Lamek Nahayo , Deborah Nibagwire , Gabriel Habiyaremye , Egide Kalisa , Madeleine Udahogora , Abias Maniragaba (2019). Awareness on Air Pollution and Risk Preparedness among Residents in Kigali City of Rwanda. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 8(1): 1-9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.81.1.9
The rapid human population growth, industrialization, urbanization, agricultural expansion and other development activities are gradually polluting the quality of air with severe effects on the human health and environment as well. This is particularly, exacerbated by lack information sharing which limits the risk assessment, and community approach to identify the key sources and the mitigation or adaptation strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of air pollution risk awareness in order to enhance its preparedness and adaptation in Kigali City of Rwanda. The authors conducted an interview with 225 respondents randomly selected among the residents in May 2018. The results indicated that the primary air pollution sources are automobile highlighted by 45 percent of respondents, followed by stationery sources at 36 percent. However, the air pollution risk related information is mainly provided at television (50%), owned by 32 percent in contrast of radio possessed by 49% of residents, but used at low extent (36%). This consequently, leads to health problems, acid rain and natural resources depletion as stated by the informants. Accordingly, the air pollution risk awareness is at low level, as respondents highlighted that the related education/training is delivered at low extent (9.3 percent), despite its role in risk awareness and preparedness among the community. While the car free day (32.4%) and forestland expansion (42%) are practiced at large extent than education. The relevant community air pollution risk awareness and reduction measures are suggested.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the awareness on air pollution and the degree of preparedness to the risk in Kigali city of Rwanda. Thus, its findings will help policy makers to better set up air pollution abatement measures under consideration of the residents’ wellness.
The Roles of Labour Union in Nigeria Industrial Harmony and Development
Obiekwe, Onyebuchi , Obibhunun, Lucky (2019). The Roles of Labour Union in Nigeria Industrial Harmony and Development. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 8(1): 10-20. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.81.10.20
This paper examined the roles of labour union in Nigeria industrial harmony and development. It notes that strong and united labour unions are pre-requisites to industrial and national development of any nation. Some objectives of trade unions such as negotiation, representative body, maintenance of employee-employer relationship, and promotion of member’s welfares were noted and discussed. The paper also observed that workers join union because of job security, need for adequate wages and benefits, power in group for collective bargaining and need to associate with others. Some challenges facing labour unions in Nigeria such as disunity, financial weakness, weak collective bargaining process and dishonest attitude of trade union leaders were identified. The paper concluded that disunity and politicization of trade union are major obstacles for the development of strong and stable trade unions which is an integral part of cordial industrial relations. In addition, a strong and enlightened labour union is vital for good industrial relations system and help to promote the interest of labour union. It is recommended, among others, that unions should identify current trend in industrial relations and educate their members to anticipate for the changes brought about by environmental forces affecting industries. Trade unions should create a level playing ground for all members to take part in the decision making machinery of their unions. Union members should ensure that only qualified, tested and trusted leaders who are truly workers should be voted into offices both at the local, state and national level. In addition, union leaders should be properly trained and educated to know the basic labour and industrial laws of the country in order to plan their actions within the provisions of the laws. Trade unions should also provide for the adequate training of their members in order to give room for advancement of their members.
This study contributed new knowledge to existing management literature. It examined the roles, objective and challenges of labour union in Nigeria. The primary contribution is finding that a united and proactive labour union is vital in maintaining a progressive and harmonious management-worker relationship which drives industrial harmony and development.
Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
NDUBUAKU Victor C. , ONWUKA Kizito , ONYEDIKA Chukwuka , CHIMEZIE Isabella Chinonye (2019). Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 8(1): 21-36. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.81.21.36
The study investigated the impact of exchange rate fluctuation on selected economic sectors of the Nigerian economy. The study covered the agricultural (AGDP), manufacturing (MGDP), petroleum (PGDP) and service sector (SGDP) of the Nigerian economy. The petroleum sector represented the oil sector while the agricultural (AGDP), manufacturing (MGDP), and service sector (SGDP) represented the non-oil sector. The main objective of the study was to determine whether exchange rate fluctuations had a significant impact on the selected sectors of the economy. These sectors were invariably the largest contributors to the GDP. The time scope covered 1981-2016. Data for the study were obtained specifically from CBN statistical bulletin (2016). The data were analysed using the Auto Regressive Distributed Lagged (ARDL) model. The study concluded that there was no significant impact of exchange rate on AGDP, MGDP and SGDP respectively. However, there was a positive and significant impact of exchange rate on PGDP. The study recommended that Nigeria’s economy should be diversified to enable the non-oil sector to become significant foreign exchange earners.
This study contributes to the existing literature by unbundling Nigeria’s economy into its component sectors and determining the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on each sector. This study uses a relatively new estimation methodology of Auto-Regressive Distributed Lagged model (ARDL). This study originates a new formula which integrates lagged variables into the model.