Journal of Social Economics Research

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Online ISSN: 2312-6264
Print ISSN: 2312-6329
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Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?

Pages: 61-73
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Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.61.73

Fisayo Fagbemi , Omowumi Grace Adeoye

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Fisayo Fagbemi , Omowumi Grace Adeoye (2019). Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 61-73. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.61.73
Given the prevailing conjecture that human capital has multiple pathways through which it influences growth and development, understanding its current level and capacity and the public finance management impact in Africa cannot be overemphasized. Hence, the study examines the long-run and short-run relationship between public spending and human capital in twenty-one (21) sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries between 1984 and 2016 using mean – group (MG) and pooled mean – group (PMG). Empirical evidence reveals that when primary school enrollment is employed as the human capital indicator, public spending has a positive and significant effect on human capital in the long-run, whereas it is insignificant in the short-run. The findings support the view that public spending oriented towards education could lead to human capital enhancement in the long-run. Also, with the inclusion of life expectancy as the human capital measure, government expenditure positively and significantly influences human capital in the long- run as well as in the short-run, suggesting that public expenditure on the advancement of literacy rate and provision of better health facilities would stimulate human capital development in SSA. The study highlights that political and institutional failures which undermine good-quality delivery of sustainable social services (including education and healthcare services) could harm the development of human capital in the region. Thus, the paper posits that ensuring effective expenditure control and results-based funding are central to the drive towards raising the quality of human capital in Africa.
Contribution/ Originality
Aside addressing the growing human capital deficiencies in SSA, the study basically unravels public finance-human capital development gap, and offers a sufficient ground for remedying it. With the use of frontier econometric methods, the paper gives accurate accounts on the inadequacies of institutional measures in engendering sustainable social policies.

Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey

Pages: 74-84
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Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.74.84

Serpil Aytac , Gulsen Cetin Aydin

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Serpil Aytac , Gulsen Cetin Aydin (2019). Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 74-84. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.74.84
Unemployment remains a major social problem with the impact of economic, social, political, historical and cultural factors. This problem is not only limited to Turkey but also becomes a global threat to other countries. Unemployment cannot be considered separately from employment. Unlike unemployment, employment policies are the process of inclusion of the labor element in the labor market. The most basic problem of unemployment and employment in Turkey; it is artificial employment and poverty rather than open unemployment in the western sense. On the other hand; frequent economic crises have led to the loss of employees' jobs. As a matter of fact, after the last crises, approximately 10 out of every 100 people, who are called as a qualified, highly educated gold collar, lost their jobs and the official unemployment rate increased from 9% to 12%. The most affected sectors are unemployed; while banking and finance and industry and service sectors are stated, there is a marked decrease in the quality of life of individuals. Another important development that attracts attention with the increasingly difficult working conditions and the economic crises is the increase of brain drain. Undoubtedly, it is possible to say that the unemployment phenomenon and the decrease in the quality of life have a significant effect on these negative developments. In this study, the reasons for going abroad and their decision to return to the country of the qualified labor force will be evaluated by logistic regression analysis in terms of pull and push factors.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing brain drain literature on high skilled immigrant going abroad. This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the importance of the high skilled person going abroad from Turkey.

Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria

Pages: 85-96
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Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.85.96

Salisu Yakubu , Momoh I. Yalo , Uba Halilu

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Salisu Yakubu , Momoh I. Yalo , Uba Halilu (2019). Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 85-96. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.85.96
This study analyzed the environmental factors affecting manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State, Nigeria. The target is to investigate the effects of internal factors as they affect the profitability of manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State. The survey research design was adopted for the study; covered 171 SME owners in Kogi State. The clusters of SMEs were located and utilized for this study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, principal component factor analysis, and binary logit regression. Findings show that business strategy has a significant negative relationship with the profitability of SMEs in Kogi State. Operational strength and debt leveraging significantly and positively relate to the profitability of SMEs in Kogi State. These factors play critical roles in the sustainability of the profitability of manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State. The study recommended that manufacturing SME owners should seek knowledge and skill to crafting and adopting an effective business strategy, boost their operational strength and manage their debt leveraging distinctively to sustain their profitability in the competitive business environment of Kogi State.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the environmental factors affecting Manufacturing SMEs. The study uses new methods of principal component analysis and binary logit regression to analyze the environmental factors affecting manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State, Nigeria.

Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis

Pages: 97-105
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Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.97.105

Mohd Alsaleh , A.S. Abdul-Rahim

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Mohd Alsaleh , A.S. Abdul-Rahim (2019). Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 97-105. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.97.105
This study identified the effects of economic factors on technical efficiency (TE) rate in the bio-energy section for the European Union zone (EU-28). A Tobit framework estimation was used to investigate the economic factors of TE rate in the bio-energy sector for the EU-28 zone during the period among 1990 through 2013. The findings point that economic determinants have a significant impact on TE rate of the bio-energy sector in the EU-28 countries. The empirical findings suggest that labor input and gross domestic product (GDP) significantly affected the TE of the bio-energy sector in the EU-28 zone through the duration of this paper. The results obviously inviting governors and politicians to investigate the TE rate of the bio-energy sector within the EU-28 zone. This paper gives further facts and details to the senates of the bio-energy sectors, as they require to get a further comprehension of the impact TE has on bio-energy production execution. In addition, the findings of this paper have suggestions for financiers who concentrates significantly on revenues from their direct-investments.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature in investigating the TE of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 region. This study uses new estimation methodologies such as the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the Tobit Model to investigate the impact of economic determinants on the TE of the bioenergy industry in the EU28 region during the period between 1990 and 2013.

Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?

Pages: 106-116
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Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.106.116

Mohammad Ali , Md. Tanvir Alam Himel

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Mohammad Ali , Md. Tanvir Alam Himel (2019). Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 106-116. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.106.116
This paper aims to investigate the impact of social and psychological barriers on the negative intention of female students to be an entrepreneur and to analyze the mediating role of psychological barriers between social barriers and negative entrepreneurial intention. Total of 791 female students were surveyed from Bangladesh through an on-line questionnaire. Four hypotheses have been developed and tested on the total sample. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to measure the validity of the data and the relationship among the variables. The study endorsed that social barriers have a significant negative association with the negative intention toward entrepreneurship that indicates social barriers do not significantly reduce the entrepreneurial intention. Psychological barriers as mediating variable have a significant and positive relationship with social barriers and those barriers also have a significant positive effect on negative intention toward entrepreneurship. Psychological barriers partially mediate the relationship between social barriers and the intention toward entrepreneurship. Thus, social barriers through psychological barriers significantly influence the entrepreneurial intention and reduce the inclination of female students toward entrepreneurship.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates unique findings that social barriers do not directly contribute to reducing the entrepreneurial intention, but psychological barriers significantly reduce the intention of the female students toward entrepreneurship. Besides, psychological barriers play a mediating role between social barriers and entrepreneurial intention.

Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs

Pages: 117-125
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Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.117.125

Tilahun Aemiro Tehulu

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Tilahun Aemiro Tehulu (2019). Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 117-125. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.117.125
In Ethiopia, MSEs have become the favorite of policy makers as they are believed to play a critical role in addressing both poverty reduction and economic growth goals. Over the years, while some MSEs have grown extremely large and profitable, many others have failed or have not been as successful as they might have been. This study seeks to identify the factors that hamper the success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Amhara region of Ethiopia since studies aimed at assessing the same are virtually missing. This study employed a quantitative research approach using a descriptive survey design. The data was drawn from a survey of 316 MSEs in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Statistical models including One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and T-test are used to analyze the data apart from other descriptive statistics such as percentages and mean. The study has revealed that working premises, marketing and financial factors are the three most serious factors that hamper the success of MSEs. We suggest that since the real challenges of MSEs change over time, the challenges of MSEs must be studied at some periodic interval to identify the real challenges of MSEs of the time and take appropriate action timely.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the existing literature by revealing the critical factors that hamper the success of MSEs and may help the local government to devise ways to support these enterprises in efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development by 2030.

Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State

Pages: 126-138
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Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.126.138

Juwon Johnson Orugun , Hakeem Tomi Saliu , Stephen Makoji

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Juwon Johnson Orugun , Hakeem Tomi Saliu , Stephen Makoji (2019). Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 126-138. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.126.138
This study focused on the effect of socio-cultural diversity on the performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State. The study thus examined the effect of age difference, gender, ethnicity, religion, physical abilities and cultural beliefs on the patients’ satisfaction, financial performance and technological innovativeness of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State. The study used a descriptive research design. The population (1460) of the study comprised of the staff of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State. The sample size of 304 was determined using Sallant and Dillman’s sample size method. A two-method sampling technique was used. The data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Multiple Regression analysis. Finding shows that age difference, physical ability and religious differences have significantly positive effect on patients’ satisfaction; as against ethnic difference which has inverse effect. Ethnicity, cultural and gender differences have positive effects on the financial performance; as against age and religious differences which have significantly negative relationship. The study concludes that diversity in terms of age, physical ability and religion are taken seriously and managed very well in the Health Care Organizations of Kogi State. This study therefore recommends that the management, government and other stakeholders should invest in diversity management training and development programmes to widen the opportunity to create patients’ satisfaction and achieve other goals in the Health Care Organizations in Kogi State.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature. It is one of the few studies on the subject matter, and it made used of new estimated methodology. The primary contribution of the study is that diversity variables affect performance in Health Care organizations. The study was able to build arguments around these diversity variables and proven using scientific approaches.

Growing and Building: Collaboration of Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy

Pages: 139-149
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Growing and Building: Collaboration of Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.139.149

Dijan Rahajuni , Lilis Siti Badriah , Sri Lestari , Ascaryan Rafinda

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Dijan Rahajuni , Lilis Siti Badriah , Sri Lestari , Ascaryan Rafinda (2019). Growing and Building: Collaboration of Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 139-149. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.139.149
This research aims to examine the collaboration strategy for poverty alleviation in Indonesia. The shifting of government program from PNPM-MP to No-Slum City (Kotaku) to alleviate poverty need another strategy to harmonize in-time between both programs. Previous experience found that PNPM-MP has been able to reduce urban poverty, even though it has not yet reached the realization of community welfare. Therefore PNPM-MP is feasible to continue, especially considering that there are still revolving funds managed by the community self-help group (KSM) to meet economic needs and increase productive economic activities. The end of PNPM-PM to the No-Slum City program (Kotaku) requires a reorientation of the strategy to continue reducing poverty and improving people's welfare. This research using qualitative data to examine the program. Documentation, interview, and survey conducted to collect all the data. Finally, this research using SWOT analysis, an alternative strategy for collaborating the two programs is the grow and build strategy. This research found that using internal and external matrix strategy, in this harmonization program, grow and build strategy needed to minimize the clash between two programs. Further, we need to identify the details strategy that needed to be applied in this shifting program.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the poverty alleviation program from the Indonesian Government called PNPM-MP to No-Slum-City. This study found the potential problem at the grassroots level and found the strategy to minimize the problem that potentially exists when the program applied.

Challenges and Opportunities of Investment to the People of Sebeta Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Pages: 150-168
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Challenges and Opportunities of Investment to the People of Sebeta Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.150.168

Kebede Lemu Bekelcha

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Kebede Lemu Bekelcha (2019). Challenges and Opportunities of Investment to the People of Sebeta Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Journal of Social Economics Research, 6(2): 150-168. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2019.62.150.168
This study deals with the challenges and opportunities of investment to the people of Sebeta town, Ethiopia. Currently, countries throughout the world are intensifying investment activities in African countries. Ethiopia is one of them. The focus of this study is to investigate the challenges and opportunities of investment to the people of Sebeta town of Oromia Regional State. To achieve this objective, both primary and secondary data was used. For this purpose, informants selected from the displaced people, government officials, workers of different investment types and selected residents of the town were participants of FGD, interview, observation and case study. In such away, 141 individuals were directly involved in this study. In anthropological studies, analysis is an instrument to extract meanings from the information obtained during the field work. In such a manner, data were presented in a qualitative type. The result of the study showed that local communities lost their land, rivers were contaminated by waste released from companies, labor exploitation and numbers of workers in several companies were disabled, and instability in the town. Investment also brought several opportunities for local people as source of income, skills and technology transfer. Local communities used daily labor, self-employment informal sector to sustain their livelihood. Based on the findings of the research, some alternatives were forwarded that could solve the problem and capitalize the opportunities available. Therefore, implementing proclamations and regulations of the country, prioritizing people in decision making and reconstructing the livelihoods of displaced households need emphasis by the concerned bodies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by dealing with the challenges and opportunities of investment to the people of Sebeta town, Ethiopia.