Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Does Gold Price Lead or Lags Islamic Stock Market and Strategy Commodity Price? A Study from Malaysia

Siti Nurulhuda Ibrahim


Rahayu Hasan


Amirudin Mohd Nor

Siti Nurulhuda Ibrahim 1 ,

Rahayu Hasan 1 Amirudin Mohd Nor 1 
  1. Universiti Teknologi Mara Melaka, Faculty of Business and Management Malaysia 1

Pages: 146-163

DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2018.56.146.163

Share :

Article History:

Received: 09 July, 2018
Revised: 15 August, 2018
Accepted: 21 September, 2018
Published: 01 November, 2018


There is a few claimed in literature and financial media that gold, Islamic stock and commodity market provide as hedging tool against inflation. Therefore, derive from this similarity characteristic, we are interested to know which among of this investment variety are the leader and laggard in the Malaysian market. Among of them, numerous studies have been done on gold as a hedge against inflation, but almost non-existence amount of research endeavor to analyze the lead-lag of this precious metal with other investment avenues. Thus, several methods are employed to answer the issue of this study which are unit root tests and Johansen’s cointegration test, followed by long-run structural modelling (LRSM) and vector error-correction modelling (VECM), variance decompositions (VDCs), impulse response functions (IRFs) and persistence profile (PP). The results showed that spot Kijang Gold lags all investment avenues in Malaysia. It indicated that the performance of the Kijang Gold is dependent on FTSE Bursa Malaysia Emas Shariah Index, macroeconomic variables and strategic commodities. This provides some important policy implications in the regulation of the Kijang Gold itself whereby FTSE Bursa Malaysia Emas Shariah Index performance and other variables are among the key predictive inputs on the expected performance of the Kijang Gold. Hence, we humbly suggest to the investors and investment portfolio managers to include Islamic shariah equities, crude palm oil and crude oil commodities as part of their investment portfolios as may act as diversification and hedging tool especially for an investment portfolio which consists of Kijang Gold and forex, as we had identified these latter investment avenues as the most follower (endogenous) variables.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the lead-lag analysis among these three-investment avenues by using VECM, VDCs and other related techniques. Furthermore, this study attempts to fill the gap in empirical studies and associated theory which remains unexplored and not broadly discussed in the literature.


Gold, Kijang gold, Malaysian gold, FTSE Bursa Malaysia, Islamic stock market, Crude palm oil, Crude oil price, Commodity market, Macroeconomic variables, Lead-lag analysis.



Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


We would like to extend our acknowledgment for the support given by Division of Research and Industrial Linkages, Universiti Teknologi MARA Melaka, Malaysia for supporting us with a guide and advice that make us capable of accomplishing this research paper.

