Fisayo Fagbemi , Omowumi Grace Adeoye (2019). Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 61-73. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.61.73
Given the prevailing conjecture that human capital has multiple pathways through which it influences growth and development, understanding its current level and capacity and the public finance management impact in Africa cannot be overemphasized. Hence, the study examines the long-run and short-run relationship between public spending and human capital in twenty-one (21) sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries between 1984 and 2016 using mean – group (MG) and pooled mean – group (PMG). Empirical evidence reveals that when primary school enrollment is employed as the human capital indicator, public spending has a positive and significant effect on human capital in the long-run, whereas it is insignificant in the short-run. The findings support the view that public spending oriented towards education could lead to human capital enhancement in the long-run. Also, with the inclusion of life expectancy as the human capital measure, government expenditure positively and significantly influences human capital in the long- run as well as in the short-run, suggesting that public expenditure on the advancement of literacy rate and provision of better health facilities would stimulate human capital development in SSA. The study highlights that political and institutional failures which undermine good-quality delivery of sustainable social services (including education and healthcare services) could harm the development of human capital in the region. Thus, the paper posits that ensuring effective expenditure control and results-based funding are central to the drive towards raising the quality of human capital in Africa.
Aside addressing the growing human capital deficiencies in SSA, the study basically unravels public finance-human capital development gap, and offers a sufficient ground for remedying it. With the use of frontier econometric methods, the paper gives accurate accounts on the inadequacies of institutional measures in engendering sustainable social policies.
Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey
Serpil Aytac , Gulsen Cetin Aydin (2019). Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 74-84. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.74.84
Unemployment remains a major social problem with the impact of economic, social, political, historical and cultural factors. This problem is not only limited to Turkey but also becomes a global threat to other countries. Unemployment cannot be considered separately from employment. Unlike unemployment, employment policies are the process of inclusion of the labor element in the labor market. The most basic problem of unemployment and employment in Turkey; it is artificial employment and poverty rather than open unemployment in the western sense. On the other hand; frequent economic crises have led to the loss of employees' jobs. As a matter of fact, after the last crises, approximately 10 out of every 100 people, who are called as a qualified, highly educated gold collar, lost their jobs and the official unemployment rate increased from 9% to 12%. The most affected sectors are unemployed; while banking and finance and industry and service sectors are stated, there is a marked decrease in the quality of life of individuals. Another important development that attracts attention with the increasingly difficult working conditions and the economic crises is the increase of brain drain. Undoubtedly, it is possible to say that the unemployment phenomenon and the decrease in the quality of life have a significant effect on these negative developments. In this study, the reasons for going abroad and their decision to return to the country of the qualified labor force will be evaluated by logistic regression analysis in terms of pull and push factors.
This study contributes to the existing brain drain literature on high skilled immigrant going abroad. This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the importance of the high skilled person going abroad from Turkey.
Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria
Salisu Yakubu , Momoh I. Yalo , Uba Halilu (2019). Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 85-96. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.85.96
This study analyzed the environmental factors affecting manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State, Nigeria. The target is to investigate the effects of internal factors as they affect the profitability of manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State. The survey research design was adopted for the study; covered 171 SME owners in Kogi State. The clusters of SMEs were located and utilized for this study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, principal component factor analysis, and binary logit regression. Findings show that business strategy has a significant negative relationship with the profitability of SMEs in Kogi State. Operational strength and debt leveraging significantly and positively relate to the profitability of SMEs in Kogi State. These factors play critical roles in the sustainability of the profitability of manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State. The study recommended that manufacturing SME owners should seek knowledge and skill to crafting and adopting an effective business strategy, boost their operational strength and manage their debt leveraging distinctively to sustain their profitability in the competitive business environment of Kogi State.
This study contributes to the existing literature on the environmental factors affecting Manufacturing SMEs. The study uses new methods of principal component analysis and binary logit regression to analyze the environmental factors affecting manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State, Nigeria.
Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis
Mohd Alsaleh , A.S. Abdul-Rahim (2019). Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 97-105. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.97.105
This study identified the effects of economic factors on technical efficiency (TE) rate in the bio-energy section for the European Union zone (EU-28). A Tobit framework estimation was used to investigate the economic factors of TE rate in the bio-energy sector for the EU-28 zone during the period among 1990 through 2013. The findings point that economic determinants have a significant impact on TE rate of the bio-energy sector in the EU-28 countries. The empirical findings suggest that labor input and gross domestic product (GDP) significantly affected the TE of the bio-energy sector in the EU-28 zone through the duration of this paper. The results obviously inviting governors and politicians to investigate the TE rate of the bio-energy sector within the EU-28 zone. This paper gives further facts and details to the senates of the bio-energy sectors, as they require to get a further comprehension of the impact TE has on bio-energy production execution. In addition, the findings of this paper have suggestions for financiers who concentrates significantly on revenues from their direct-investments.
This study contributes to the existing literature in investigating the TE of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 region. This study uses new estimation methodologies such as the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the Tobit Model to investigate the impact of economic determinants on the TE of the bioenergy industry in the EU28 region during the period between 1990 and 2013.
Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?
Mohammad Ali , Md. Tanvir Alam Himel (2019). Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 106-116. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.106.116
This paper aims to investigate the impact of social and psychological barriers on the negative intention of female students to be an entrepreneur and to analyze the mediating role of psychological barriers between social barriers and negative entrepreneurial intention. Total of 791 female students were surveyed from Bangladesh through an on-line questionnaire. Four hypotheses have been developed and tested on the total sample. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to measure the validity of the data and the relationship among the variables. The study endorsed that social barriers have a significant negative association with the negative intention toward entrepreneurship that indicates social barriers do not significantly reduce the entrepreneurial intention. Psychological barriers as mediating variable have a significant and positive relationship with social barriers and those barriers also have a significant positive effect on negative intention toward entrepreneurship. Psychological barriers partially mediate the relationship between social barriers and the intention toward entrepreneurship. Thus, social barriers through psychological barriers significantly influence the entrepreneurial intention and reduce the inclination of female students toward entrepreneurship.
This study originates unique findings that social barriers do not directly contribute to reducing the entrepreneurial intention, but psychological barriers significantly reduce the intention of the female students toward entrepreneurship. Besides, psychological barriers play a mediating role between social barriers and entrepreneurial intention.
Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs
Tilahun Aemiro Tehulu (2019). Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 117-125. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.117.125
In Ethiopia, MSEs have become the favorite of policy makers as they are believed to play a critical role in addressing both poverty reduction and economic growth goals. Over the years, while some MSEs have grown extremely large and profitable, many others have failed or have not been as successful as they might have been. This study seeks to identify the factors that hamper the success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Amhara region of Ethiopia since studies aimed at assessing the same are virtually missing. This study employed a quantitative research approach using a descriptive survey design. The data was drawn from a survey of 316 MSEs in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Statistical models including One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and T-test are used to analyze the data apart from other descriptive statistics such as percentages and mean. The study has revealed that working premises, marketing and financial factors are the three most serious factors that hamper the success of MSEs. We suggest that since the real challenges of MSEs change over time, the challenges of MSEs must be studied at some periodic interval to identify the real challenges of MSEs of the time and take appropriate action timely.
The study contributes to the existing literature by revealing the critical factors that hamper the success of MSEs and may help the local government to devise ways to support these enterprises in efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development by 2030.