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Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

June 2019, Volume 6, 2, pp 95-108

Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

Sevidzem Silas Lendzele

,

Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini

,

Simon Dickmu

,

Alfons Renz

,

Acapovi-Yao Genevieve Lydie

,

Jacques Francois Mavoungou

,

Rebecca Garabed

Sevidzem Silas Lendzele 1

Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini 2
Simon Dickmu 3
Alfons Renz 4
Acapovi-Yao Genevieve Lydie 5
Jacques Francois Mavoungou 6
Rebecca Garabed 7

  1. Ecole Doctorale des Grandes Ecoles (EDGE), Laboratoire d’Ecologie Vectorielle (LEV-IRET), BP: 13354, Libreville, Gabon ; Programme Onchocercoses, Field research station of the University of Tübingen, Ngaoundere, Cameroon. 1

  2. Department of Parasitology and Parasitological Disease, School of Veterinary Medicine and Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, P.O.Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon. 2

  3. Laboratoire National Veterinaire, LANAVET, Garoua, Cameroon 3

  4. Programme Onchocercoses, Field research station of the University of Tübingen, Ngaoundere, Cameroon; Eberhard Karls University, Institute of Evolution and Ecology, Comparative Zoology, Tubingen, Germany. 4

  5. Universite Felix Houphouet-Boigny, UFR Biosciences 22, BP: 582; Abidjan 22, Cote d Ivoire. 5

  6. Ecole Doctorale des Grandes Ecoles (EDGE), Laboratoire d Ecologie Vectorielle (LEV-IRET), BP: 13354, Libreville, Gabon; Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale (IRET), BP 13354, Libreville, Gabon; Universite des Sciences et Techniques de MASUKU, 6

  7. Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. 7

Pages: 95-108

DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.95.108

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Article History:

Received: 15 March, 2019
Revised: 22 April, 2019
Accepted: 28 May, 2019
Published: 19 July, 2019


Abstract:

The study aimed at detecting the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA in Stomoxys niger niger and cattle. Flies were collected using a Vavoua trap pitched 50m from the center of the herd and by net-catches on clinically sick (n=5) and symptomless cattle (n=5). Vesicular Epithelia Tissues (VETs) from sick cattle were analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt RT PCR) and serum from randomly selected animals without clinical signs was examined by serological test (NSP-ELISA Kit) for the presence of FMDV antibodies. Of a total of 568 Stomoxys trapped using the Vavoua trap, two species were identified namely 196 S. niger niger (34.51 %, 9. 33 Snn/t/d), 101 S. omega (17.78%, 4.80 so/t/d) and 271 non-biting Musca sp. (47.71%, 12.90 m/vavoua and day). The dissected mouth and legs of each fly caught were screened for FMDV using the rt RT PCR. FMDV RNA was found in the epithelial vesicles of all clinically sick animals (n=5, with mean Ct of 27.98456) and 3 out of 5 were serologically positive in the clinically in-apparent cattle group. The overall S. n. niger (most abundant species) contamination rate with the FMDV irrespective of collection method was 40.3 % with females (49.0 %) being slightly more contaminated than males (21.7%) (OR =0.45, P= 0.1506) and legs being more often positive than mouth-parts (P=0.02002). Flies were contaminated less frequently on animals without clinical signs than those on animals with clinical signs, but this difference was not significant (P=0.69680).
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the mechanical transmission potential of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease by an African stable fly (Stomoxys niger niger). The FMD virus carrier status of wild S. n. niger was associated with the fly collection method, sex and anatomical part.

Keywords:

Stomoxys, legs, Mouth parts, Net-catches, Vavoua, Contamination, FMDV.

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Funding:

This study received financial support from a joint project between ESMV, OSU and USDA-CEAH and also from the BWS-REK grant.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

The research findings are the part of the research work of PhD Program of the first author to be submitted to the ‘Ecole Doctorale des Grandes Ecoles (EDGE) de Libreville, Gabon’. Authors thank DVM students for assisting in fly collections and the Laboratory technicians of the LANAVET for their assistance in sample screening. They equally thank Prof. Dr. Oliver Betz for granting permission to use the SEM equipment of his laboratory.

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