Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

June 2019, Volume 6, 2, pp 109-114

Effect of Seed Rate and Cultivar on Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in New Halfa Locality, Sudan


E. M. Eldey, A. M. El Naim, T. I. Ali

E. M. Eldey 1
A. M. El Naim 2
T. I. Ali 3

  1. Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Kassala, Sudan. 1

  2. Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan. 2

  3. New Halfa Agricultural Cooperatrion, New Halfa, Sudan. 3

Pages: 109-114

DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.109.114

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Article History:

Received: 19 March, 2019
Revised: 25 April, 2019
Accepted: 30 May, 2019
Published: 23 August, 2019


Abstract

An experiment was conducted for two winter seasons during 2016/017 - 2017/018 at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kassala (New Halfa), Sudan to investigate the effect of seed rate and Variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on grain productivity under New Halfa environment. The treatments consisted of three seed rates (119kg/ ha, 143kg/ ha and 167kg/ ha) and two cultivars (Condor (early mature) and Bohin (medium mature). A complete randomized block design (CRBD) with four replications was used. The results revealed that the lesser seed rate (119 kg/ ha) had a lower grain yield compared with the mid seed rates (143kg ha-1) or highest seed rate (167kgha-1). Cultivars had significant differences in the total seed yield. Condor gave the highest seed yield. It could be concluded that the seed rate of 143 kg or 167 kg/ha recommended to improved seed yield in New Halfa area of Sudan.

Keywords: Population, Seeding, Variety, Yield.

Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019/ Published: 23 August 2019

Contribution/ Originality

This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the effect of seed rate and Variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on seed yield under New Halfa environment, Sudan.


1. INTRODUCTION

Wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.), is one of the most important cereal crops. Its stable food for one-third of the world's population [1]. Wheat is a member of the family Germaine [2]; [3]. It is grown almost in all countries [4] constituting 15.4% of the world s arable land. The main wheat regions of the world lie between latitude 30o to 55o in the northern temperate zone and 25o to 40o in the southern temperate zone [5].

During the last three production seasons (2015-2018), the average world wheat areas were about 224.7 million hectares producing 689.1 million metric tons with an average yield estimated at 3.08 tons per hectare [6]. This explains the urgent need to raise yield by cultivation of high yielding and adapted varieties in low yielding wheat areas as well as improving cultural practices.

Among the agricultural technique of wheat, plant density has been used successfully to increased grain yield and quality [7]. Efforts are now in Sudan to encourage the cultivation of bread wheat to meet the domestic need and export. Cultivars (yield stability) emerges as a serious threat to low productivity of wheat. It was imperative to conduct an experiment involving different wheat cultivars with regard to its response to low and high planting densities, to obtain the potential grain yield of these cultivars. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of cultivar and seed rate on yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L).

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The field experiment was conducted for two seasons (2016/017 - 2017/018), at Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Halfa al gadidah , Sudan, Latitude 15o 19' N., Longitude 35o 36' E and Altitude 450 m asl.

The soil of the experimental site belongs to khashm ElGirba Series, classified as sodic Haplusters, very fine smectitic, isohyperthermic with a clay percentage around 60 % and pH in the range of 4.8 to 8.8 [8]. The climate of the locality is semi-arid (rainy season from June to September) with mean day temperature around 23oC and 15.7oC during summer and winter, respectively. The experimental site was ploughed in July and September using wide level disc, harrowed and ridged. The cultivars were sown on ridges with 80cm apart. Seeds were sown manually at a rate of 119, 143, and 167 kg/ ha. The aim of this experiment is to study the effect of seed rate on yield of two wheat cultivars namely Condor and Bohin. The experiment arranged in a complete randomized block design (CRBD) with four replications. The treatments were: Two varieties Condor, bohin were grown at three planting densities, (119kg/ ha, 143kg /ha and 167kg .ha) designated as SR1, SR2 and SR3, respectively. The gross plot size was 6 x 6.5 m2 and sowing date was 15 November. Two to three times hand weeding was used by traditional tools as Torya and hand picking, plant was irrigated every 14 days. Nitrogen fertilizer (46% nitrogen) applied at a rate of 84 kg per hectare. Harvesting was carried out when the ears became yellow in color.

