Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Journal of Social Economics Research

June 2014, Volume 1, 6, pp 108-117

The Sustainable Livelihoods Index: A Tool To Assess the Ability and Preparedness of the Rural Poor in Receiving Entrepreneurial Project

Roslina Kamaruddin


Shamzaeffa Samsudin

Roslina Kamaruddin 1 Shamzaeffa Samsudin 1 

  1. School of Economics, Finance and Banking College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia 1


This paper describes the Sustainable Livelihoods Index (SLI) as a useful tool in assessing the livelihood elements of the rural poor households. Income data alone may not fully reflect the suitability of the hardcore poor in receiving government assistance in the form of entrepreneurial projects. In this case rendered projects do not take into account the ability and preparedness of the poor in receiving the projects. The main objective of this study is to measure comprehensively all the livelihood elements of the rural poor households through developing a Sustainable Livelihood Index (SLI). This index was based on Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA) framework. A total of 22 livelihood assets and outcomes indicators were identified from the data set and broadly grouped into five groups of assets namely human, physical, natural, social, financial assets and 2 groups of livelihoods outcomes which are food security and health status. Then, an aggregate SLI for each household was constructed by averaging all the seven groups of livelihood assets and outcomes indices with an equal weight. Overall, about 73% of considered households were attained an SLI below than 0.5, with a mean of 0.47. With regard to household income that has been used as a poverty measurement, the study found that the Sustainable Livelihood Index (SLI) was moved in tandem with the total of household income. There are 90.91% of the households in hardcore poor group were obtained SLI below 0.5 indicating that households with a low income will also have a low SLI. Although income and SLI were moved in the same direction, this paper suggests the use of SLI as a more analytically rigorous tool to assess the ability and preparedness of the rural poor than the regular use of household income level alone.  Besides it may help the local authorities to broaden their scope in a manageable way as to ensure the sustainability of a given project.  
Contribution/ Originality



  1. Ashley, C. and D. Carney, 1999. Lessons from early experience. London: DFID.
  2. Bebbington, A., 1999. Capital and capabilities: A framework for analysing peasant viability, rural livelihoods and poverty. World Development, 27(12): 2021-2044.
  3. Brocklesby, M.A. and E.E. Fisher, 2003. Community development in sustainable livelihoods approaches: An introduction. Oxford University Press and Community Development Journal, 38(3): 185-198.
  4. Carney, D., 1998. Implementing the sustainable rural livelihoods approach. In D. Carney, (Ed)., Sustainable rural livelihoods: What contribution can we make? London: DFID.
  5. Chambers, R. and G.G. Conway, 1992. Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st Century. IDS Discussion Paper No. 296, IDS, Brighton, UK.
  6. Chamhuri, S., 2009. Poverty eradication and inequality distribution of income. In Nor Aini Hj. Idris & Ishak Yussof (Eds.). Malaysian economy: Towards balanced development. Bangi: National University of Malaysia.
  7. Department for International Development (DFID), 1999. Sustainable rural livelihoods guidance sheets. London: Department for International Development.
  8. EPU, 2006. Ninth Malaysia plan 2006-2010. Malaysia: Prime Minister`s Department, Putrajaya.
  9. EPU (Economic Planning Unit) Malaysia, 2010. Tenth Malaysia plan 2011-2015. Malaysia: Prime Minister`s Department, Putrajaya.
  10. Hahn, M.B., M.R.M.R. Anne and O.F.O.F. Stanley, 2009. The livelihood vulnerability index: A  pragmatic approach to assessing risks from climate variability and change, a case study in Mozambique. Centreer for Sustainability and the Global Environment, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  11. IISD, 2013. What is sustainable development? Environmental, Economic and Social Well-Being for Today and Tomorrow. Available from [Accessed August 20, 2013].
  12. Lindenberg, M., 2002. Measuring household livelihood security at the family and community level in the developing world. World Development, 30(2): 301-318.
  13. Rai, S.D., M.S. Sharma, M.S. Prachi and P.K.P.K. Malhotra, 2008. Development of livelihood index for different agro-climatic zones of iIndia. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 21(July-December): 173-182.
  14. Sanzidur, R. and A.A. Shaheen, 2010. Determinants of livelihood security in poor settlements in Bbangladesh. International Working Paper Series, Paper No. 10/01.
  15. Scoones, I., 1998. Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis. IDS Working Paper No. 72, IDS: Brighton UK.
