International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria

Pages: 68-82
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Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.82.68.82

Abubakar Ado, Ahmad , Adegoke Ibrahim, Adeleke , Augustine, Ujunwa

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Abubakar Ado, Ahmad , Adegoke Ibrahim, Adeleke , Augustine, Ujunwa (2019). Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 8(2): 68-82. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.82.68.82
This study seeks to examine the relationship between government borrowing behaviour and private sector growth in Nigeria. It utilises the Structural Vector Auto-regressions (SVAR) model to analyse the dynamics of government borrowing behaviour on the growth of private sector in Nigeria. The results from impulse response functions and variance decomposition appear to provide evidence that government borrowing behaviour has the tendency of impacting negatively on the effectiveness of private sector grow in Nigeria. This result can be explained, based on the fact that government has higher capacity to borrow than the private sector and this tends to crowd-out private sector in mobilising funds for investment and thus impacted negatively on their capacity to grow. The study, therefore, recommends that both fiscal and monetary authorities should improve on measures and policies that could enhance private sector growth, as higher government debt could create burden for future generations, disrupt movements in interest and exchange rates as well as hinder private investment. Doing this has the potentials of improving performance of private sector and the aggregate economy in Nigeria, since empirical literature is replete with evidence of existence of these channels.
Contribution/ Originality
This study improves on the existing literature by examining the channels and extent of the impact of government borrowing behaviour on the private sector growth in Nigeria, as previous literature has shown varying and often conflicting results due to diversity in the structure of the economy and governance. The study, therefore, confronts the existing theories with recent data and tailor-made methodology.

Ambient Particulate Matter (PM) Evaluation in Gasabo District, Rwanda

Pages: 62-67
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Ambient Particulate Matter (PM) Evaluation in Gasabo District, Rwanda

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.82.62.67

Irankunda Elisephane

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Irankunda Elisephane (2019). Ambient Particulate Matter (PM) Evaluation in Gasabo District, Rwanda. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 8(2): 62-67. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.82.62.67
Industries, and Vehicles emit air pollutants; all among these pollutants Particulate Matter (PM) has the greatest effects on human health like respiratory diseases and effects on environment like global warming and climate change. To find the levels of ambient PM air pollutants in commercial and bus-stations areas of Gasabo-district, one of the three districts of Kigali the capital city Rwanda was the main purpose of this research. The Air Visual Nodes instruments were used to measure values of PM concentration in microgram per cubic-meter (µg/m3). Questionnaire method was used where the total of 125 respondents for all sites was randomly selected to respond some questions before starting sampling activity in July, 2018. Sampling showed that; In both Batsinda and Kinamba commercial areas, level of PM is between (20-60)µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (80-130)µg/m3 for PM10. While in both Kagugu and Gakinjiro (Gisozi) commercial areas level of PM is between (15-45)µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (50-110)µg/m3 for PM10. In Batsinda bus-station level of PM is between (25-60) µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (80-130)µg/m3 for PM10. While in Kakiru bus-station, level of PM is between (15-40)µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (80-120)µg/m3 for PM10. Interview showed vehicle and decomposition of waste materials emissions as source of air pollutants. World Health Organization Guideline indicate that 10µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 20µg/m3 for PM10 are adequate, these above findings are high compared to these guidelines that is why education for all toward good air quality would be the best option in reducing air pollutants in Kigali city.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the level of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Kigali. As result, it will help to reduce air pollutants concentration in Kigali for better human health and environmental protection in general.

Seasonal Assessment of Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature and CO2 Concentration Level in School Buildings of Kigali-Rwanda

Pages: 83-90
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Seasonal Assessment of Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature and CO2 Concentration Level in School Buildings of Kigali-Rwanda

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.82.83.90

Elisephane IRANKUNDA , Dieudonne Tuyisabyimbabazi

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Elisephane IRANKUNDA , Dieudonne Tuyisabyimbabazi (2019). Seasonal Assessment of Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature and CO2 Concentration Level in School Buildings of Kigali-Rwanda. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 8(2): 83-90. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.82.83.90
Numerous researches on air quality have shown that schools settled in poor ambient air quality regions, the later can negatively affect health of people at the school including students, teachers and other staff members. In Kigali city, most of the schools are naturally ventilated given their surroundings, school car-parks, school occupancy and number of people attending school daily. The seasonal assessment of relative humidity, ambient air temperature and co2 concentration levels in school buildings of Kigali was the main objective of this paper. This research was carried out within three schools located in different parts of Kigali city and having dissimilar construction designs. Sampling activities were performed during both dry and rainy seasons by using air visual nodes instruments. Results indicated that the level of ambient air temperature for dry season and rainy season was in the range of (21-27) oC and (18-25) oC respectively for the three schools. The carbon dioxide concentration for the schools was in the range of (350-450) ppm for dry season and (400-550) ppm for rain season. The relative humidity of rainy season was higher than that of dry season. The result values found exceeded the recommended values of World Health Organization guidelines of 18 oC for temperature and 350 ppm for CO2. This paper suggests that school-car-parks and school-kitchens should be remote from schools. Waste-materials at school should be well managed and their disposal should be away from school-location. Schools should be surrounded by trees and gardens for better air quality within schools.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one the few studies which have investigated the seasonal changes in relative humidity, ambient air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration level in school buildings in Rwanda.