International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2410-9444
Print ISSN: 2413-8444
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

Recent Articles

Microscopic Detection of Haemoparasites in Muscovy Ducks (Anas Platyrynchos) in Gombe State, Nigeria

Pages: 23-31
Find References

Finding References


Microscopic Detection of Haemoparasites in Muscovy Ducks (Anas Platyrynchos) in Gombe State, Nigeria

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.110.2019.52.23.31

Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal , Abdullahi Abubakar Biu , Umar Isa Ibrahim

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

[1]          D. V. Adegunloye and F. A. Adejumo, "Microbial assessment of Turkey (Meleagris ocellata L.) and Duck (Anas platyrhynchos L.) faeces (Droppings) in Akure metropolis," Advances in Microbiology, vol. 4, pp. 774-779, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4236/aim.2014.412085.

[2]          J. W. Copland and R. G. Alders, "The Australian village poultry development programme in Asia and Africa," World's Poultry Science Journal, vol. 61, pp. 31-38, 2005. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1079/wps200439.

[3]          D. J. Alexander, "Newcastle disease," British Poultry Science, vol. 42, pp. 5-22, 2001.

[4]          A. Oguntunji, "Taboos, superstitions, myths and stigmas against duck production in South-West Nigeria," Wayamba Journal of Animal Science, vol. 6, pp. 998-1007, 2014.

[5]          A. Oguntunji and K. Ayorinde, "Duck production in Nigeria: Flock characteristics, management and mortality," Archiva Zootechnica, vol. 18, pp. 27 – 40, 2015.

[6]          S. Alfred and J. Agbede, "Influencing factors of duck production in the Southwest of Nigeria," African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 7, pp. 3498-3505, 2012.

[7]          V. Sri Lestari and A. R. Siregar, "Some factors affecting to farm size of duck farming," in Proceedings of 38th the IIER International Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, 2015, pp. 60 – 63.

[8]          S.-Y. Cha, E.-T. Song, M. Kang, B. Wei, H.-S. Seo, J.-H. Roh, R.-H. Yoon, O.-K. Moon, and H.-K. Jang, "Prevalence of duck circovirus infection of subclinical pekin ducks in South Korea," Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 76, pp. 597-599, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.13-0447.

[9]          R. M. Waruiru, S. K. Mavuti, P. G. Mbuthia, L. W. Njagi, M. N. Mutune, and R. O. Otieno, "Prevalence of ecto- and haemo-parasites of free-range local ducks in Kenya," Age, vol. 51, p. 100, 2017.

[10]        E. J. L. Soulsby, Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals, 7th ed. London, UK: Bailiere Tindal, 1982.

[11]        M. Archawaranon, "First report of haemoproteus spp. In hill mynah blood in Thailand," International Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 4, pp. 523-525, 2005. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2005.523.525.

[12]        V. Benedikt, V. Barus, M. Capek, M. Havlicek, and I. Literak, "Blood parasites (Haemoproteus and microfilariae) in birds from the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica," Acta Parasitologica, vol. 54, pp. 197-204, 2009. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-009-0043-1.

[13]        G. Valkiūnas, Avian malaria parasites and other haemosporidia. Florida, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2005.

[14]        E. M. Braga, P. Silveira, N. O. Belo, and G. Valkiūnas, "Recent advances in the study of avian malaria: An overview with an emphasis on the distribution of Plasmodium spp in Brazil," Memories of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, vol. 106, pp. 3-11, 2011. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762011000900002.

[15]        C. J. Cardona, A. Ihejirika, and L. McClellan, "Haemoproteus lophortyx infection in bobwhite quail," Avian Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 249-255, 2002. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086(2002)046[0249:hliibq]2.0.co;2.

[16]        D. Sol, R. Jovani, and J. Torres, "Parasite mediated mortality and host immune response explain age-related differences in blood parasitism in birds," Oecologia, vol. 135, pp. 542-547, 2003. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-003-1223-6.

[17]        A. P. Moller and J. T. Nielsen, "Malaria and risk of predation: A comparative study of birds," Ecology, vol. 88, pp. 871-881, 2007. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1890/06-0747.

[18]        A. Marzal, F. De Lope, C. Navarro, and A. P. Møller, "Malarial parasites decrease reproductive success: An experimental study in a passerine bird," Oecologia, vol. 142, pp. 541-545, 2005. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-004-1757-2.

[19]        S. C. Knowles, M. J. Wood, R. Alves, T. A. Wilkin, S. Bensch, and B. C. Sheldon, "Molecular epidemiology of malaria prevalence and parasitaemia in a wild bird population," Molecular Ecology, vol. 20, pp. 1062-1076, 2011. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.2010.04909.x.

[20]        J. C. Dunn, E. F. Cole, and J. L. Quinn, "Personality and parasites: sex-dependent associations between avian malaria infection and multiple behavioural traits," Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol. 65, pp. 1459-1471, 2011. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-011-1156-8.

[21]        Anomymous, "Gombe state, wikipedia free encyclopedia. Availabe: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gombe_State," 2009.