  16. Zulkarnain, A.H. and A.A. Isahaque, 2013. Poverty reduction policies in Malaysia: Trends, strategies and challenges. Asian Culture and History, 5(2): 48-56.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) The Development of Participated Environmental Education Model for Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management on Eastern Part of Thailand
( 2 ) Strategic Evaluation of Distributed Power Generation Technology: A Sustainable Approach
( 3 ) The Sustainable Livelihoods Index: A Tool To Assess the Ability and Preparedness of the Rural Poor in Receiving Entrepreneurial Project
( 4 ) The Potential of Rural–Urban Linkages for Sustainable Development and Trade
( 5 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 6 ) Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices
( 7 ) Sustainability Performance and Sustainable Development Goals
( 8 ) External Debt Dynamics and Sustainable Growth in Nigeria
( 9 ) The Climate Change Menace, Food Security, Livelihoods and Social Safety in Northern Ghana
( 11 ) New Evidence on the Link Between Income Inequality and Misery Index: A Nonlinear Time Series Analysis
( 14 ) Contemporary Approach to Enhanced Road Transport System in Nigeria Through the Application of It-Based (Online) Bus Ticketing and Payment System
( 15 ) Making Poverty A History in Africa: The Role of the G8
( 16 ) External Factors Influencing on Industrial Building System (Ibs) in Malaysia
( 17 ) Consideration the Relationship Between Information Communications Technology and Economic Growth in Top 10 Economic
( 18 ) NGO Programming and Policy Advocacy in the Land Sector in Zimbabwe
( 19 ) Testing the Random Walks in Korea Stock Exchange
( 20 ) How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region
( 21 ) Kashmir Peasant Economy under Dogra’s: A Case Study of Agrarian Produce and Livestock 1885-1925 A.D
( 22 ) Driving Role of Institutional Investors in the Indian Stock Market in Short and Long-Run – An Empirical Study
( 23 ) An Enquiry into the Contributions of Microfinance Institutions Towards the Development of Small Scale Business in Nigeria
( 24 ) A Review on Criteria for Green Infrastructure to be Adopted by Local Authorities
( 25 ) Does the Mena Countries May Converge in GDP to Southern European One? The Effects of International Trade
( 26 ) An Inventory Model with Lost Sale is Time Dependent
( 27 ) Reminiscing Stock Splits Announcement: A Malaysian Case
( 29 ) Study of the Relationship between Economic Growth and Inflation: Application to the Countries of the South Side of the Mediterranean: A Panel Data Approach
( 30 ) A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style
( 31 ) Testing the Random Walk: The Case of Hong Kong Stock Exchange
( 32 ) Rate of Return Would Not Increase To the Extent of Annuity Saving Discount
( 33 ) Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria
( 34 ) Earnings Management and Stock Market Returns
( 35 ) The Recruitment of Migrant Workers in the Food Service Industry in Malaysia. A Study of Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam
( 36 ) Quality Management Practices towards Customer Satisfaction in Local Authority Public Services Website
( 37 ) Consideration the Effects of Water Sector Investment on Economic Growth in Iran
( 38 ) A Theoretical Review on Critical Success Factors (CSFS) of Entrepreneurship Programs in Community College
( 39 ) Influence Internship Learning Effect in Business Service Sector: Using Internship Self-Efficacy as the Mediator Variable
( 40 ) The Impact of Dividend Policy on Shareholders’ Wealth before and After Financial Melt down: Evidence from FMCG Sector in India
( 41 ) Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework
( 42 ) Factors Impacting on SMEs Internationalization: Dairy Industry in Zimbabwe
( 43 ) The Biodiesel Market in Brazil and the Prospects for the Sector
( 44 ) A Mixed-Methods Study to Explore Stage of Readiness and Intention of Micro and Small Enterprises to Adopt Mobile Money in Indonesia
( 45 ) Attributes Influencing Strategic Alignment in the Service Sector: An Indonesian Banking Sector Case Study
( 46 ) Workplace Bullying: Modelling Construct Validity in an Australian Public Sector Workforce
( 47 ) The Effect of Selected Financial Ratios on Profitability: An Empirical Analysis of Listed Firms of Cement Sector in Saudi Arabia
( 48 ) Stock Market Index Prediction with Neural Network during Financial Crises: A Review on Bist-100
( 49 ) The Total Factor Productivity of Libyan Banks, 2004 – 2010
( 50 ) The Life-Time of Tomorrow Party of Japan and Its Negative Impacts on the Anti-Nuclear Movements in Japan’s Politics
( 51 ) Exploration of Suitability of Situational Leadership in the Oil and Gas Sector
( 52 ) Estimating Value at Risk for Sukuk Market Using Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models
( 53 ) The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Debt, Liquidity, Growth, and Volume of Companies in Palestine Stock Exchange
( 54 ) Rural - Urban Balance as a Measure of Socio-Economic Development with Special Reference to Iran
( 55 ) Measuring the Quality of Islamic Banks Services and Its Impact on Customers Satisfaction A Survey Study on the Islamic Banks Customers in Lattakia-Syria
( 56 ) A Negative Rational Pigs Game and its Applications to Website Management
( 57 ) The Internal Branding Process: Customer Reprofiling and Brand Positioning (Empirical Study on Traditional Snack Food in Bandung-Indonesia)
( 58 ) Appointment of Directors and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Sub Saharan Africa: Do We Need More Executive or Non-Executive Directors?
