Amata Mwalo Mathias , Destaings N. Nyongesa (2020). Determinants of Sale Response Probability and Tourism Backward Linkage with Local Micro and Small Enterprises of Kisumu County – Kenya. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 7(2): 122-131. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2020.72.122.131
Tourism backward linkage with local enterprises in an economy enhances its economic impact. However, high income leakages experienced in Sub Sahara Africa especially in Kisumu County in Kenya indicate limited tourism linkage. The aim of the study was to find significant factors explaining extent of tourism backward linkage with economy of Kisumu County and factors influencing probability of local sales as proportion of total sales surpassing a national government threshold of 30%. Across section survey of 106 randomly selected tourism enterprises was conducted in Kisumu County. Linear probability and multiple linear regression models were developed to explain variables with significant effect on changes in response probability and local purchase ratio respectively. It was established that local purchase ratio in rural area of Kisumu County was higher than that obtaining in the outskirts of Kisumu Town and CBD of Kisumu Town by 15.3%. Increasing number of employees in local supplier business and rate of weekly local supplies reduced the probability of sale of such supplier exceeding 30% of all purchases made by tourism enterprise by 7.4% and 5.3% respectively. But quality of local supplies enhanced probability of exceeding 30% threshold by 8.8%. In conclusion location of tourism enterprises affected tourism backward linkages with local businesses. Though quality of local supplies enhanced penetration of local business activities in tourism sector, number of employees in suppliers` enterprise and higher weekly rate of supplies depressed it.
The papers primary contribution is the finding that location of tourism enterprises affect tourism backward linkage with local economy and local sale response probability is enhanced mainly by quality of local supplies. Visitor length of stay effect on economy depends on strength of linkage between tourism and local economy.
Tourism and Growth in Nigeria: Application of TYDL Granger-Causality Test and Innovation Accounting Techniques
Ademola Obafemi Young (2020). Tourism and Growth in Nigeria: Application of TYDL Granger-Causality Test and Innovation Accounting Techniques. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 7(2): 134-154. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2020.72.132.154
The causal relationship between economic growth and tourism development, first formalized by Balaguer and Cantavella-Jorda, has been a subject of an intensive debate, extensively discussed and studied in tourism economics treatise. However, an in-depth reading of this literature suggests that, besides the fact that evidences are contentious and mixed across data, methodologies, countries and, remain at best inconclusive; country-specific studies examining the relationship within the context of African countries has received relatively little attention as the bulk of existent country-specific studies mostly focused on European, American, and Asian economies. Thus, the study empirically examines whether the rapidly developing tourism sector can effectively stimulate growth in Nigeria from the period 1995 to 2019. Bounds testing procedure to co-integration, Toda-Yamamoto and Dolado-Lutkepohl approach to causality and Innovative Accounting Techniques were applied. Empirical results reveal that tourism receipts and arrivals per capital from tourism industry can effectively stimulate long- and short-run growth, as do investments in human and physical capital, in Nigeria. Thus, apt policies such as provision of adequate securities for both foreign and domestic tourists, tax incentives to tourism related industries and hotels, investment in basic infrastructure that will enhance and accelerate tourism expansion in the country should be pursued.
This study contributes to exiting literature by examining the relationship between economic growth and tourism development.
Demographic Profiling and Domestic Tourism Participation Behavior in Nairobi County, Kenya
Catherine Kifworo , Moses Okello , Isabella Mapelu (2020). Demographic Profiling and Domestic Tourism Participation Behavior in Nairobi County, Kenya. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 7(2): 155-169. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2020.72.155.169
This study sought to determine the extent to which demographic characteristics of residents influenced their domestic tourism participation behavior. This was achieved by establishing the relationship between seven demographic characteristics and participation behavior, followed by a comparison of the demographic characteristics of respondents participating and those not participating in domestic tourism. The purpose was to identify the segments with greatest potential for conversion from non-participation into participation in domestic tourists. The study targeted Nairobi residents aged above 18 years. Questionnaires were administered to 337 domestic tourists and 339 non-tourists. Chi square cross tabulation indicated that domestic tourism participation behavior was dependent on all the demographic characteristics of the respondents. Chi square goodness of fit test exhibited significant differences between tourists and non-tourists across all attributes of gender and level of education. For the other characteristics (namely age, occupation, income, marital status and family life cycle), the test revealed significant differences across some of the attributes while registering no significant difference across others. The segments with no significant difference were; Age (31-40), Occupation (students and retirees), Income (those earning Ksh.200,000-300,000 and above 300,000), marital status (the widowed and divorced), and family life cycle (those with young children and empty-nesters). The study, therefore, concluded that these were the segments with the greatest potential for conversion to domestic tourism participation. It further recommended the targeting of the segments identified above for domestic tourism in addition to the existing marketing efforts.
The papers primary contribution was the identification of the most viable demographic segments of non- tourist with the highest potential for conversion into domestic tourists. It is one of the few studies that compare tourists and non-tourists. Those with no significant difference are targeted as potential segments for domestic tourism.
Impact of Tourism Products Development on Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove and Badagry Slave Trade Relics
Oladeji Sunday Oladipo , Olatuyi Funmilayo Modupe (2020). Impact of Tourism Products Development on Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove and Badagry Slave Trade Relics. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 7(2): 170-185. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2020.72.170.185
Cultural heritage sites are considered as tourism magnates with social, cultural and economic values. Dearth of information on the perception of the visitors and the heritage managers on the impacts of development of tourism products has necessitated this research finding. The two heritage sites considered are of unique cultural values to Nigeria and the World. While Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove is listed on UNESCO Heritage List, Badagry Slave Trade Relics is a National Monument. Multiple research techniques employed in undertaken the study include field observation, questionnaire administration and Key Informant Interview. Total of 293 questionnaire were valid for descriptive analysis while the interview was subjected to thematic analysis. The field observation aids in identification of the tourism products complemented by knowledgeable source. Inferential statistics was used in testing the hypothesis. In-depth information on the tangible and intangible heritage resources into the study areas was revealed and documented. Identified tourism products were listed, categorized and their level of development were appraised. Demographic characteristics of the respondents and their perception on the impacts of tourism products were presented. Chi Square test shows that age, marital status, education, occupation and religion had significant relationship with total perception on tourism products development at P<0.01 and P<0.05. Research outcome will serve as blue print in the quest for appropriate model for sustainable tourism development in heritage sites. Heritage site managers, conservation administrators, tourists and other relevant stakeholders will benefit tremendously in the research output.
This study contributes to existing literature on cultural heritage tourism with new methodology and formula. It is one of very few studies which have investigated impacts of tourism development on heritage resources with primary contribution to sustainable management. Perceptions of relevant stakeholders towards ensuring sustainable heritage resources management are documented.