Related Article

( 1 ) The Effect of Outsourcing on Anglogold Ashanti Obuasi Mines Performance
( 2 ) Does Gold Price Lead or Lags Islamic Stock Market and Strategy Commodity Price? A Study from Malaysia
( 3 ) Impact of Food Beverage Price Index and Exchange Rate Volatility on Economic Growth
( 4 ) The Impact of the Decline in Oil Prices in Latin America
( 5 ) Determinants of Share Price Movement in Nigeria -The Management Perspective
( 6 ) The Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Consumer Prices in Nigeria: Evidence from VECM Model
( 7 ) Implications of Crude Oil Price Volatility and Parallel Exchange Rate Fluctuation on the Cost of Living in Nigeria
( 9 ) The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Companies on Profitability and its Implications on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks
( 10 ) Forecasting Prices of Three Important Agricultural Crops in Bangladesh
( 11 ) Exploring the Asymmetric Linkage between Commodity Prices and Fiscal Performance in Nigeria
( 12 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 13 ) The Impact of Land Price Movements on the Properties in Croatia
( 14 ) Factors Affecting the Individual Stock Price Index (IHSI) Industrial Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia, Automotive Sub Sectors, and Components in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX)
( 15 ) The Effects of Visual Merchandising and Price Sensitivity on Impulse Purchase Behaviour among Young Apparel Shoppers in Bangladesh
( 16 ) The Impact of Economic Growth, Oil Price, and Financial Globalization Uncertainty on Financial Development: Evidence from Selected Leading African Countries
( 17 ) Exchange Rate Volatility and Agricultural Commodity Prices i Nigeria (2000-2018)
( 18 ) Relationships Between Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia
( 19 ) Cross-Cultural Leadership Intelligence: Recommendations for Kenya
( 20 ) A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style
( 21 ) The Interactions between Culture, Global Mindset and Leadership in Global Context
( 22 ) Moderating Effects of Project Management Experience, Project Team Size, Project Duration and Project Value Size on the Relationship between Project Manager’s Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness in Malaysia
( 23 ) Exploration of Suitability of Situational Leadership in the Oil and Gas Sector
( 24 ) The Lead-Lag Relationships between Construction Investment and GDP: Granger Causality Tests and Impulse Responses Using Japanese Data
( 26 ) Leading Indicators and Financial Crisis: A Multi-Sectoral Approach Using Signal Extraction
( 27 ) Family Leadership and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises Research and Development Investments
( 29 ) Contemporary Approach to Enhanced Road Transport System in Nigeria Through the Application of It-Based (Online) Bus Ticketing and Payment System
( 30 ) Making Poverty A History in Africa: The Role of the G8
( 31 ) Impact of Labour, Capital and Human Resources in Productivity of Transport Firms in Nigeria
( 32 ) External Factors Influencing on Industrial Building System (Ibs) in Malaysia
( 33 ) The Climate Change Menace, Food Security, Livelihoods and Social Safety in Northern Ghana
( 34 ) Consideration the Relationship Between Information Communications Technology and Economic Growth in Top 10 Economic
( 35 ) NGO Programming and Policy Advocacy in the Land Sector in Zimbabwe
( 36 ) Compost Adoption in Northern Ghana
( 37 ) The Development of Participated Environmental Education Model for Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management on Eastern Part of Thailand
( 38 ) Marxist Political Economy and the Crisis of Relevance in Contemporary World
( 39 ) The Impact of Investment Climate Reforms on the Development of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Nigeria: A Policy Brief
( 40 ) Importance of Corporate Governance Quality and Voluntary Disclosures of Corporate Governance Information in Listed Malaysian Family Controlled Businesses
( 41 ) Testing the Random Walks in Korea Stock Exchange
( 42 ) How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region
( 43 ) Gaining Trust After the Financial Crisis in the Nigerian Economy: A Conceptual Framework
( 44 ) The Effects of Exchange Rate Liberalization in Kenya on French Beans Exports
( 45 ) Analyzing Skill Profile Among Business Graduates: Is it Generic or Specific?
( 46 ) Driving Role of Institutional Investors in the Indian Stock Market in Short and Long-Run – An Empirical Study
( 47 ) Development of Logarithmic Equations for Statistical Sample Determination
( 48 ) A Review on Criteria for Green Infrastructure to be Adopted by Local Authorities
( 49 ) Taylor Rule in The Context of Inflation Targeting: The Case of Tunisia
( 50 ) Labor and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe
( 51 ) Exchange Rate Movements, Import And Economic Growth in Nigeria (1986-2010)
( 53 ) Improved Performance Through Empowerment of Small Industry
( 54 ) Challenges of Human Rights Abuses in Nigerian Democratic Governance – Which Way Forward ?
( 55 ) An Inventory Model with Lost Sale is Time Dependent