[22]        E. E. Jesse, J. I. Igbokwe, E. Essien, and Y. LSumi, "Assessment of water level in Dadin Kowa Dam reservoir in Gombe State Nigeria using geospatial techniques," International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics (IJEGEO), vol. 6, pp. 115-130, 2019. Available at: https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.487885.

[23]        G. Valkiūnas, T. A. Iezhova, A. Križanauskienė, V. Palinauskas, R. N. Sehgal, and S. Bensch, "A comparative analysis of microscopy and PCR-based detection methods for blood parasites," Journal of Parasitology, vol. 94, pp. 1395-1402, 2008. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1645/ge-1570.1.

[24]        M. Opara, F. Oguobi, E. Adiele, and O. Jegede, "Survey of haemoparasites and haematology of Scavenging ducks (Anas platyhyncha) in Owerri Southeastern Nigeria," Journal of Veterinary Advances, vol. 6, pp. 1325-1331, 2016a. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5455/jva.1969123104000001.

[25]        Z. Sabuni, P. Mbuthia, N. Maingi, P. Nyaga, L. Njagi, L. Bebora, and J. Michieka, "Prevalence of haemoparasites infection in indigenous chicken in Eastern Province of Kenya," Livestock Research for Rural Development, vol. 23, p. 2011, 2011.

[26]        M. Opara, I. Ogbuewu, C. Iwuji, E. Ihesie, and I. Etuk, "Blood characteristics, microbial and gastrointestinal parasites of street pigeons (Columbia livia) in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria," Scientific Journal of Animal Science, vol. 1, pp. 14-21, 2012.

[27]        F. I. Gimba, A. Zakaria, L. B. Mugok, H. C. Siong, N. Jaafar, M. Moktar, A., A. R. A. Rahman, A. Amzah, J. Abu, R. A. Sani, S. M. Amin-babjee., and S. K. S. Reuben, "Haemoparasites of domestic poultry and wild birds in Selangor, Malaysia," Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 5, pp. 43 – 51, 2014.

[28]        A. Bui, M. Jidda, and K. Yahaya, "Prevalence of blood parasites of domestic pigeons in Maiduguri, Nigeria," International Journal of Biomedical and Health Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 21-24, 2005.

[29]        A. Kawo, "A survey of avian malaria parasite in Kano State, Northern Nigeria," International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research, vol. 3, pp. 8-14, 2012. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5897/ijbmbr11.035.

[30]        M. Usman, J. Fabiyi, A. Mohammed, U. Mera, A. Mahmuda, M. Alayande, M. Lawal, and A. Danmaigoro, "Ectoparasites and haemoparasites of chickens in Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria," Scientific Journal of Zoology, vol. 1, pp. 74-78, 2012.

[31]        M. Opara, D. Osowa, and J. Maxwell, "Blood and gastrointestinal parasites of chickens and turkeys reared in the tropical rainforest zone of Southeastern Nigeria," Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, vol. 4, pp. 308-313, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2014.412037.

[32]        J. Lawal, A. Bello, S. Balami, Y. Wakil, Z. Yusuf, J. Dauda, E. Mshelia, H. Mana, M. Adam, and A. Biu, "Prevalence and economic significance of ectoparasites infestation in Village chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) Gombe, Northeastern Nigeria," Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science, vol. 4, pp. 94-103, 2016b.

[33]        N. M. Opara, E. R. Okereke, O. D. Olayemi, and O. C. Jegede, "Haemoparasitism of local and exotic chickens reared in the tropical rainforest zone of Owerri Nigeria," Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 51, pp. 84 – 89, 2016b. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5455/ajvs.224788.

[34]        E. Etisa, M. Chanie, and Y. H. Tolossa, "Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in scavenging indigenous chickens in and around bishoftu," World Applied Sciences Journal, vol. 35, pp. 302 – 309, 2017.

[35]        I. O. Igbokwe, S. U. Hassan, Z. T. Faive, Y. Iliya, M. J. Dagare, J. S. Rabo, A. Mohammed, and N. A. Igbokwe, "Effect of plasmodium species infections on packed cell volume of domestic chickens and Helmeted Guinea Fowls in North Eastern Nigeria," Animal Research International, vol. 5, pp. 892-895, 2008. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4314/ari.v5i3.48756.

[36]        Y. Malann, B. Olatunji, and A. Usman, "Ectoparasitic infestation on poultry birds raised in Gwagwalada area council, FCT-Abuja," International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, vol. 5, pp. 74-77, 2016.

[37]        D. Oche, O. Ogwiji, M. Torhemen, A. Andyar, L. Z. AkahaanRT, and W. Kwaghtse, "Survey of ecto-parasites in chickens in Benue State of Nigeria," Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 6, pp. 235-238, 2016.

[38]        J. Lawal, A. Bello, S. Balami, Y. Wakil, Z. Yusuf, J. Dauda, E. Mshelia, H. Mana, M. Adam, and A. Biu, "Prevalence and economic significance of ectoparasites infestation in Village chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) Gombe, Northeastern Nigeria," Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science, vol. 4, pp. 94-103, 2016a.

[39]        A. Kebede, B. Abebe, and T. Zewdie, "Study on prevalence of Ectoparasites of poultry in and around Jimma town," European Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 18-26, 2017.

[40]        M. S. Hossain, A. R. Dey, and M. Z. Alam, "Prevalence of malaria parasites in indigenous chickens and ducks in selected districts of Bangladesh," Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, vol. 15, pp. 260–265, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3329/jbau.v15i2.35072.

[41]        G. Valkiūnas, T. A. Iezhova, E. Evans, J. S. Carlson, J. E. Martínez-Gómez, and R. N. Sehgal, "Two new Haemoproteus species (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) from columbiform birds," The Journal of Parasitology, vol. 99, pp. 513-521, 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1645/12-98.1.

[42]        S. Dawaki, H. M. Al-Mekhlafi, I. Ithoi, J. Ibrahim, W. M. Atroosh, A. M. Abdulsalam, H. Sady, F. N. Elyana, A. U. Adamu, and S. I. Yelwa, "Is Nigeria winning the battle against malaria? Prevalence, risk factors and KAP assessment among Hausa communities in Kano State," Malaria Journal, vol. 15, pp. 1-14, 2016. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-016-1394-3.

[43]        K. Sabina, "Prevalence and epidemiology of Malaria in Nigeria: A review," International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biosciences, vol. 4, pp. 10-12, 2017.

[44]        F. S. Nas, A. Yahaya, and M. Ali, "Prevalence of malaria with respect to age, gender and socio-economic status of fever related patients in Kano City, Nigeria," Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, vol. 5, pp. 44 – 49, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.15580/gjeph.2017.5.091017126.

[45]        J. D. Obed and H. O. Imafidor, "Haemoparasites of bovine (Sokoto gudali) species slaughtered in port harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria," Asian Journal of Biology, vol. 5, pp. 1– 8, 2018.

Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal , Abdullahi Abubakar Biu , Umar Isa Ibrahim (2019). Microscopic Detection of Haemoparasites in Muscovy Ducks (Anas Platyrynchos) in Gombe State, Nigeria. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 5(2): 23-31. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110.2019.52.23.31
This present study aimed to detect haemosporidians from the blood of Muscovy ducks in Gombe State Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 880 apparently healthy ducks of both sexes from the month of April, 2015 to February, 2016. Microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thin blood films revealed 16.14% overall prevalent rate of haemoparasites. The prevalence was found to be highest in Yamaltu/Deba LGA (23.08%) and least in Funakaye LGA (7.83%). Among the four genera of haemoparasites detected, Aegyptinella species (7.73%) was most prevalent followed by Leucocytozoon species (5.57%) and Haemoproteus species (2.16%) while Plasmodium specie (0.68%) was the least. Prevalence rate was found to be significantly higher (p<0.0001) in the young (22.68%) compared to the adults (10.43%) ducks. The female (18.54%) were found to be more infected than the male (13.58%) ducks, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.0565). The prevalence of haemoparasites was found to be significantly (p<0.0001) higher during the rainy (24.55%) compared to the dry (7.27%) season. This present study represents the first to provide evidence of haemoparasites in Muscovy ducks in Gombe State, Nigeria. There is need for further researches on the epidemiology of haemoparasites in Muscovy ducks reared under extensive management system in Nigeria. Strategic control of arthropods and maintenance of strict biosecurity in and around poultry houses will curb transmission of arthropod borne haemoparasites among village poultry species.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the occurrence of avian haemoparasites in free range Muscovy ducks in developing countries including Nigeria. The study has also contributed to the existing literatures concerning haemoparasites infections in domesticated ducks in the world.

Morphometrical Traits and Structural Indices of Malle Cattle Reared in the South Omo Zone of Southwest Ethiopia

Pages: 32-47
Find References

Finding References


Morphometrical Traits and Structural Indices of Malle Cattle Reared in the South Omo Zone of Southwest Ethiopia

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.110.2019.52.32.47

Demerew Getaneh , Sandip Banerjee , Mestawet Taye

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

[1]          CSA, "Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia: Agricultural sample survey 2017: Report on livestock and livestock characteristics," Statistical Bulletin-585, April 2017, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, vol. 2, p. 194, 2017.

[2]          FAO, Africa sustainable livestock Livestock production systems spotlight cattle sectors in Ethiopia. Ethiopia: FAO, 2018.

[3]          H. Berhane, "Ethiopian cattle genetic resource and unique characteristics under a rapidly changing production environment. A review," International Journal of Science and Research, vol. 6, pp. 1959-1968, 2017.

[4]          R. Mantovani, M. Cassandro, B. Contiero, A. Albera, and G. Bittante, "Genetic evaluation of type traits in hypertrophic Piemontese cows," Journal of Animal Science, vol. 88, pp. 3504-3512, 2010.Available at: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2667.

[5]          P. Archana, J. Aleena, P. Pragna, M. Vidya, P. A. Niyas, M. Bagath, G. Krishnan, A. Manimaran, V. Beena, E. Kurien, V. Sejian, and R. Bhatta, "Role of heat shock proteins in livestock adaptation to heat stress," Journal of Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research, vol. 5, pp. 13-19, 2017.Available at: https://doi.org/10.15406/jdvar.2017.05.00127.