( 59 ) Managing Public Perception towards Local Government Administration
( 60 ) Studying the Integration of Damascus Securities Exchange with Selected Stock Markets
( 61 ) Market Share and Profitability Relationship: A Study of the Banking Sector in Nigeria
( 62 ) Effect of Media Transportation and Advertising Transportation on Customers Responsiveness
( 63 ) The Effect of Personal Factors on the Customer Rating of the Quality of Services of the Islamic Banks Operating in the Syrian Coast
( 64 ) A Factor Analysis Approach Towards a Study of the Factors Affecting Students’ Choice of Higher Education Institution: A Case Study of a Private Institution (Twintech International University College of Technology)
( 65 ) Does the Holiday Effect Differ from Religious to Non-Religious Holidays? Empirical Evidence from Egypt
( 66 ) Auditing Procedures and Process in the Public Sector
( 67 ) Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State
( 68 ) Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector
( 69 ) Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria
( 70 ) Public Sector Size and GDP Growth Nexus: Panel Data Estimation
( 71 ) Analyzing Factors Affecting the Success of Social Media Posts for B2b Networks: A Fractional-Factorial Design Approach
( 72 ) On the Prediction of the Inflation Crises of South Africa Using Markov-Switching Bayesian Vector Autoregressive and Logistic Regression Models
( 73 ) Entrepreneurial Networking and Women Entrepreneurs’ Contribution to Employment Creation in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 74 ) Participatory Processes in Planning for Self-Help Housing Provision in South Africa: Policies and Challenges
( 75 ) Scenario Economic Impact Analysis of Offshore Fishing Tournaments in Ocean City
( 76 ) Effect of Institutional Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 77 ) Does Gold Price Lead or Lags Islamic Stock Market and Strategy Commodity Price? A Study from Malaysia
( 78 ) An Investigation into the Causes of Failures in Railway Infrastructure at Transnet Freight Rail - A Case of the Steel and Cement Business Unit
( 79 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 80 ) Financial Market Predictions with Factorization Machines: Trading the Opening Hour Based on Overnight Social Media Data
( 81 ) The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Companies on Profitability and its Implications on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks
( 82 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 83 ) Leading Indicators and Financial Crisis: A Multi-Sectoral Approach Using Signal Extraction
( 84 ) Incorporating Islamic Ethic Elements into Marketing Mix Paradigm
( 85 ) Intention to Use E-Recruitment System: Empirical Evidence from Jobseekers in the Advertising Industry in Malaysia
( 86 ) The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3
( 87 ) Depositors Confidence and Mergers and Acquisitions: The Nigerian Banking Sector Experience
( 88 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 89 ) Determinants of Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria
( 90 ) Impact of Participatory Decision Making on Organisational Goal Attainment
( 91 ) Conceptualisation of Lack of Discipline and Probity as the Main Cause towards Good Governance Practice
( 92 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe
( 93 ) Sectoral Credit Allocation of Deposit Money Banks and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria
( 94 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 95 ) An Empirical Assessment of the Impact of Access to Credit on Farm Output: A Case Study of Sefwi-Wiawso Municipality Ghana
( 96 ) Factors that Influence Profitability of General Insurance Issuers in Indonesia
( 97 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 98 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 99 ) Factors Influencing Human Capital in Ready Made Garments Industry in Bangladesh
( 100 ) Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey
( 101 ) Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria
( 102 ) Regime Changes in the Volatility of Stock Markets
( 103 ) Optimal Stock Portfolio Issuers of Building Construction Registered in LQ45 Based on the Markowitz Approach
( 104 ) Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis
( 105 ) Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?
( 106 ) The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region
( 107 ) Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs
( 108 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 109 ) Family Leadership and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises Research and Development Investments
( 110 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 111 ) Challenges and Opportunities of Investment to the People of Sebeta Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
( 112 ) The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis
( 113 ) Consumers’ Behavioural Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa Using an Extension of Technology Acceptance Model: Lessons from Zimbabwe
( 114 ) Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 115 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 116 ) What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?
