Applications of microbial inoculants and reduced amount of inorganic fertilizers could lead to low-input agriculture and sustain smallholders’ crops production. In this study, the effect of promiscuous soybean inoculation with combined microbial inoculants was evaluated during harmattan season under furrow irrigation. Rhizobial inoculants and urea on one hand, and fungal inoculants and triple superphosphate (TSP) on the other hand, were considered as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources, respectively. The soil was sandy loam and slightly alkaline. Significant effect from rhizobial inoculants was observed on nodule dry weight. As well, the interaction between N and P source had significant effect on %Ndfa. The interaction between 1495MAR and TSP induced the highest %Ndfa. The dual inoculation of 1495MAR and Rhizatech induced relatively high shoot N content. This study showed TGx soybean responded to rhizobial inoculation in Nigeria Sudan savanna. It showed that biofertilizers could effectively increase soybean yield under furrow irrigation. It also suggested that microbial inoculants could perform during harmattan season. Furthermore, the study showed that selective interactions occur between rhizobial strains and fungal inoculants for soybean development.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effects of commercial rhizobial and fungal inoculants on promiscuous soybean during harmattan dry season in Sudan savanna.
Abaidoo, R.C., H.H. Keyser, P.W. Singleton and D. Borthakur, 2000. Bradyrhizobium spp. (TGX) isolates nodulating the new soybean cultivars in Africa are diverse and distinct from bradyrhizobia that nodulate North American soybeans. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 50(1): 225–234.
Alves, B.J.R., R.M. Boddey and S. Urquiaga, 2003. The success of BNF in soybean in Brazil. Plant and Soil, 252(1): 1–9.
Antunes, P.M., D. Deaville and M.J. Goss, 2006. Effect of two AMF life strategies on the tripartite symbiosis with bradyrhizobium japonicum and soybean. Mycorrhiza, 16(3): 167–173.
Barcellos, F.G., J.S. Da Silva Batista, P. Menna and M. Hungria, 2009. Genetic differences between bradyrhizobium japonicum variant strains contrasting in N2-fixation efficiency revealed by representational difference analysis. Arch Microbiol, 191(2): 113–122.
Bisht, R., S. Chaturvedi, R. Srivastava, A.K. Sharma and B.N. Johri, 2009. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, pseudomonas fluorescens and rhizobium leguminosarum on the growth and nutrient status of Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb. Tropical Ecology, 50(2): 231-242.
Cardoso, I.M. and T.W. Kuyper, 2006. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 116(1-2): 72–84.
Farzaneh, M., S. Wichmann, H. Vierheilig and H.P. Kaul, 2009. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and nitrogen nutrition on growth of chickpea and barley. Pflanzenbauwissenschaften, 13(1): 15–22.
Giller, K.E. and G. Cadisch, 1995. Future benefits from biological nitrogen fixation: An ecological approach to agriculture. Plant and Soil, 174(1-2): 255-277.
Harman, G.E., C.R. Howell, A. Viterbo, I. Chet and M. Lorito, 2004. Trichoderma species — opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Microbiology, 2(1): 43-56.
Herridge, D.F., 1982. Use of the ureide technique to describe the nitrogen economy of field-grown soybeans. Plant Physiol, 70(1): 7-11.
Herridge, D.F. and M.B. Peoples, 1990. Ureide assay for measuring nitrogen fixation by nodulated soybean calibrated by 15N methods. Plant Physiol, 93(2): 495-503.
Herridge, D.F., M.B. Peoples and R.M. Boddey, 2008. Global inputs of biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems. Plant Soil, 311(1-2): 1–18.
Hungria, M., L.M.O. Chueire, M. Megías, Y. Lamrabet, A. Probanza, F.J. Guttierrez-Mañero and R.J. Campo, 2006. Genetic diversity of indigenous tropical fast-growing rhizobia isolated from soybean nodules. Plant Soil, 288(1-2): 343–356.
IITA, 1982. Automated and semi-automated methods for soil and plant analysis. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture.
John, R.P., R.D. Tyagi, D. Prévost, S.K. Brar, S. Pouleur and R.Y. Surampalli, 2010. Mycoparasitic trichoderma viride as a biocontrol agent against fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. Adzuki and pythium arrhenomanes and as a growth promoter of soybean. Crop Protection, 29(12): 1452-1459.
Manyong, V.M., O. Makinde, N. Sanginga, B. Vanlauwe and J. Diels, 2001. Fertiliser use and definition of farmer domains for impact-oriented research in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystem, 59(2): 129–141.