[6]          J. Cerqueira, J. Araújo, P. Vaz, J. Cantalapiedra, I. Blanco-Penedo, J. Niza-Ribeiro, and J. Araujo, "Relationship between zoometric measurements in Hosltein-Fresian cow and cubicle size in dairy farms," International Journal of Morphology, vol. 31, pp. 55-63, 2013.Available at: https://doi.org/10.4067/s0717-95022013000100008.

[7]          M. Lukuyu, J. Gibson, D. Savage, A. Duncan, F. Mujibi, and A. Okeyo, "Use of body linear measurements to estimate liveweight of crossbred dairy cattle in smallholder farms in Kenya," SpringerPlus, vol. 5, pp. 1-14, 2016.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-1698-3.

[8]          J. Maciejowski and J. Zieba, Genetics and animal breeding, part A: Biological and genetic foundations of animal breeding vol. 2. Amsterdam- Oxford- New York: Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co.: PWN- Polish Scientific Publishers, 1982.

[9]          A. Salako, "Application of morphological indices in the assessment of type and function in sheep," International Journal of Morphology, vol. 24, pp. 13-18, 2006.Available at: https://doi.org/10.4067/s0717-95022006000100003.

[10]        G. Alderson, "The development of a system of linear measurements to provide an assessment of type and function of beef cattle," Animal Genetic Resources, vol. 25, pp. 45-55, 1999.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/s1014233900005782.

[11]        S. Banerjee, M. Beyan, and H. Bekele, "Some traditional livestock selection criteria as practiced by several indigenous communities of Southern Ethiopia," Animal Genetic Resources, vol. 54, pp. 153-162, 2014.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/s2078633614000083.

[12]        E. Terefe, T. Dessie, A. Haile, W. Mulatu, and O. Mwai, "Husbandry and breeding practices of cattle in Mursi and Bodi pastoral communities in Southwest Ethiopia," African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 7, pp. 5986-5994, 2012.Available at: https://doi.org/10.5897/ajar12.1566.

[13]        G. Mekete, "Studies on some morphological traits and structural indices of woyito-guji goats reared at Nyangatom and Malle woredas of SNNPRS, Ethiopia," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Haramya University, Haramya, 2016.

[14]        FAO, "Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources," FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 11. Rome, 2012.

[15]        J. E. Pace and D. L. Wakeman, Determining the age of cattle by their teeth: University of Florida: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2003.

[16]        M. Goe, J. Alldredge, and D. Light, "Use of heart girth to predict body weight of working oxen in the Ethiopian highlands," Livestock Production Science, vol. 69, pp. 187-195, 2001.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0301-6226(00)00257-8.

[17]        E. Terefe, T. Dessie, A. Haile, W. Mulatu, and O. Mwai, "On-farm phenotypic characterization of Mursi cattle in its production environment in South Omo Zone, Southwest Ethiopia," Animal Genetic Resources, vol. 57, pp. 15-24, 2015.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/s2078633615000132.

[18]        G. Aman, "Studies on structural, functional traits and traditional breeding practices of Arsi cattle in East Showa and West Arsi Zone of Oromia Reginal State Ethiopia," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Ethiopia, 2018.

[19]        G. Tewelde, Y. Sintayehu, and B. Sandip, "Some morphometrical, production and reproduction traits of Begait cattle reared in Tigray region of Ethiopia," Wayamba Journal of Animal Science, vol. 9, pp. 1571-1585, 2017.

[20]        A. Ebadu, G. Tegbaru, R. Chernet, Z. Bereket, and M. Metsafe, "Phenotypic characterization and production system of Bonga cattle in its production environment of Kaffa Zone, Southwest Ethiopia sky," Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 6, pp. 62-72, 2017.

[21]        H. Kebede, G. Addisu, A. Getiso, and Z. Bereket, "Characterization of Gofa cattle population, production system, production and reproduction performance in Southern Ethiopia," Journal of Fisheries and Livestock Production, vol. 5, pp. 1-12, 2017.

[22]        N. Minuye, G. Abebe, and T. Dessie, "On-farm description and status of Nuer (Abigar) cattle breed in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia," International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 10, pp. 292-302, 2018.Available at: https://doi.org/10.5897/ijbc2017.1168.

[23]        H. Kubkomawa, "The use of artificial insemination (AI) technology in improving Milk, Beef and reproductive efficiency in tropical Africa: A review," Dairy and Veterinary Sciences Journal, vol. 5, p. 555660, 2018.

[24]        K. Seo, T. R. Mohanty, T. Choi, and I. Hwang, "Biology of epidermal and hair pigmentation in cattle: A mini-review," Veterinary Dermatology, vol. 18, pp. 392-400, 2007.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3164.2007.00634.x.

[25]        D. Maurizio, "Nomad aesthetic: Cattle modifications among the Northern Turkana of North West Kenya," Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 8, pp. 1-10, 2018.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13570-017-0110-4.

[26]        U. Knierim, I. B.A.N., and T. Roth, Report on the assessment of dehorning and the keeping of horned dairy and beef cattle. Germany D: University of Kassel, 2009.