( 117 ) Analysing the Financial Strength of Nigeria: An Approach to Estimate the Index of Financial Safety
( 118 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector
( 119 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 120 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 121 ) Factors Affecting the Individual Stock Price Index (IHSI) Industrial Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia, Automotive Sub Sectors, and Components in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX)
( 122 ) Effect of Brand Enhancement on Buying Behavior towards the Sport Sponsorship Companies in Riyadh, KSA
( 123 ) Efficiency of Microfinance (MF) Institutions in Bangladesh: A Study on Top 10 MF Institutions
( 124 ) Critical Review of Literature on Brand Equity and Customer Loyalty
( 125 ) Factors Influencing on Human Resources Development in SMEs Service Enterprises in Industry 4.0: The Case of Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam
( 126 ) Analysis of Causal Nexus between Defense Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach
( 127 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 128 ) Effect of Savings Deposit Rate on Stock Market Capitalization in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation
( 129 ) The Relationship between Creative Accounting Risks and Auditing Risks from the Perspective of External Auditors in Saudi Arabia
( 130 ) Determinants of Profitability and its Implications on Corporate Values (Studies at Ceramic, Porcelain and Glass Sub Sector Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, 2009 - 2018)
( 131 ) Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Mindset: Towards Societal Re-Engineering
( 133 ) Towards a Proposal of a Local Authority Model Based on the Systemic Approach
( 134 ) Interest Rate Ceilings and Financial Exclusion in Kenya: Evidence from Commercial Banks’ Sectoral Credit Distribution
( 135 ) Factors Affecting the Capital Structure of the Textile Industry in Bangladesh: An Inferential Study
( 136 ) Deficit Financing Asymmetry and Nigerias Economic Growth: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
( 137 ) The Dimensions of the Quality Perceived by Users in a Clinical Analysis Laboratory of A University Hospital
( 138 ) A Process Model for Conformance of Health Information Systems: Towards National Interoperability
( 139 ) Factors Influencing Audit Expense and Quality in an Emerging Economy: A Study on Bangladesh
( 140 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 141 ) Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Soil Conservation Development
( 142 ) Factors Affecting Profitability of General Insurance Companies in Indonesia
( 143 ) Exploring the Dimensions Using Exploratory Factor Analysis of Disruptive Factors and Inventory Control
( 144 ) Panel Data Estimators in the Presence of Serial and Spatial Correlation with Panel Heteroscedasticity: A Simulation Study
( 145 ) The Impact of Data Frequency on the Level of Exchange Rate Pass-through to Consumer Prices in Nigeria
( 146 ) What Explains the Overwhelmingly Positive Perception towards Microfinance Institutions? Application of Firth’s Logistic Regression in a Small Sample
( 147 ) Financial Risks in Turkish Banking Industry: A Panel Data Analaysis on Istanbul Stock Exchange
( 148 ) Human Capital Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach
( 149 ) A Qualitative Analysis of the Impediments to Business Innovation and Information Management in Nigeria: A Policy Stance
( 150 ) Analysis of Demographic Factors on Perceptions of Inventory Managers towards Healthcare Performance
( 151 ) Contribution of Domestic Direct Investment and Direct Foreign Investment to Economic Growth in Indonesia Era Joko Widodo
( 152 ) The Euribor and EONIA Reform: Achieving Regulatory Compliance while Protecting Financial Stability
( 153 ) Creative Marketing and Innovative Branding: An Effective Way to Attract Customers
( 154 ) The Reasons Behind the Shift of Patients from Public to Private Hospitals: Evidence from Public Hospitals in Cumilla City Corporation
( 155 ) Assessing Access to Comprehensive HIV Treatment Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in the Bamenda Health District
( 156 ) The Promise and Reality of Public Sector Reform – A Case Study of the Implementation of Trinidad and Tobagos Health Sector Reform
( 157 ) Cross-Time-Frequency Analysis of Volatility Interdependence among Stock and Currency Markets
( 158 ) Modelling Stock Returns Volatility and Asymmetric News Effect: A Global Perspective
( 159 ) A Study on Financial Performance of Transport & Warehouses Firms Listed on the Hanoi Stock Exchange
( 160 ) IT Governance as Drivers of Dynamic Capabilities to Gain Corporate Performance Under the Effects of Environmental Dynamism
( 161 ) Are the Predictions of the Mundell-Fleming Model Applicable to Mexico?