( 56 ) Teachers Characteristics and Students’ Performance Level in Senior Secondary School Financial Accounting
( 57 ) The Sustainable Livelihoods Index: A Tool To Assess the Ability and Preparedness of the Rural Poor in Receiving Entrepreneurial Project
( 58 ) Public Infrastructure Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) Approach
( 59 ) Survey of Students’ Academic Achievement and Mathematics Identity-Formation
( 60 ) Organizational Commitment of White Collar Employees in Damansara Heights, Kuala Lumpur
( 61 ) Ensuring Quality Provision of Education for All: Discovering Challenges Faced by Teachers of Students with Learning Disabilities in Regular Primary Schools in Masvingo District
( 63 ) Corruption’s and Democracy’s Effects on Economic Growth
( 64 ) Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria
( 65 ) Explaining Psychological Capital Components through Organization’s Ethical Climate Components
( 66 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 67 ) Anti-Corruption Crusade in Nigeria: More Words Than Deeds
( 68 ) Conceptual Framework of Green Infrastructure Performance Evaluation for Local Authority
( 69 ) Social Security; A Public Policy for Good Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Nigerian Legislature
( 70 ) Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Employment: A Case of Province of Punjab, Pakistan
( 71 ) Contracting Out: What Works, What Doesn’t and Why?
( 72 ) Dividend Policy Relevancy in Theoretical and Practical Economics
( 73 ) S-Dimensional Assets Portfolio Evaluation
( 74 ) Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria
( 75 ) The Recruitment of Migrant Workers in the Food Service Industry in Malaysia. A Study of Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam
( 76 ) Quality Management Practices towards Customer Satisfaction in Local Authority Public Services Website
( 77 ) The Association Between Corporate Risk Disclosure and Firm Performance in Emerging Country – The Case of Egypt
( 78 ) Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia
( 79 ) The Impact of Rice Production, Consumption and Importation in Nigeria: The Political Economy Perspectives
( 80 ) Consideration the Effects of Water Sector Investment on Economic Growth in Iran
( 81 ) Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?
( 82 ) Local Governance and Service Delivery in Zimbabwean Local Authorities: The Case of Harare and Masvingo Urban Municipalities
( 83 ) Structural Breaks and the Long-Run Stability of Demand for Real Broad Money Function in Nigeria: A Gregory-Hansen Approach
( 84 ) A Theoretical Review on Critical Success Factors (CSFS) of Entrepreneurship Programs in Community College
( 85 ) Influence Internship Learning Effect in Business Service Sector: Using Internship Self-Efficacy as the Mediator Variable
( 86 ) The Impact of Dividend Policy on Shareholders’ Wealth before and After Financial Melt down: Evidence from FMCG Sector in India
( 87 ) Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework
( 88 ) Factors Impacting on SMEs Internationalization: Dairy Industry in Zimbabwe
( 89 ) Promoting Local Acceptability of International Oil Companies (IOCS) Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): The Case of Tullow Oil in Ghana
( 90 ) The Biodiesel Market in Brazil and the Prospects for the Sector
( 91 ) Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare
( 92 ) The Influence of Information Technology and Communication Supply Chain Management Performance for Greater SME Manufacturing in Aguascalientes
( 93 ) The Phenomenon of Money Politics and Nigeria’s Democratization: An Exploration of the Fourth Republic
( 94 ) Emergent Behavior of “Rational” Agents in Some Forgotten N-Person Games
( 95 ) A Mixed-Methods Study to Explore Stage of Readiness and Intention of Micro and Small Enterprises to Adopt Mobile Money in Indonesia
( 96 ) Attributes Influencing Strategic Alignment in the Service Sector: An Indonesian Banking Sector Case Study
( 97 ) Leveraging Telematics for Optimal Fleet Performance
( 98 ) Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections
( 99 ) Income Elasticity of Poverty: Estimates for South Asian Countries
( 100 ) Profit And Loss Sharing As an Offshoot for Bank Stability: A Comparative Analysis
( 101 ) The Wider Vision of Social Policy: Exploring the Ways of Curbing Violence against Women in Four Wards of Shamva North Constituency (Zimbabwe)
( 102 ) The Potential of Rural–Urban Linkages for Sustainable Development and Trade
( 103 ) Workplace Bullying: Modelling Construct Validity in an Australian Public Sector Workforce
( 104 ) The Effect of Selected Financial Ratios on Profitability: An Empirical Analysis of Listed Firms of Cement Sector in Saudi Arabia
( 105 ) Role of Foreign Investment and External Debt in Determination of Exchange Rate
( 106 ) Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Insect Pests Management in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 107 ) Stock Market Index Prediction with Neural Network during Financial Crises: A Review on Bist-100
( 108 ) Effects of Advertising on Consumer Behavior in Low Density Houses: The Case of Marlborough, Zimbabwe
( 109 ) The Total Factor Productivity of Libyan Banks, 2004 – 2010