[27]        T. Takele, "On-farm phenotypic characterization of Sheko breed of cattle and their Habitat in Bench Maji Zone," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Alemaya University, Ethioppoa, 2005.

[28]        L. R. Porto-Neto, D. M. Bickhart, A. J. Landaeta-Hernandez, Y. T. Utsunomiya, M. Pagan, E. Jimenez, P. J. Hansen, S. Dikmen, S. G. Schroeder, and E.-S. Kim, "Convergent evolution of slick coat in cattle through truncation mutations in the prolactin receptor," Frontiers in Genetics, vol. 9, p. 57, 2018.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00057.

[29]        F. Mulugeta, "Production system and phenotypic characterization of Begait cattle and effects of supplementation with concentrate feeds on milk yield and composition of Begait cows in Humeraranch,Western Tigray," Ph.D Thesis, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, 2015.

[30]        B. Dereji, "On farm phenotypic characterization of indigenous cattle in and their production system in Bakotibe and Gobusayo districts of Oromia region," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Haramya University, Ethiopia, 2015.

[31]        G. Mekuriaw, W. Ayalew, and P. Hegde, "Growth and reproductive performance of Ogaden cattle at Haramaya University, Ethiopia," Ethiopian Journal of Animal Production, vol. 9, pp. 1607-3835, 2009.

[32]        M. Ftiwi and B. Tamir, "On-farm phenotypic characterization of indigenous begait cattle in Western Tigray, Northern Ethiopia," Journal of. Animal Production Advances, vol. 5, pp. 718-732, 2015.Available at: https://doi.org/10.5455/japa.20150725122859.

[33]        G. Shiferaw, "In-situ phenotypic characterization of Kereyu cattle type in Fentalle district of Oromia region," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Alemaya University. Alemaya, 2006.

[34]        M. Alsiddig, S. Babiker, M. Galal, and A. Mohammed, "Phenotypic characterization of Sudan Zebu cattle (Baggara type)," Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 10-17, 2010.

[35]        G. Shiferaw, "In-situ phenotypic characterization of Kereyu cattle type in Fentalle District of Oromia Region," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Alemaya University, Ethiopia, 2006.

[36]        M. Worku, "Assessment of type function and traditional selection practices of indigenous cattle reared in Shaka Zone South West Ethiopia," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Ethiopa, 2017.

[37]        C. Amy, "Identification of horned and polled bostaurus using a gene test," Dissertation, Bachelor of Agricultural Science, Lincoln University, New Zealand, 2017.

[38]        C. L. Stull, M. A. Payne, S. L. Berry, and P. J. Hullinger, "Evaluation of the scientific justification for tail docking in dairy cattle," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 220, pp. 1298-1303, 2002.Available at: https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2002.220.1298.

[39]        J. M. Mwacharo, A. Okeyo, G. Kamande, and J. Rege, "The small East African shorthorn zebu cows in Kenya. I: Linear body measurements," Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 38, pp. 65-74, 2006.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-006-4266-y.

[40]        K. Sumena, K. Lucy, J. Chungath, N. Ashok, and K. Harshan, "Regional histology of the subcutaneous tissue and the sweat glands of large white Yorkshire pigs," Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 128-135, 2010.

[41]        E. Chacón, F. Macedo, F. Velázquez, S. R. Paiva, E. Pineda, and C. McManus, "Morphological measurements and body indices for Cuban Creole goats and their crossbreds," Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 40, pp. 1671-1679, 2011.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1590/s1516-35982011000800007.

[42]        S. Ozkaya and Y. Bozkurt, "The relationship of parameters of body measures and body weight by using digital image analysis in pre-slaughter cattle," Archives Animal Breeding, vol. 51, pp. 120-128, 2008.

Demerew Getaneh , Sandip Banerjee , Mestawet Taye (2019). Morphometrical Traits and Structural Indices of Malle Cattle Reared in the South Omo Zone of Southwest Ethiopia. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 5(2): 32-47. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110.2019.52.32.47
The aim of this study was to morphometrically and morphologically characterized Malle cattle using some predefined qualitative and quantitative parameters. Data were collected through field observations and linear measurements. Sample data were collected from 360 cattle of different ages and sexes for morphometrical measurements. Qualitative traits were evaluated using non parametric tests. Quantitative traits were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The observed coat color patterns of cattle were predominantly plain. Red and white colored animals predominated across both the sexes. The morphometrical measurements of Bulls with young age group (4 year age) exert strong significant effect (p<0.01) on heart girth (HG), height at rump (HR), height at withers(HW), neck circumference (NC), muzzle circumference (MC) and chest depth(CD) while in cows with age group 4 significant effect (p<0.01) on heart girth (HG) and muzzle circumference (MC) whereas (p<0.05) height at withers (HW) were observed. Similarly, in age group 5 significance effect (p<0.01) on heart girth (HG), neck circumference (NC) and chest width (CW) whereas (p<0.05) height at rump (HR) and height at wither (HW) were also observed. The weight of the bulls and cows were best assessed using skeletal measurements viz. body length, height at withers and rump, besides chest depth and width. The structural indices indicated that the cattle were well balanced and body length and height were more or less proportional. It was conclude that, along with other managerial improvement, the productive aptitude of the cattle through morphometry can provides relevant information to guide and enhance their productive performance.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes base line information for further scientific study in the study region. Some particular breeds have particular morphological and morphometrical traits. The assessment of such skeletal traits helps in understanding the adaptability of the animals to their agro climate.

Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Animals

Pages: 48-57
Find References

Finding References


Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Animals

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.110.2019.52.48.57

Muhammad Waseem Ghani , Liu Bin , Muhammad Waseem Birmani , Aamir Nawab , Lang Guan Cun , Li Ye , Xiao Mei

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

[1]          N. Sharma, A. S. Batoo, Z. I. Huma, S. Kour, J. Misri, and K. Hussain, "Impact of mastitis on reproductive performance in dairy animals: A review," Theriogenology Insight, vol. 7, pp. 41-49, 2017.Available at: https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-3371.2017.00015.8.

[2]          S. Walsh, E. Williams, and A. Evans, "A review of the causes of poor fertility in high milk producing dairy cows," Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 123, pp. 127-138, 2011.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2010.12.001.

[3]          M. M. Mohsen, A. O. Hendawy, and M. M. Zeitoun, "Effect of mastitis on luteal function and pregnancy rates in buffaloes," Theriogenology, vol. 86, pp. 1189-1194, 2016.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.04.009.

[4]          J. Hertl, Y. Gröhn, J. Leach, D. Bar, G. Bennett, R. Gonzalez, B. Rauch, F. Welcome, L. Tauer, and Y. Schukken, "Effects of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and other organisms on the probability of conception in New York State Holstein dairy cows," Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 93, pp. 1551-1560, 2010.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2599.

[5]          K. Singh, M. Chandra, G. Kaur, D. Narang, and D. K. Gupta, "Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern among the mastitis causing microorganisms," Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, vol. 8, pp. 54-64, 2018.Available at: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2018.84007.

[6]          J. Xu, X. Tan, X. Zhang, X. Xia, and H. Sun, "The diversities of staphylococcal species, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in the subclinical mastitis milk from a single Chinese cow herd," Microbial pathogenesis, vol. 88, pp. 29-38, 2015.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2015.08.004.

[7]          C. Boireau, G. Cazeau, N. Jarrige, D. Calavas, J.-Y. Madec, A. Leblond, M. Haenni, and É. Gay, "Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from mastitis in dairy cattle in France, 2006–2016," Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 101, pp. 9451-9462, 2018.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-14835.

[8]          Y. Zhao, H. Liu, X. Zhao, Y. Gao, M. Zhang, and D. Chen, "Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China," Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 47, pp. 429-435, 2015.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-014-0742-y.

[9]          P. Vishwakarma, S. Roy, M. Roy, and M. Sharma, "Prevalence and control of bubaline mastitis in Chhattisgarh State in India," Pakistan Journal of Zoology. Supplementary Series, vol. 9, pp. 281-287, 2009.

[10]        N. Villa-Arcila, J. Sanchez, M. Ratto, J. Rodriguez-Lecompte, P. Duque-Madrid, S. Sanchez-Arias, and A. Ceballos-Marquez, "The association between subclinical mastitis around calving and reproductive performance in grazing dairy cows," Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 185, pp. 109-117, 2017.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.08.010.

[11]        H. Hiitiö, J. Vakkamäki, H. Simojoki, T. Autio, J. Junnila, S. Pelkonen, and S. Pyörälä, "Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in finnish dairy cows: Changes during recent decades and impact of cow and herd factors," Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, vol. 59, pp. 1-14, 2017.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-017-0288-x.

[12]        A. Albaaj, G. Foucras, and D. Raboisson, "High somatic cell counts and changes in milk fat and protein contents around insemination are negatively associated with conception in dairy cows," Theriogenology, vol. 88, pp. 18-27, 2017.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.09.043.

[13]        M. Fuenzalida, P. Fricke, and P. Ruegg, "The association between occurrence and severity of subclinical and clinical mastitis on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service of Holstein cows," Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 98, pp. 1–15, 2015.

[14]        T. Halasa, K. Huijps, O. Østerås, and H. Hogeveen, "Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review," Veterinary Quarterly, vol. 29, pp. 18-31, 2007.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2007.9695224.

[15]        M. Gussmann, W. Steeneveld, and C. Kirkeby, "Economic and epidemiological impact of dif erent intervention strategies for subclinical and clinical mastitis," Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 166, pp. 78–85, 2019.

[16]        Ş. Ö. Gülzari, B. V. Ahmadi, and A. W. Stott, "Impact of subclinical mastitis on greenhouse gas emissions intensity and profitability of dairy cows in Norway," Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 150, pp. 19-29, 2018.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.11.021.

[17]        A. Ahmadzadeh, F. Frago, B. Shafii, J. Dalton, W. Price, and M. McGuire, "Effect of clinical mastitis and other diseases on reproductive performance of Holstein cows," Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 112, pp. 273-282, 2009.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.04.024.

