International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Optimization of the Total Annual Cost in Heat Exchanger Networks with Multiple Utilities

Pages: 1-11
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Optimization of the Total Annual Cost in Heat Exchanger Networks with Multiple Utilities

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.63.2021.91.1.11

E.C. Udochukwu , B.U Ogbonnaya , O.S. Azeez

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[1]          Y. Lukman, B. Suleiman, and O. Azeez, "Evaluation of total annual costs of heat exchanger networks using modified pinch analysis," Nigerian Journal of Technology, vol. 35, pp. 537-541, 2016.Available at: https://doi.org/10.4314/njt.v35i3.10.

[2]          U. Shenoy, A. Sinha, and S. Bandyopadhyay, "Multiple utilities targeting for heat exchanger networks," Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 76, pp. 259-272, 1998.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1205/026387698524910.

[3]          T. F. Yee and I. E. Grossmann, "Simultaneous optimization models for heat integration—II. Heat exchanger network synthesis," Computers & Chemical Engineering, vol. 14, pp. 1165-1184, 1990.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/0098-1354(90)85010-8.

[4]          O. Azeez, A. J. Isafiade, and D. M. Fraser, "Supply-based superstructure synthesis of heat and mass exchange networks," Computers & Chemical Engineering, vol. 56, pp. 184-201, 2013.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2013.05.010.

[5]          O. S. Azeez, A. Isafiade, and D. Fraser, "Supply and target based superstructure synthesis of heat and mass exchanger networks," Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 90, pp. 266-287, 2012.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2011.07.004.

[6]          A. J. Isafiade and D. M. Fraser, "Interval –based MINLP superstructure synthesis of heat exchange networks," Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 86, pp. 245-257, 2008.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2007.11.001.

[7]          B. Ogbonnaya, O. Azeez, H. Akande, and E. Muzenda, "Investigation of loops and paths as optimization tools for total annual cost in heat exchanger networks," International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, vol. 12, pp. 281-293, 2021.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40095-020-00374-w.

[8]          E. M. Ukpo, "Heat exchanger network design for minimum total annual cost using pinch analysis-case study of catalytic reforming unit of Kaduna refinery," Unpublished Master’s Thesis), Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria, 2017.

[9]          B. Linnhoff, D. W. Townsend, D. Boland, G. F. Hewitt, B. E. A. Thomas, A. R. Guy, and R. H. Marsland, A user guide on process integration for the efficient use of energy. U.K: The Institute of Chemical Engineering, 1982.

[10]        D. M. Fraser, "Multiple utilities in heat exchanger network synthesis," in Proceedings CHEMECA ’94 Conference, Perth, 1994, pp. 789-796.

[11]        P.-O. M. José, M. Serna-González, and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, "Synthesis of heat exchanger networks with optimal placement of multiple utilities," Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 49, pp. 2849-2856, 2010.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1021/ie901750a.

[12]        O. Azeez, O. Blessing, E. Onyinye, and A. Hassan, "Effect of supertargeting and non isothermal stream mixing in heat exchanger network design using modified pinch analysis," International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, pp. 18-20, 2019.Available at: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijees.20190401.13.

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E.C. Udochukwu , B.U Ogbonnaya , O.S. Azeez (2021). Optimization of the Total Annual Cost in Heat Exchanger Networks with Multiple Utilities. International Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 9(1): 1-11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.63.2021.91.1.11
This research work was focused on optimizing heat exchanger network problems from literature involving multiple utilities with the objective function of minimizing the Total Annual Costs of the designed networks. This was achieved through the use of pinch methodology on Aspen Pinch software, Version 11.1. Supertargeting was used to obtain the minimum temperature difference for two case studies and the networks were designed on Grid Diagrams. The design of the networks was focused on the energy-capital costs tradeoffs, preventing the use of extra heat exchanger units to reduce energy costs at the expense of capital costs. This paid off as the networks designed in this research obtained the lowest total annual costs (TACs) when compared with the results obtained by other researchers on the case studies under review.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on problems involving multiple utilities and is able to achieve lower total annual costs through the optimization of the utilities usage using the combined traditional pinch technique and mathematical provisions as available in ASPEN pinch.

Pathogenic Fungi Associated with Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava

Pages: 12-16
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Pathogenic Fungi Associated with Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.63.2021.91.12.16

E.B, Olunoiki , A.D.V, Ayansina

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[1]          A. I. Ihekoronye and N. Goddy, "Cassava in tropical agric. A reference manual," ed United Kingdom: Chayce Publication Services, 1990, pp. 87-120.