( 110 ) The Life-Time of Tomorrow Party of Japan and Its Negative Impacts on the Anti-Nuclear Movements in Japan’s Politics
( 112 ) An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) On the Administration of Public Records: A Case Study of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana-West Africa
( 113 ) The Effects of Changes in Accounting Standards on Value Relevance of Financial Statement Information of Malaysia and Nigeria Banks
( 114 ) The Role of Strategic Planning on the Management of Organizational Change
( 115 ) Estimating Value at Risk for Sukuk Market Using Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models
( 116 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 117 ) Share Options, Share Award and Firm’s Performance: Evidence from Malaysian Public Listed Companies
( 118 ) An Analysis of Purchase Behavior of Generation Y in Kenya
( 120 ) Insecurity and Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 121 ) Organisational Politics – Causes and Effects on Organisation and Employees
( 122 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 123 ) Milk or Wine: Are Critical Infrastructure Protection Architectures Improving with Age?
( 124 ) Various International Experiences in Waste Management - Useful Lessons for Algeria
( 125 ) The Correlation Between the Palestinian Civil Society Institutions and the Universities (Status: The Palestine Technical University Kadourie with Tulkarm Institutions)
( 126 ) Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013
( 127 ) The Investment Performance of Socially Responsible Investment in Japan
( 128 ) Investigating the Demand of Small Hotel and Restaurant Businesses for Bank Financing: The Case of Turkey
( 129 ) A Review on EU Transportation Projects within the Case of Turkey for European Union Regional Development Policy
( 130 ) Land Use/Land Cover Change and its Effects on Bamboo Forest in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia
( 131 ) Appointment of Directors and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Sub Saharan Africa: Do We Need More Executive or Non-Executive Directors?
( 132 ) Corporate Funding and Sustainability of Non- Governmental Organizations in Africa
( 133 ) Does Managerial Emotional Biases Affect Debt Maturity Preference? Bayesian Network Method: Evidence from Tunisia
( 134 ) Development of the National Economies and the Foreign Trade Relations between Ukraine and Bulgaria (In the Period 2005-2014)
( 135 ) Market Share and Profitability Relationship: A Study of the Banking Sector in Nigeria
( 136 ) Determinants of Import Demand Functions of Pakistan: An ARDL Bound Testing Approach
( 137 ) Emotional Workgroup Performance and Group Effectiveness Egyptian Context
( 138 ) Forecasting-Based Carry Trade Using Pegged Currency: A Case of Omani Rial
( 139 ) The Indirect Impact of Overconfidence on the Performance of Tunisian Firms Through their Financing Structure
( 140 ) Quality of Accounting Reporting After the IFRS Adoption in Nigeria
( 141 ) Effect of Media Transportation and Advertising Transportation on Customers Responsiveness
( 142 ) The Effect of Personal Factors on the Customer Rating of the Quality of Services of the Islamic Banks Operating in the Syrian Coast
( 143 ) A Theoretical Analysis Upon the Environmental Health and Justice Issue: A Case Study for a Comparison Between G20s Unitary and Federal Members
( 144 ) Academic Mobility for Engineering and Technology Graduates in Africa: Lessons and Experiences from the Implementation
( 145 ) A Review of Cross Border Higher Education in Africa: Focus on Graduate Level Training in Engineering and Technology
( 146 ) Determining Rural Poverty in Manga Del Cura – Ecuador Non Delimited Zone
( 147 ) A Factor Analysis Approach Towards a Study of the Factors Affecting Students’ Choice of Higher Education Institution: A Case Study of a Private Institution (Twintech International University College of Technology)
( 148 ) Examining Long Run Relationship between Household Debt and Household Savings in South Africa – An Error Correction Model and Granger Causality
( 149 ) Purchasing Power Parity Hold in Major SAARC Countries? Panel Cointegration Analysis
( 150 ) Auditing Procedures and Process in the Public Sector
( 151 ) Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State
( 152 ) How the Principles of the Sharing Economy Can Improve Organizational Performance of the US Public School System
( 153 ) Effect of Budget Defict on Private Investment in East African Community for the Period 1981-2015: A Panel Data Analysis
( 154 ) An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change
( 155 ) Pollution Tax Under Imperfect Competition and Air Transport in a Domestic Economy
( 156 ) Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector
( 157 ) Implications of Accountants Unethical Behavior and Corporate Failures
( 158 ) Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria
( 159 ) Public Sector Size and GDP Growth Nexus: Panel Data Estimation
( 160 ) China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Analysis of Internal and External Challenges
( 161 ) Financial Tables Reports Gaps in Jordanian Islamic Banks
( 162 ) Analyzing Factors Affecting the Success of Social Media Posts for B2b Networks: A Fractional-Factorial Design Approach
( 163 ) The Influence of Communication, Work Motivation and Career Development on Elementary School Teacher’s Job Performance in Medan, Indonesia
( 164 ) Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa
( 165 ) Construction and Application of Water Resource Accounting Information System in Taiwan
( 166 ) Is Alumni Salary an Appropriate Metric for University Marketers?
( 167 ) The Effect of Work-Life Balance on Accounting Ethics
( 168 ) On the Prediction of the Inflation Crises of South Africa Using Markov-Switching Bayesian Vector Autoregressive and Logistic Regression Models
( 169 ) Entrepreneurial Networking and Women Entrepreneurs’ Contribution to Employment Creation in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 170 ) Participatory Processes in Planning for Self-Help Housing Provision in South Africa: Policies and Challenges
( 171 ) The Moderating Effect of Governance Mechanisms on the Relationship Between Innovation Strategy and the Performance
( 172 ) Public-Private Partnership as a Strategy for E-Governance Funding in Africa: The Gains and the Pains
( 173 ) Scenario Economic Impact Analysis of Offshore Fishing Tournaments in Ocean City
( 174 ) Employee Loyalty and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Port Harcourt Area Command of the Nigeria Police Force
( 175 ) Effect of Institutional Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 177 ) Measuring and Assessing the State of Technological Innovations and the Level of Interaction between Rice Processors and Stakeholders in Rice Processing Industry in Nigeria
( 178 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 179 ) Foreign Capital Inflows and Unemployment in Nigeria: A New Evidence from ARDL-Bounds Testing Approach
( 180 ) Financial Market Predictions with Factorization Machines: Trading the Opening Hour Based on Overnight Social Media Data
( 181 ) Electronic Banking Innovations and Selected Banks Performance in Nigeria
( 183 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 185 ) Incorporating Islamic Ethic Elements into Marketing Mix Paradigm
( 186 ) Forecasting Equity Index Volatility: Empirical Evidence from Japan, UK and USA Data
( 187 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 188 ) Impact of Telecommunications Market Liberalization on Labor Productivity in Economic Community of West African States
( 189 ) The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3
( 190 ) Depositors Confidence and Mergers and Acquisitions: The Nigerian Banking Sector Experience
( 191 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 192 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 193 ) Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries
( 194 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 195 ) Determinants of Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria
( 196 ) Exchange Rate and Foreign Reserves Interface: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 197 ) Impact of Participatory Decision Making on Organisational Goal Attainment
( 199 ) Uncertainties in Global Economic Policy and Nigerias Export Earnings
( 200 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 201 ) Decision-Making on Working Capital Management, Based on Industry Differences
( 202 ) Investigate Airport Service Quality- A Case Study of Airports in Shanghai
( 203 ) An Entrepreneurship Research in Singapore: Basic Psychological Needs and Motivation
( 204 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe
( 205 ) Sectoral Credit Allocation of Deposit Money Banks and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria
( 206 ) Foreign Direct Investment in Zimbabwe: The Role of Uncertainty, Exports, Cost of Capital, Corruption and Market Size
( 207 ) Gamification on Sales Force Performance in Nigeria Bottling Company
( 208 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 209 ) Factors that Influence Profitability of General Insurance Issuers in Indonesia
( 210 ) An Investigation of the Impact of Organisational Structure on Organisational Performance
( 211 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 212 ) Dutch Disease: Myth or Reality? An Analysis of the ARDL Model
( 213 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 214 ) Factors Influencing Human Capital in Ready Made Garments Industry in Bangladesh
( 215 ) Investigating the Impact of Business Alignment on Job Gratification in an Organization: The Case of a University in Egypt
( 216 ) Impact of Network Finance Development on Inflation: Evidence from Chinese Market
( 217 ) Profitability Behavior of Plastic Industries in Indonesia
( 218 ) Correlation between Financial Difficulties and Financing Strategies among Market Stallholders in Batangas City
( 219 ) Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey
( 220 ) Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria
( 221 ) Optimal Stock Portfolio Issuers of Building Construction Registered in LQ45 Based on the Markowitz Approach
( 222 ) The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region
( 223 ) The Mediating Effect of Financial Self-Efficacy on the Financial Literacy-Behavior Relationship: A Case of Generation Y Professionals
( 224 ) Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance Strategies among Multinational Corporations in Malaysia
( 225 ) Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization
( 227 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 228 ) Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State
( 229 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 230 ) Analysis of Effect of Profitability, Capital, Risk Financing, the Sharia Supervisory Board and Capabilities Zakat in Islamic Perspective with Circular Approach Causastion on Islamic Banks in Indonesia
( 231 ) The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure on Corporate Financial Performance
( 232 ) Incidence of Short Term Private Capital Outflow: Empirical Analysis in Nigeria
( 233 ) Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation
( 235 ) Can Small-Cap Active Funds Substantially Outperform the Market Over Time?
( 236 ) Analyzing the Financial Soundness of Kuwaiti Banks Using CAMELS Framework
( 237 ) Growing and Building: Collaboration of Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy
( 238 ) Challenges and Opportunities of Investment to the People of Sebeta Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
( 239 ) Fiscal Reaction Functions and Public Debt Sustainability in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism Approach
( 240 ) The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis
( 241 ) Exchange Rate Volatility, Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Asymmetric Preferences
( 242 ) Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 243 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 244 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 245 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 246 ) What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?
( 247 ) Determinant of MSMEs Performance and its Impact on Province GRDP in Indonesia
( 248 ) Innovations Dissemination Approaches among Government Co-Operative Supporting Organisations in Tanzania
( 249 ) The Effectiveness of the Production of Healthy Rice in Comparison with other Rice Varieties in the Upper Northern Region of Thailand
( 250 ) Perceived Poverty and Alleviation Efforts of Kogi State Community and Social Development Agencies in Kogi State: An Empirical Investigation
( 251 ) Determinants of Financial Performance and its Impact on the Growth of Islamic Bank Assets on Indonesia
( 252 ) The Role of Social Security Program for Enhancing Seniors Longevity
( 253 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector
( 254 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 255 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 257 ) Evaluating the Model of Demand for Money in Nigeria
( 258 ) Entrepreneurship Training for Mitigating Unemployment in Nigeria: How have the Tertiary Institutions Fared?
( 259 ) Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAPM and APT for Risk Measuring and Assets Pricing
( 260 ) Do Derivative Instruments Increase Firm Risk for Indonesia Non-Financial Companies?
( 261 ) Effect of Brand Enhancement on Buying Behavior towards the Sport Sponsorship Companies in Riyadh, KSA
( 262 ) Factors Influencing on Human Resources Development in SMEs Service Enterprises in Industry 4.0: The Case of Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam
( 263 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 264 ) The Relationship between Creative Accounting Risks and Auditing Risks from the Perspective of External Auditors in Saudi Arabia
( 265 ) Determinants of Profitability and its Implications on Corporate Values (Studies at Ceramic, Porcelain and Glass Sub Sector Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, 2009 - 2018)
( 266 ) Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices
( 267 ) Towards a Proposal of a Local Authority Model Based on the Systemic Approach
( 268 ) Up or Down! House Management and Public Finance Theory from America’s Era of Hastert
( 269 ) Interest Rate Ceilings and Financial Exclusion in Kenya: Evidence from Commercial Banks’ Sectoral Credit Distribution
( 270 ) Export- Led Growth Hypothesis for Ghana: A TVAR & TVECM Analysis
( 272 ) A Model of Strategic Thinking: Islamic and Iranian Perspective
( 273 ) Measuring the Quality of Islamic Banks Services and Its Impact on Customers Satisfaction A Survey Study on the Islamic Banks Customers in Lattakia-Syria
( 282 ) Kashmir Peasant Economy under Dogra’s: A Case Study of Agrarian Produce and Livestock 1885-1925 A.D
( 284 ) Reminiscing Stock Splits Announcement: A Malaysian Case
( 285 ) Testing the Random Walk: The Case of Hong Kong Stock Exchange
( 286 ) Earnings Management and Stock Market Returns
( 289 ) The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Debt, Liquidity, Growth, and Volume of Companies in Palestine Stock Exchange
( 290 ) Studying the Integration of Damascus Securities Exchange with Selected Stock Markets
( 293 ) Regime Changes in the Volatility of Stock Markets
( 296 ) Effect of Savings Deposit Rate on Stock Market Capitalization in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation
( 300 ) The Dynamics of Land Market and Food Security in Malawi