[18]        H. Nava-Trujillo, E. Soto-Belloso, and A. E. Hoet, "Effects of clinical mastitis from calving to first service on reproductive performance in dual-purpose cows," Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 121, pp. 12-16, 2010.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2010.05.014.

[19]        J. C. Rodgers, S. Bird, J. Larson, N. DiLorenzo, C. Dahlen, A. DiCostanzo, and G. Lamb, "An economic evaluation of estrous synchronization and timed artificial insemination in suckled beef cows," Journal of Animal Science, vol. 90, pp. 4055-4062, 2012.Available at: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4836.

[20]        J. L. Gonçalves, T. Tomazi, J. R. Barreiro, D. C. Beuron, M. A. Arcari, S. H. I. Lee, C. M. d. M. R. Martins, J. P. A. Junior, and M. V. dos Santos, "Effects of bovine subclinical mastitis caused by Corynebacterium spp. on somatic cell count, milk yield and composition by comparing contralateral quarters," The Veterinary Journal, vol. 209, pp. 87-92, 2016.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.08.009.

[21]        J. Fujii, Y. Iuchi, and F. Okada, "Fundamental roles of reactive oxygen species and protective mechanisms in the female reproductive system," Reprod Biol Endocrinol, vol. 3, pp. 1–10, 2005.

[22]        G. Valacchi, F. Virgili, C. Cervellati, and A. Pecorelli, "OxInflammation: from subclinical condition to pathological biomarker," Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 9, pp. 1-14, 2018.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00858.

[23]        A. T. Perkins, T. M. Das, L. C. Panzera, and S. E. Bickel, "Oxidative stress in oocytes during midprophase induces premature loss of cohesion and chromosome segregation errors," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 113, pp. E6823-E6830, 2016.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1612047113.

[24]        M. G. Da Broi, A. A. Jordão‐Jr, R. A. Ferriani, and P. A. Navarro, "Oocyte oxidative DNA damage may be involved in minimal/mild endometriosis-related infertility," Molecular Reproduction and Development, vol. 85, pp. 128-136, 2018.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/mrd.22943.

[25]        J. Avila, R. González-Fernández, D. Rotoli, J. Hernández, and A. Palumbo, "Oxidative stress in granulosa-lutein cells from in vitro fertilization patients," Reproductive Sciences, vol. 23, pp. 1656-1661, 2016.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1933719116674077.

[26]        R. O. Gilbert, "Symposium review: Mechanisms of disruption of fertility by infectious diseases of the reproductive tract," Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 102, pp. 3754-3765, 2019.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15602.

[27]        J. J. Bromfield and I. M. Sheldon, "Lipopolysaccharide reduces the primordial follicle pool in the bovine ovarian cortex ex vivo and in the murine ovary in vivo," Biology of Reproduction, vol. 88, pp. 98, 1-9, 2013.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.112.106914.

[28]        J. Ireland, D. Scheetz, F. Jimenez-Krassel, A. Themmen, F. Ward, P. Lonergan, G. Smith, G. Perez, A. Evans, and J. Ireland, "Antral follicle count reliably predicts number of morphologically healthy oocytes and follicles in ovaries of young adult cattle," Biology of Reproduction, vol. 79, pp. 1219-1225, 2008.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.071670.

[29]        J. Ireland, A. Zielak-Steciwko, F. Jimenez-Krassel, J. Folger, A. Bettegowda, D. Scheetz, S. Walsh, F. Mossa, P. Knight, and G. Smith, "Variation in the ovarian reserve is linked to alterations in intrafollicular estradiol production and ovarian biomarkers of follicular differentiation and oocyte quality in cattle," Biology of Reproduction, vol. 80, pp. 954-964, 2009.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.073791.

[30]        J. Ireland, G. Smith, D. Scheetz, F. Jimenez-Krassel, J. Folger, J. Ireland, F. Mossa, P. Lonergan, and A. Evans, "Does size matter in females? An overview of the impact of the high variation in the ovarian reserve on ovarian function and fertility, utility of anti-Müllerian hormone as a diagnostic marker for fertility and causes of variation in the ovarian reserve in cattle," Reproduction, Fertility and Development, vol. 23, pp. 1-14, 2010.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1071/rd10226.

[31]        S. Herath, E. J. Williams, S. T. Lilly, R. O. Gilbert, H. Dobson, C. E. Bryant, and I. M. Sheldon, "Ovarian follicular cells have innate immune capabilities that modulate their endocrine function," Reproduction, vol. 134, pp. 683-693, 2007.

[32]        F. Magata and T. Shimizu, "Effect of lipopolysaccharide on developmental competence of oocytes," Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 71, pp. 1-7, 2017.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.04.001.

[33]        F. Magata, M. Horiuchi, and A. Miyamoto, "Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits steroid production in theca cells of bovine follicles In vitro: Distinct effect of LPS on theca cell function in pre- and post-selection follicles," Journal of Reproduction and Development, vol. 60, pp. 280–287, 2014.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1262/jrd.2013-124.