The following data were obtained from 10 plants, randomly selected from one meter square of the inner two rows of each plot: the number of spikes per panicle, main stem, length of spike (cm), number of seeds per spike, 1000-grain weight (g) and grain yield (kg/ha).

2.1. Statistical Analysis

Data statistically analyzed according to the Gomez and Gomez [9]. Using Mstat-C computer software package [10]. Analysis of variance of all studied traits was determined. For mean comparison, Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% probability level was used.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Spike length significant differences were reported among the seed rates and interaction, no significant differences among the cultivars in the two seasons Table 1.

Table-1. Mean spike length in cm for the two wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars grown at three seed rates, in faculty of Agriculture Farm, New Halfa in winter season 2015/2016 and 2016/2017.

Season 2015/2016
Seed Rate Cultivar
SR1
SR2
SR3
Means
Condor
12.48
11.98
11.99
12.15
Bohin
12.48
11.78
11.80
12.02
Means
12.48a
11.88b
11.90b
LSD 0.05 SR
0.53
LSD 0.05 C
0.43
LSD 0.05 C × SR
0.74
Season 22016/2017
Condor
11.13a
10.45b
10.55b
10.71
Bohin
10.68ab
11.15a
10.48b
10.77
Means
10.90
10.80
10.51
LSD 0.05 SR
0.38
LSD 0.05 C
0.31
LSD 0.05 C × SR
0.54

Values within the row having different letters are significantly different. Bold, italic and normal letters denote for seed rates cultivars and interaction, respectively using DMRT at 0.05 level of probability.

Significant differences in spike length, which were observed in seed rate in season one and in interaction in season two, while the two varieties insignificant effect on spike length. However, longer spike length recorded in the low seed rate (SR1) and the shorter length in high density. This is in-line with the findings of Abbas, et al. [11] and Suleiman [12]. They find a decreasing trend in spike length in both increasing and decreasing direction. Nizamani, et al. [13] and Ozturk, et al. [14] reported that spike production per plant increased with reducing the pattern of seed rate.

Differences in the number of grains per spike varied from 26.80 to 32.13 and 36.38 to 37.00 in season one and two, respectively Table 2. The significant differences among seed rate, cultivars and their interaction in season one were recorded. The SR1 (119kg) recorded the highest grains per spike in the two-season while the SR3 recorded the lowest number in both seasons. Also condor variety recorded the lowest number of grain compare with bohin variety. In contrast, there was no significant differences in the second season.

Table-2. Means number of grain/spike for the two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L) grown at three seed rates in faculty of Agriculture Farm, New Halfa in season 2015/2016 and 2016/2017.

Season 2015/2016
Seed Rate Cultivar
SR1
SR2
SR3
Means
Condor
32.13a
29.93b
26.80c
29.62b
Bohin
31.32a
29.00b
31.30a
30.54a
Means
31.73a
29.46b
29.05b
LSD 0.05 SR
0.94
LSD 0.05 C
0.77
LSD 0.05 C × SR
1.34
Season 22016/2017
Condor
37.00
36.38
36.73
36.70
Bohin
37.38
37.15
36.73
37.08
Means
37.19
36.76
36.73
LSD 0.05 SR
1.32
LSD 0.05 C
1.08
LSD 0.05 C × SR
1.87

Values within the row having different letters are significantly different. Bold, italic and normal letters denote for seed rates cultivars and interaction, respectively using DMRT at 0.05 level of probability.