Marschner, H. and B. Dell, 1994. Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Plant and Soil, 159(1): 89-102.
Ortas, I., 2010. Effect of mycorrhiza application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(1): 116-122.
Osunde, A.O., S. Gwam, A. Bala, N. Sanginga and J.A. Okogun, 2003. Responses to rhizobial inoculation by two promiscuous soybean cultivars in soils of the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria. Biol Fertil Soils, 37(5): 274–279.
Peoples, M.B. and E.T. Craswell, 1992. Biological nitrogen fixation: Investments, expectations and actual contributions to agriculture. Plant and Soil, 141(1-2): 13-39.
Perazzolli, M., B. Roatti, E. Bozza and I. Pertot, 2011. Trichoderma harzianum T39 induces resistance against downy mildew by priming for defense without costs for grapevine. Biological Control, 58(1): 74-82.
Plenchette, C., J.A. Fortin and V. Furlan, 1983. Growth response of several plants species to mycorrhiza in soil of moderate p fertility: I. Mycorrhizal dependency under field conditions. Plant Soil, 70(2): 199-209.
Rudresh, D.L., M.K. Shivaprakasha and R.D. Prasad, 2005. Effect of combined application of rhizobium, phosphate solubilizing bacterium and Trichoderma spp. on growth, nutrient uptake and yield of chickpea (Cicer Aritenium L). Applied Soil Ecology, 28(2): 139–146.
Sanginga, N., R. Abaidoo, K. Dashiell, R.J. Carsky and A. Okogun, 1996. Persistence and effectiveness of rhizobia nodulating promiscuous soybeans in moist Savanna zones of Nigeria. Applied Soil Ecology, 3(3): 215-224.
Schiltz, S., N. Munier-Jolain, C. Jeudy, J. Burstin and C. Salon, 2005. Dynamics of exogenous nitrogen partitioning and nitrogen remobilization from vegetative organs in pea revealed by 15N in vivo labeling throughout seed filling. Plant Physiology, 137(4): 1463–1473.
Shutsrirung, A., S. Pathipan, C. Santasup, K. Senoo, S. Tajima, M. Hisamatsu and A. Bhromsiri, 2002. Symbiotic efficiency and compatibility of native rhizobia in Northern Thailand with different soybean cultivars. I. Field experiment in irrigated traditional soybean-growing area. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 48(4): 491-499.
Soyinfo, C., 2009. History of soybeans and soyfoods in Africa (1857-2009). Available from http://www.soyinfocenter.com/free-online-books.php.
Statistical Analysis System Institute Inc., 2009. SAS/STAT ® 9.2 user’s guide, 2nd Edn., Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Tefera, H., 2011. Breeding for promiscuous soybeans at IITA. In: Soybean – molecular aspects of breeding, (Ed. A. Sudari?). In tech, Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka: Croatia. pp: 147-162.
Tefera, H., A.Y. Kamara, B. Asafo-Adjei and K.E. Dashiell, 2010. Breeding progress for grain yield and associated traits in medium and late maturing promiscuous soybeans in Nigeria. Euphytica, 175(2): 251–260.
Thuita, M., P. Pypers, L. Herrmann, R.J. Okalebo, C. Othieno, E. Muema and D. Lesueur, 2012. Commercial rhizobial inoculants significantly enhance growth and nitrogen fixation of a promiscuous soybean variety in Kenyan soils. Biol Fertil Soils, 48(1): 87–96.
Trotman, A.A. and R.W. Weaver, 1986. Number and effectiveness of cowpea rhizobia in soils of Guyana. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad), 63(2): 129-131.
Verma, M., S.K. Brar, R.D. Tyagi, R.Y. Surampalli and J.R. Valéro, 2007. Antagonistic fungi, trichoderma spp.: Panoply of biological control. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 37(1): 1–20.
Wang, X., Q. Pan, F. Chen, X. Yan and H. Liao, 2011. Effects of co-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia on soybean growth as related to root architecture and availability of N and P. Mycorrhiza, 21(3): 173–181.
Weaver, R.W. and L.R. Frederick, 1974. Effect of inoculum rate on competitive nodulation of Glycine max (L.) Merrill: I. Greenhouse Studies. Agron. J, 66(2): 229-232.
Xavier, L.J.C. and J.J. Germida, 2003. Selective interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Viceae enhance pea yield and nutrition. Biol Fertil Soils, 37(5): 261–267.
Zahran, H.H., 1999. Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 63(4): 968–989.