( 162 ) Financial Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: New Evidence from a Threshold Autoregressive and Asymmetric Analysis
( 163 ) Factors Influencing Profitability of Commercial Banks in Tanzania: A Case Study of CRDB Bank Plc
( 164 ) Testing the Validity of Arbitrage Pricing Theory: A Study on Dhaka Stock Exchange Bangladesh
( 165 ) Employee Creative Behaviour: A Predictive Study of Perceived Relational Injustice and Workplace Ostracism among Public Sector Workers
( 166 ) Is Foreign Direct Investment the Way Forward for Manufacturing Sector Renaissance in Nigeria?
( 167 ) The Impact of Fundamental Factors on the Share Price of Micro-Sized Nasdaq Listed Technology Companies
( 168 ) On the OCC Announcement Allowing US Banks to Use Stablecoins and the Immediate Impact on Cryptocurrency Valuations
( 169 ) World Governance Indicators and Fraud: Evidence from One Belt One Road Countries
( 170 ) Impacts of the U.S.-China Trade Conflicts News on U.S. and Chinese Stock Returns
( 171 ) Fear of Covid-19 and Intentions towards Adopting E-Health Services: Exploring the Technology Acceptance Model in the Scenario of Pandemic
( 172 ) Economic and Noneconomic Forces on Remittance Receiving: A Panel Analysis of Top Remittance Sending Countries towards Bangladesh
( 173 ) Does Buyer Power Contribute to Environmental Sustainability Performance in Supply Chains?
( 174 ) Relational Capabilities under Moderating and Mediating Effects to Understand their Impacts on Firm Financial Performance
( 175 ) Analysis of Factors Affecting Capital Structure and the Impact on LQ-45 Share Price in 2015-2018
( 176 ) Facing the Challenges of Covid-19 in the Egyptian Banking Sector: The Role of Bricoleurs in Achieving Organizational Innovations via Learning through Improvisation
( 178 ) An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) On the Administration of Public Records: A Case Study of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana-West Africa
( 179 ) An Assessment of the Relationship between Budget Deficit Syndrome and Consumer Welfare in Nigeria (1985 – 2014)
( 180 ) Measuring and Assessing the State of Technological Innovations and the Level of Interaction between Rice Processors and Stakeholders in Rice Processing Industry in Nigeria
( 184 ) Seasonal Assessment of Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature and CO2 Concentration Level in School Buildings of Kigali-Rwanda
( 185 ) Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Assessing Public Policy in Ukraine
( 186 ) Assessment of Mental Health of Undergraduate Students Based on Age: A Bayesian Ordinal Quantile Regression Approach
( 188 ) Social Sustainability of High-Rise Buildings
( 190 ) Structural Breaks and the Long-Run Stability of Demand for Real Broad Money Function in Nigeria: A Gregory-Hansen Approach
( 191 ) Promoting Local Acceptability of International Oil Companies (IOCS) Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): The Case of Tullow Oil in Ghana
( 192 ) Profit And Loss Sharing As an Offshoot for Bank Stability: A Comparative Analysis
( 195 ) Corporate Funding and Sustainability of Non- Governmental Organizations in Africa
( 197 ) An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change
( 198 ) The Effects of Exchange Rate Variability on Trade Flows in Nigeria: A Cointegration Analysis
( 199 ) What Drives Banking Stability? Empirical Evidence from ECOWAS Countries
( 200 ) The Profitability of Momentum Strategies: Empirical Evidence from Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE)
( 202 ) Urban Population Growth and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria
( 203 ) Profitability of Commercial Bank on Interest Rate Deregulation
( 206 ) Profitability Behavior of Plastic Industries in Indonesia
( 208 ) Analysis of Effect of Profitability, Capital, Risk Financing, the Sharia Supervisory Board and Capabilities Zakat in Islamic Perspective with Circular Approach Causastion on Islamic Banks in Indonesia
( 209 ) Fiscal Reaction Functions and Public Debt Sustainability in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism Approach
( 210 ) Innovation Strategy and Sustainability of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in South East Nigeria
( 211 ) Does Capital Structure Affect the Profitability of Listed Family and Non-Family Firms? Evidence from Bangladesh
( 212 ) Accountability and Transparency in Nation Building: A COVID-19 Experience in Sub-Saharan Africa
( 214 ) Testing the Validity of Gibrats Law in the Context of Profitability and Leverage
( 216 ) The Contingent Fit between Management Control System and Capabilities on Sustainability Performance
( 217 ) The Effect of Capital Structure Decisions on Profitability of Quoted Consumer Goods in Nigeria