Significant differences among treatments in the number of grains per spike were observed. The low seed rate recorded the highest number of grains, while the high seed rate recorded the lowest number of grains. Iqbal, et al. [15] reported that the highest grains per spike resulted in the low density. However, Muhammad, et al. [16] and Malik, et al. [17] found that the seed rate had no effect the grains number per spike.

Cultivar Bohin recorded the highest grains per spike. Similar findings observed by Mali and Choudhary [18]. In contrast, Saeed, et al. [19] finding that insignificant effect between varieties on number of grains per spike. Also Pandey, et al. [20] recorded that population non-significant effects on number of grains per spike, kernel weight, spike weight, and 1000-seed weight of wheat.

The seed rates significantly affect 1000-grain weight Table 3. The maximum 1000-grain weight was obtained under the highest seed rate (167kg). Between cultivar condor recorded the highest weight of 1000 seed weight compare with Bohin cultivar. The results showed that 1000-grain weight reduced with increasing seed rate. This might be due to plant competition. These in agree with Shahzad, et al. [21] and Baloch, et al. [22].

The treatment statistically significant difference in grain yield Table 4. The seed rate 167 kg/ ha produced the highest grain yield. The lesser grain yield was obtained from 119 kg/ha. This finding is in line with the finding of  Baloch, et al. [22] decreased the yield of wheat with increasing seed rate. Similar finding stated by Hayatullah, et al. [23] increased yield of wheat with increasing seed rate. Tompkins, et al. [24] mentioned that the increase in seed rate increased grain yield. Naseem, et al. [25] and Thakur, et al. [26] found that wheat was quite responsive to increased seed rate, the highest seed rate produced greater plant population m-2. Also Hameed, et al. [27] stated that grain yield increased as seed rate increased.

Table-3. Means 1000-seed weight (g) for the two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L) grown at three seed rates in faculty of Agriculture Farm, New Halfa in season 2015/2016 and 2016/2017.

Season 2015/2016
Seed Rate Cultivar
SR1
SR2
SR3
Means
Condor
37.04ab
38.29a
35.35c
36.89a
Bohin
36.02bc
35.67c
35.27c
35.65b
Means
35.53a
36.98a
35.31b
LSD 0.05 SR
0.90
LSD 0.05 C
0.74
LSD 0.05 C × SR
1.28
Season 22016/2017
Condor
34.38b
35.43a
36.10a
35.30a
Bohin
35.98a
35.93a
33.80b
35.23a
Means
35.18a
35.68a
34.95a
LSD 0.05 SR
0.73
LSD 0.05 C
0.59
LSD 0.05 C × SR
1.03

Values within the row having different letters are significantly different. Bold, italic and normal letters denote for seed rates cultivars and interaction, respectively using DMRT at 0.05 level of probability.

Table-4. Means of Yield (kg/ha) for the two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L) grown at three seed rates in faculty of Agriculture Farm, New Halfa in season 2015/2016 and 2016/2017.

Season 2015/2016
Seed Rate Cultivar
SR1
SR2
SR3
Means
Condor
3700ab
3800a
3600Ab
3700a
Bohin
2825d
3300c
3575b
3233b
Means
3262b
3550a
3587a
LSD 0.05 SR
146.9
LSD 0.05 C
119.9
LSD 0.05 C × SR
207.7
Season 22016/2017
Condor
2189b
2094b
3041a
2523a
Bohin
2229b
2299b
2222b
2194b
Means
2196b
2209b
2671a
LSD 0.05 SR
136
LSD 0.05 C
111
LSD 0.05 C × SR
192

Values within the row having different letters are significantly different. Bold, italic and normal letters denote for seed rates cultivars and interaction, respectively using DMRT at 0.05 level of probability.

4. CONCLUSION  

From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the Sowing wheat cultivar, Condor or Bohin on seed rates of 143 kg or 167 kg/ ha improved the wheat productivity in New Halfa locality of Eastern Sudan.

Funding: This study received no specific financial support.   
Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. 
Acknowledgement: All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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