[2]          A. O. Ogaraku and H. O. Usman, "Storage rot of some yams (Dioscoreasp) in Keffi Environs, Nassarawa State, Nigeria," Pakistan Journal of Nutrition., vol. 4, pp. 22-27, 2008.

[3]          C. O. Frank and C. A. Kingsley, "Role of Fungal rots in post-harvest storage losses in some Nigerian varieties of Dioscorea species," Microbiology Research Journal International, vol. 4, pp. 343-350, 2014.Available at: https://doi.org/10.9734/bmrj/2014/7121.

[4]          C. O. Frank and C. A. Kingsley, "Proximate composition, physiological changes during Storage, and Shelf Life of Some Nigerian Varieties of Yams (Dioscorea species)," Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, vol. 3, pp. 553-562, 2014.

[5]          R. Lunsin, M. Wanapat, and P. Rowlinson, "Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows," Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 25, pp. 1364-1373, 2012.

[6]          K. Agu, N. Awah, P. Sampson, M. Ikele, A. Mbachu, K. Ojiagu, C. Okeke, N. Okoro, and O. Okafor, "Identification and pathogenicity of rot-causing fungal pathogens associated with Xanthosoma sagittifolium spoilage in South Eastern Nigeria," International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, vol. 2, pp. 2319-1473, 2014.

[7]          C. Agu, N. Awah, O. Benjamin, N. Tochukwu, C. Anaukwu, I. Confidence, E. Archibong, Joseph, U. Ngenegbo, M. Charity, and U. Nnamdi, "Mycological deterioration and pathogenicity studies of post-harvest cassava," Food Science and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 23-30, 2016.Available at: 10.13189/fst.2016.040202.

[8]          Cassava Production, "Crops/World regions/production quantity from pick lists," UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2020, 2018.

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E.B, Olunoiki , A.D.V, Ayansina (2021). Pathogenic Fungi Associated with Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava. International Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 9(1): 12-16. DOI: 10.18488/journal.63.2021.91.12.16
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a valued root crop grown throughout the tropics for food, feed, biofuel, and other industrial products. Nigeria is the largest producer of Cassava, and post-harvest deterioration of Cassava is one of the major challenges of long-term storage of cassava tubers. This study aimed to isolate and characterize pathogenic fungi implicated in the deterioration of cassava tubers, using samples from Iwo, Osun State, and Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria. The fungi genera isolated at the end of this study and their frequency of occurrence were Aspergillus (45.5%), Botryodioplodia (9.1%), Penicillium (18.2%), Rhizopus (18.2%), and P.sorghina (9.1%). A total of eleven fungi species were isolated and characterized in this study, seven of which were from the Ijebu- Ode Cassava samples and 4 fungi species from the Iwo samples. The pathogenicity test showed that Aspergillus nigricans (60mm) and P.sorghina (50mm) caused extensive deterioration of Cassava tuber. However, mild deterioration was observed from samples inoculated with Botryodiplodia (10mm) and Penicillium (14mm). This study has shown that a consortium of fungi species is implicated in the Post harvested deterioration of Cassava tubers.
Contribution/ Originality
The primary contribution of this study is to determine the pathogenesis and frequency of occurrence of fungi associated with post-harvest deterioration of Cassava. It shows the necessity of improving post-harvest/storage practices during Cassava production.

Intelligent Systems for the Internet of Things: Essence, Perspectives and Problems

Pages: 17-25
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Intelligent Systems for the Internet of Things: Essence, Perspectives and Problems

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.63.2021.91.17.25

Shafagat Mahmudova

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Shafagat Mahmudova (2021). Intelligent Systems for the Internet of Things: Essence, Perspectives and Problems. International Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 9(1): 17-25. DOI: 10.18488/journal.63.2021.91.17.25
This article outlines the Internet of Things (IoT). The Internet of Things describes a network of physical objects, i.e., the “thing” including sensors, software, and other technologies for connection and data sharing with other devices and systems over the Internet. In other words, IoT is a relatively new technology enabling many “smart” devices to get connected, to analyze, process, and transfer data to each other and connect to a network. The article clarifies the essence of intelligent systems for the Internet of Things, and analyzes the most popular software for the IoT platform. It studies high-level systems for IoT and analyzes available literature in this field. It highlights most advanced IoT software of 2021. The article also identifies the prospects and challenges of intelligent systems for the Internet of Things. The creation of new intelligent systems for IoT and the development of technology will greatly contribute to the development of economy.
Contribution/ Originality
This analyzes the most popular software for the IoT platform.