigeria of human-induced soil degradation. An explanatory note (2nd Revised ed.). Wageningen: International Soil Reference and Information Center.

Ogban, P., & Ekerette, I. (2001). Physical and chemical properties of the coastal plain sands soils of southeastern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil and Environmental Research, 2, 6-14.

Ostrowska, A., Porębska, G., & Kanafa, M. (2010). Carbon accumulation and distribution in profiles of forest soils. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 19(6), 1307-1315.

Powlson, D. S., Whitmore, A. P., & Goulding, K. W. (2011). Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change: A critical re‐examination to identify the true and the false. European Journal of Soil Science, 62(1), 42-55. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2010.01342.x.

Thomas, G. W. (1996). Soil pH and soil acidity. In: L.D., Sparks (Ed)., Methods of soil analysis, Part 3- chemical methods. Book Series. No 5 SSSA and ASA, Madison, WI, 475 – 489.

Vereș, D. Ș. (2002). A comparative study between loss on ignition and total carbon analysis on mineralogenic sediments. Studia UBB Geologia, 47(1), 171-182. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5038/1937-8602.47.1.13.

Wilding, L. P. (1985). Spatial variability: Its documentation, accommodation, and implication to soil surveys. In: Soil Spatial Variability. Nielsen, D. R. and Bouma, J. (Eds) (pp. 166-194). The Netherlands: Pudoc. Wageningen.

Statistics:

Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor

Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

 All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density
( 2 ) Effect of Different Sources of Fertilizers on the Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Kohat-2000 Under Rainfed Conditions of Kohat During 2012
( 3 ) Evaluation of Field Pea (Pisum Sativum L) Genotypes Performance for Yield and Yield Components at Five Growing Environments of Southern Ethiopia
( 4 ) Association between Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. (Moench) Under Different Watering Intervals
( 5 ) Effect of Intra Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Carrot (Daucus Carrota L.Sub Sp. Sativus)
( 6 ) Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia
( 7 ) Heterosis for Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Yield and Yield Components in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
( 9 ) GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia
( 10 ) Comparative Growth Analysis and Yield Performance of Glycine Max under Jatropha Curcas Based Agrisilviculture System of Agroforestry in the Northern Part of Bangladesh
( 11 ) Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability to Guide Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolar) Production in Miesso Areas, Eastern Ethiopia
( 12 ) Analysis of Determinants of Demand and Supply of Maize in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 13 ) Analysis of Fresh Fish Marketing in Ngaski Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria
( 14 ) Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 15 ) An Analysis of the Pre and Post Harvest Management Techniques in Rice Production: The Case of Unvda Ndop, North West Region, Cameroon
( 16 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with and Without Credit Access in Swazil and the Case of the Hhohho Region
( 17 ) Chemical Analysis of Acacia Ehrenbergiana (Salam) Tree Fruits (Seed and Pods) As Dry Season Supplement For Livestock in Arid and Semi –Arid Lands of Sudan
( 18 ) Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia
( 19 ) Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis
( 20 ) Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland
( 21 ) Analysis of Climate Change Effects among Rice Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 22 ) Analysis of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 23 ) Design of Experiment - Optimization of HPLC Analysis of Vitamin A and E in Margarine and Vegetable Oil
( 24 ) Determinants of Farmers' Use of Land Reclamation Practices in Oil Producing Areas of Imo State, Nigeria: Application of Multivariate Logistic Analysis
( 25 ) A Tobit Analysis of Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology among Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria
( 26 ) Identification of Soybean Genotypes (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill) Through Genetic Variability Analysis
( 27 ) Runoff Response to Climate Variability: An Analysis of Thika River Basin in Kenya Using Hydrological Simulation Model (Hysim)
( 28 ) Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya
( 29 ) Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes
( 30 ) Potential Economic Benefit and Producers’ Willingness to Adopt Bt-Brinjal in Bangladesh: An Ex-Ante Analysis
( 31 ) Dynamic Shift-Share Analysis of Forestry Industry Structure and Competitiveness in Heilongjiang Province
( 32 ) Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia
( 34 ) Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network
( 35 ) Evaluating Variation in Seed Quality Attributes in Pinus Patula Clonal Orchards using Cone Cluster Analysis
( 36 ) Trend Analysis of Climatic Variables at Mulde Location of Maharashtra State
( 37 ) Production and Value Chain Analysis of Lentil in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
( 38 ) Comparative Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Equations in Semi-Arid Climatic Conditions
( 39 ) Exploring the Climate Change Impact on Major Food Crops of Bangladesh - A Time Series Analysis
( 40 ) Monte Carlo Modeling for Aflatoxin B1 Distribution in Pistachio Samples: A Prerequisite for Sampling Plan Validation
( 42 ) Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt
( 43 ) Development of a Mathematical Model for Angle of Soil Failure Plane in Case of 3-Dimenssional Cutting
( 45 ) Effect of Disc and Tilt Angles of Disc Plough on Tractor Performance under Clay Soil
( 46 ) Diversity, Use Pattern and Management of Forest Resources in the Eastern Himalaya: A Case Study of Mizoram, India
( 47 ) Urban Area - Review of Protective Forest Management
( 48 ) Soil Respiration, Microbial Biomass and Ratios (Metabolic Quotient and Mbc/Toc) As Quality Soil Indicators in Burnt and Unburnt Aleppo Pine Forest Soils
( 49 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 50 ) The Influence of Probiotics and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters in Broilers
( 51 ) Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. [Walp]) Genotypes for Stability Of Performance Over 4 Years
( 53 ) Key for First Recorded Dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) Fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
( 54 ) Performance Evaluation and Adaptation of Lentil Varieties in Lemu, Gumur and Damot Gale Districts of Southern Ethiopia
( 55 ) Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction
( 56 ) Effect of Whole Inedible Date and Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance of Ross 308 Broiler Chicks
( 57 ) Profitability of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Production and Marketing in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State: A Case for Honey
( 58 ) Examination of Oribatid Mites for Cysticercoids of Moniezia Sp
( 59 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 63 ) Effects of Dried Rumen Contents Level in Rations on the Performance of Shugor Desert Sheep in Halfa Elgadeda, Kassala State, Sudan
( 66 ) Application of Agroforestry Techniques in the Management of Bamboo
( 67 ) Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals- an Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft
( 68 ) “Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”
( 69 ) Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia
( 70 ) Evaluation of the Biomass of the Green Oak (Quercus Rotundifolia) of the Central Middle Atlas: Case of the South Jbel Aoua Forest (Morocco)
( 71 ) Study on Agronomic Evaluation of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum, Mill.) Varieties for Phonological, Growth and Yield Characters
( 72 ) Effect of Jameed Form on the Chemical Composition, Rheological and Microbial Properties
( 74 ) Performance of Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in the Shiselweni Region of Swaziland
( 75 ) Multi-Environment Variety Testing (Pre-Met) for Irrigated Ecosystem in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
( 76 ) A Suction Trap for Sampling Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan Trees
( 77 ) Effects of Segregated Early Weaning at 7 Days on Dams Body Condition, Parturition Interval and Offspring Birth Weight and Litter Size in the Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) for Intensive Production
( 78 ) An Example of Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: Production of Pine Nuts
( 79 ) A New Activity in Turkey's Agricultural Forestry: Truffle Mushroom Cultivation
( 81 ) Evaluation of the Sustainability Criteria of Forest Management in the Municipality Palma Soriano, Santiago De Cuba Province
( 82 ) Prospects of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 83 ) Variation of Wood Density in Tropical Rainforest Trees
( 84 ) Forest Ecosystem Service Valuation: A Case of the Kalika Community Forest, Dhading, Central Nepal
( 85 ) Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
( 86 ) Forecasting Goat Milk Production in Turkey Using Artificial Neural Networks and Box-Jenkins Models
( 87 ) Performance of Growing Grasscutters Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Soybean Meal Replaced by Brewers Dried Grain
( 89 ) Optimization of Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius) Extract Syrup Formula as a Nutritive Antioxidant Drink
( 91 ) The Value of Selected Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya
( 92 ) Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Rooting and Shooting Performance of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) Cuttings in Hydroponic Culture System
( 93 ) Roles of Extension Services in Adoption of Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in South West Nigeria
( 94 ) Influense of Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) for Stenting Propagation of Cut Rose
( 95 ) Tabu-Genetic Algorithm-Based Model for Poultry Feed Formulation
( 96 ) Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro- Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
( 97 ) Optimal Rate of Nitrogen and Intra-Row Spacing for Economical Production of Onion under Irrigated Farming System in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 98 ) Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
( 99 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 101 ) Socioeconomic Impact of Bagging Technology for Value Addition in Mango in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh
( 102 ) Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon
( 103 ) Evaluation of Leaf-Water Relation Traits, as Selection Criterion for Developing Drought Resistant Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes
( 104 ) Comparative Evaluation of Six Different Storage Materials for Long-Term Preservation of Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) Seeds
( 105 ) Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Animals
( 106 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 107 ) Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology
( 108 ) Phenotypic Performance Evaluation of Improved Tef (Eragrostis tef L) Genotypes in North Gondar
( 110 ) Penman and Thornwait Equations for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Under Semi-Arid Environment
( 111 ) Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State
( 112 ) Color-Based Forest Cover Type Image Segmentation using K-Means Clustering Approach
( 113 ) Comparing the Molluscicidal Action of Metaldehyde, Oxamyl, Potassium Nitrate and a Botanical Insecticide for Managing Limacolaria Spp Infesting Banana Plantations in Cameroon
( 114 ) Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria
( 115 ) Growth Performance of Kit Rabbits Fed Concentrate Diet Supplemented with Varying Foliage Leaf Meals
( 116 ) Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion
( 117 ) Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas
( 118 ) Seedlings Performance of Triplochiton scleroxylon (K. Schum.) under Different Light Intensities and Soil Textural Classes
( 119 ) The Role of Drones as an Enabler for the 4th Agricultural Revolution
( 120 ) Breeding for Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky) Resistance in Maize (Zea mays L)
( 121 ) Estimation of Ground Water Recharge for Irrigation Water Budget Planning in Kanzenze Swamp
( 122 ) Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone
( 125 ) Soil-Blade Interaction of a Rotary Tiller: Soil Bin Evaluation
( 127 ) Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
( 129 ) Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt
( 130 ) Status of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in Southwestern Nigeria
( 131 ) Improvement of Maize Productivity (Zea Mays L.) by Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Ferruginous Soil in Center of Benin
( 132 ) Assessment of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Three Contrasting Soils Under Different Land Use Systems
( 133 ) Assessment of Potassium Leaching Behaviour in Selected Soils of Southeastern Nigeria
( 134 ) Effect of Blended Fertilizer and Lime Application on Yield of Finger Millet, and Soil Properties of Acidic Soils in Western Ethiopia
( 136 ) Characterization and Classification of Cropland-Soils Affected by Erosion in Igbudu Ikwo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 139 ) Root Density, Distribution and Yield Relationships of High Yielding Sugarcane Varieties Under Sandy Soil Condition
( 141 ) Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube
( 142 ) Bioaccumulation of Hydrocarbon, Heavy Metals and Minerals in Tympanotonus Fuscatus from Coastal Region of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
( 143 ) Reduction of the Carbon Footprint in Agricultural Greenhouses
( 145 ) Carbon Sequestration Assessment of Selected Campus Champion Trees
( 147 ) Tree Species Diversity and Productivity Relationship in the Central Region of Bangladesh
( 148 ) Correlation between Milk Yield, Somatic Cell Count and Milk Quality in Dairy Farming
( 149 ) Empirical Study on the Relationship between Market Share, Advertising Density and Ratio of Sales
( 152 ) The Relationship between Food Production, Agricultural Land, Rice Production, and Rice Price: An Empirical Study on Thailand and Viet Nam
( 155 ) Farmer’s Decision To Practice Crop Rotation in Arsi Negelle, Ethiopia: What are the Determinants?
( 156 ) Storage Stability of Intermediate Moisture Cauliflower Brassica Oleracea, Var, Botrytis Cabbage Brassica Oleracea, Var, Capitata Using Radiation as Hurdle Technology
( 157 ) Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite
( 158 ) Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions
( 159 ) Antioxidant Activity of Eight Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.) Varieties Grown in Algeria
( 161 ) Olfactory Response of an Assassin Bug, Rhynocoris Longifrons (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) To the Hexane Extracts of Different Agricultural Insect Pests
( 162 ) Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)
( 163 ) Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad
( 164 ) Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage
( 167 ) Effect of Different Concentrations of Vermicompost (Biohumus) On the Root Collar Diameter and Height Growth in the Seedlings of Anatolian Black Pine
( 170 ) Review: Plant Resistance to Agriculture Insect Pests
( 172 ) Survey on Economical Important Fungal Diseases of Tomato in Sub-Zoba Hamemalo of Eritrea
( 174 ) Frequency of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Egg per Gram Faeces Count of Nematodes in Black Bengal Goat under Field Condition in West Bengal, India
( 175 ) Constraints to Brood and Sell Poultry Production among Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria
( 177 ) Variation in Density and Shrinkage between Sawmill and Hand Processed Khaya Senegalensis Woodin Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria
( 178 ) Effect of Using Different Pre-Storage Warming Times on Hatchability of White Hisex Breeders’ Eggs
( 179 ) Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf
( 180 ) Combined Microbial Inoculation as a Promising Approach to Enhance Promiscuous Soybean Nodulation and Nitrogen Content in Sudan Savanna
( 181 ) Stover Yield and Chemical Composition in Some Sorghum Varieties in Gadarif State, Sudan
( 182 ) Cholesterol Content of Bull Spermatozoa Alters Survival at Ultra-Low Temperatures
( 184 ) Effects of Degasified Extender on Quality Parameters of Cryopreserved Bull Spermatozoa
( 186 ) In Vitro Differential Effect of Nerve Growth Factor on Functional Parameters of Murrah Buffalo Spermatozoa in Low and High Fertile Groups
( 188 ) Microbiological Profile, Shelf Stability and Some Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Flour from Different Sweet Potato Cultivars
( 189 ) Exposure of Medium Dose Gamma Rays and Storage Conditions Influenced the Weight Loss and Ripening of Alphonso Mango
( 191 ) Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande)
( 193 ) Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan
( 195 ) The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Social Aspects, Genetic Resources and Conservation of Companion Animal Cats (Felis Catus)
( 196 ) Straw Composting with Biological Agent Inoculation and Application Biofertilizer to Increase Rice Production
( 197 ) Comparative Effect of Organic and In-Organic Fertilizer Treatment on the Growth and Tuberyeild of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batata L)
( 198 ) Mobile Food Consumption Monitoring Application
( 199 ) The Effects of Magnetic Field on Germination of Seeds and Growth of Seedlings of Stone Pine
( 200 ) Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old
( 201 ) Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition