International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Determination of Heavy Metals in Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) and Water Samples from Lake Hayq, South Wollo, Ethiopia

Pages: 10-19
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Determination of Heavy Metals in Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) and Water Samples from Lake Hayq, South Wollo, Ethiopia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.64.2019.71.10.19

Dessie Tibebe , Dereje Lemma , Gizachew Teshome

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Dessie Tibebe , Dereje Lemma , Gizachew Teshome (2019). Determination of Heavy Metals in Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) and Water Samples from Lake Hayq, South Wollo, Ethiopia. International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research, 7(1): 10-19. DOI: 10.18488/journal.64.2019.71.10.19
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in Lake Hayq water and fish muscles samples during dry and wet seasons. Samples of fish organs and water were collected from four sampling sites of Lake Hayq. An optimal procedure required 8 mL of (69%) HNO3 and 6 mL of (30%) H2O2 to mineralize powdered samples in open refluxed digestion vessels: 0.5 g of the fish body for 2:30 hrs at temperature of 130oc.Concentrations of six metals (Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr) in water and their accumulation in the edible tissue of Nile Tilapia were determined by FAAS. The results revealed that the average heavy metal concentrations in water samples were; Pb (0.006), Ni (0.018), Zn (0.083), Cd (0.004), Cu (0.1) and Cr (0.003) mg/L in the lake. The average concentration of heavy metals in fish samples were; Pb (2.02), Ni (2.29), Zn (55.52), Cd (1.57), Cu (11.18) and Cr (0.745) mg/Kg. Among the detected metals, zinc (Zn) showed a maximum accumulation in the edible muscle of Nile Tilapia fish from Lake Hayq. The concentrations of the metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu) were below the recommended limit by WHO, USEPA and FAO. For fish the highest accumulations of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) concentration were observed above the recommended limit by FAO/ WHO. Application of the statistical t-test on heavy metal analysis has shown that there was no significant difference between fish as well as water samples of the lake for all sites.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contributions is finding the pollution of the aquatic environment of heavy metals water and fish muscles samples during dry and wet seasons and produce an information of edible fish quality by standards of WHO/FAO, especially concern in South Wollo, Lake Hayq.

Investigation of Usability of Fatty Acids as Copper Extractant from Leached Copper Ore

Pages: 20-26
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Investigation of Usability of Fatty Acids as Copper Extractant from Leached Copper Ore

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.64.2019.71.20.26

Moses T. Adejumo , Olayinka Sanda

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[1]          Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, S. Kuang, G. Wu, Y. Li, Y. Li, and W. Liao, "Selective extraction and recovery of copper from chloride solution using cextrant 230," Hydrometallurgy, vol. 181, pp. 16-20, 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2018.08.007.

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[7]          I. Komasawa and T. Otake, "The effects of diluent in the liquid-liquid extraction of copper and nickel using 2-hydroxy-5-nonylbenzophenone oxime," Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, vol. 16, pp. 377-383, 1983. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1252/jcej.16.377.

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Moses T. Adejumo , Olayinka Sanda (2019). Investigation of Usability of Fatty Acids as Copper Extractant from Leached Copper Ore. International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research, 7(1): 20-26. DOI: 10.18488/journal.64.2019.71.20.26
This paper presents an experimental study on leaching and solvent extraction of copper from low-grade copper ore mined from Nasarawa (Nigeria) by fatty acids in petroleum-based diluents - methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), styrene, and kerosene. The leaching investigation showed that the optimum temperature, contact time, and H2SO4 concentration are 91.5oC, 39 minutes, and 2.9 M, respectively. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was adopted for the optimization of the leaching conditions. The aqueous solution obtained from leaching of copper ore in sulfuric acid was used for the solvent extraction. The extraction studies showed that fatty acids in a petroleum-based organic solvent is an effective extractant for solvent extraction of copper. The fatty acids used in the studies were obtained by acidifying the soap that was produced when vegetable oil was treated with sodium hydroxide. It was also observed that diluents affect the percentage extraction of copper. Styrene achieved the highest percentage extraction, followed by kerosene and MIBK at 80 % and 90 % v/v diluents in fatty acids.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated and ascertained the fact that fatty acids obtained from vegetable oil can be effectively used as a copper extractant in place of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid which is commonly used during solvent extraction.

Simultaneous Growth of Rutile TiO2 Nanorod on FTO Plate by One-Step Hydrothermal Process for CdS Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

Pages: 1-9
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Simultaneous Growth of Rutile TiO2 Nanorod on FTO Plate by One-Step Hydrothermal Process for CdS Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.64.2019.71.1.9

Vignesh Ravi , Arjun Kumar Bojarajan , Vetrivelan Vaithiyanathan , Ragupathi Chinnadurai , Kaviyarasu Kasinathan , Ramalingam Gopal

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Vignesh Ravi , Arjun Kumar Bojarajan , Vetrivelan Vaithiyanathan , Ragupathi Chinnadurai , Kaviyarasu Kasinathan , Ramalingam Gopal (2019). Simultaneous Growth of Rutile TiO2 Nanorod on FTO Plate by One-Step Hydrothermal Process for CdS Sensitized Solar Cell Applications. International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research, 7(1): 1-9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.64.2019.71.1.9
The rutile TiO2 of nanoparticles and microrods were simultaneously grown on FTO glass slide using a one-step hydrothermal process. CdS semiconducting nanocrystals were deposited on the surface of TiO2 surface using SILAR method. Moreover, the SEM micrograph studies, TiO2 nanorods were almost uniformly explored on FTO glass slide pattern. The photovoltaic performances, as-prepared semiconductor sensitized solar cells (SSSCs) were studied and the maximum efficiency of FTO/TiO2/CdS-8/ZnS-2 sample was 0.78% were confirmed by sun solar simulator, overall the solar cell efficiency was determined with an increasing pattern of CdS deposition is reported in detail.
Contribution/ Originality
In this work, contribute to the development of Ti02 unidirectional growth nanorods on FTO glass slide and its act as a photoanode was prepared hydrothermal method. The semiconductor (CdS) quantum dots were prepared using SILAR method. These quantum dots acts as dye molecule for the fabrication solarcell. In the present studies gives an idea of semiconductor sensitized solar cells (SSSCs).

Assessment of Some Selected Metals from Textile Effluents in Amhara Region Using AAS and ICPOES

Pages: 27-31
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Assessment of Some Selected Metals from Textile Effluents in Amhara Region Using AAS and ICPOES

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.64.2019.71.27.31

Marye Mulugeta , Dessie Tibebe

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Marye Mulugeta , Dessie Tibebe (2019). Assessment of Some Selected Metals from Textile Effluents in Amhara Region Using AAS and ICPOES. International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research, 7(1): 27-31. DOI: 10.18488/journal.64.2019.71.27.31
Heavy metals are some of the common pollutants that are found in industrial wastewaters a variety sources one of them textile industries. In Ethiopia, there are more than fourteen major textile and garment factories. The study of industrial wastewater, it is important to select the appropriate wastewater treatment program. Samples of textile effluents from textile industries found in Amhara Regional State Bahir Dar, Kombolcha, and Debre Brihan textile industries were collected. Heavy metal concentrations effluents were determined using FAAS and ICP-OES. The determined heavy metal concentration of Pd 0.85 to 0.61, As 1.3 to 0.4, Cr 0.08 to 0.03, Zn 2.6 to 0.32 and Mn 0.37 to 0.25 mg/L by FAAS. The determined heavy metals in all textile industries didn’t have significant effluence to environment, but there is a significant difference between FAAS and ICP-OES. The concentration of all the studied heavy metals except Mn were comparable with the WHO and EEPA guideline. This study suggests quick intervention and closes monitoring to arrest and solve the growing environmental pollution.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that influence of environmental pollution assessment with standards of EEPA and WHO and determined heavy metals Pb, As, Cr, Zn and Mn from textile industries waste water effluents in Ahmara region, Ethiopia and comparison of FAAS and ICP-OS methods.