[34]        Y. Lavon, G. Leitner, U. Moallem, E. Klipper, H. Voet, S. Jacoby, G. Glick, R. Meidan, and D. Wolfenson, "Immediate and carryover effects of Gram-negative and Gram-positive toxin-induced mastitis on follicular function in dairy cows," Theriogenology, vol. 76, pp. 942-953, 2011.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.05.001.

[35]        E. Ribeiro, G. Gomes, L. Greco, R. Cerri, A. Vieira-Neto, P. Monteiro Jr, F. Lima, R. Bisinotto, W. Thatcher, and J. Santos, "Carryover effect of postpartum inflammatory diseases on developmental biology and fertility in lactating dairy cows," Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 99, pp. 2201-2220, 2016.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10337.

[36]        J. Santos, H. M. Rutigliano, and M. Sá Filho, "Risk factors for resumption of postpartum estrous cycles and embryonic survival in lactating dairy cows," Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 110, pp. 207-221, 2009.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.01.014.

[37]        E. Ribeiro, K. Galvão, W. Thatcher, and J. Santos, "Economic aspects of applying reproductive technologies to dairy herds," Anim Reprod, vol. 9, pp. 370-387, 2012.

[38]        G. Santos, M. Bottino, A. Santos, L. Simões, J. Souza, M. Ferreira, J. da Silveira, A. Ávila, A. Bride, and J. Sales, "Subclinical mastitis interferes with ovulation, oocyte and granulosa cell quality in dairy cows," Theriogenology, vol. 119, pp. 214-219, 2018.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.04.028.

[39]        Y. Lavon, G. Leitner, T. Goshen, R. Braw-Tal, S. Jacoby, and D. Wolfenson, "Exposure to endotoxin during estrus alters the timing of ovulation and hormonal concentrations in cows," Theriogenology, vol. 70, pp. 956-967, 2008.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2008.05.058.

[40]        F. Schrick, M. Hockett, A. Saxton, M. Lewis, H. Dowlen, and S. Oliver, "Influence of subclinical mastitis during early lactation on reproductive parameters," Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 84, pp. 1407-1412, 2001.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(01)70172-5.

[41]        M. A. Heravi, M. D. Mesgaran, and R. O. Gilbert, "Effect of mastitis during the first lactation on production and reproduction performance of Holstein cows," Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 44, pp. 1567-1573, 2012.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0107-3.

[42]        E. S. Ribeiro and M. R. Carvalho, "Impact and mechanisms of inflammatory diseases on embryonic development and fertility in cattle," Anim. Reprod, vol. 14, pp. 589-600, 2017.Available at: https://doi.org/10.21451/1984-3143-ar1002.

[43]        F. Magata, M. Horiuchi, R. Echizenya, R. Miura, S. Chiba, M. Matsui, A. Miyamoto, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Shimizu, "Lipopolysaccharide in ovarian follicular fluid influences the steroid production in large follicles of dairy cows," Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 144, pp. 6-13, 2014.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2013.11.005.

[44]        F. Magata, M. Horiuchi, A. Miyamoto, and T. Shimizu, "Peptidoglycan inhibits progesterone and androstenedione production in bovine ovarian theca cells," Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 28, pp. 961-967, 2014.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2014.04.005.

[45]        Y. Lavon, G. Leitner, H. Voet, and D. Wolfenson, "Naturally occurring mastitis effects on timing of ovulation, steroid and gonadotrophic hormone concentrations, and follicular and luteal growth in cows," Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 93, pp. 911-921, 2010.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2112.

[46]        O. Furman, G. Leitner, Z. Roth, Y. Lavon, S. Jacoby, and D. Wolfenson, "Experimental model of toxin-induced subclinical mastitis and its effect on disruption of follicular function in cows," Theriogenology, vol. 82, pp. 1165-1172, 2014.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.08.002.

[47]        C. Suzuki, K. Yoshioka, S. Iwamura, and H. Hirose, "Endotoxin induces delayed ovulation following endocrine aberration during the proestrous phase in Holstein heifers," Domestic Animal Endocrinology, vol. 20, pp. 267-278, 2001.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0739-7240(01)00098-4.

[48]        K. M. Breen and F. J. Karsch, "Does cortisol inhibit pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion at the hypothalamic or pituitary level?," Endocrinology, vol. 145, pp. 692-698, 2004.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2003-1114.

[49]        D. Wolfenson, G. Leitner, and Y. Lavon, "The disruptive effects of mastitis on reproduction and fertility in dairy cows," Italian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 14, pp. 650–654, 2015.

[50]        Y. Lavon, G. Leitner, E. Klipper, U. Moallem, R. Meidan, and D. Wolfenson, "Subclinical, chronic intramammary infection lowers steroid concentrations and gene expression in bovine preovulatory follicles," Domestic Animal Endocrinology, vol. 40, pp. 98-109, 2011.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2010.09.004.

[51]        C. D. Hudson, A. J. Bradley, J. E. Breen, and M. J. Green, "Dairy herd mastitis and reproduction: Using simulation to aid interpretation of results from discrete time survival analysis," The Veterinary Journal, vol. 204, pp. 47-53, 2015.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.01.024.

[52]        C. Hudson, A. J. Bradley, J. Breen, and M. J. Green, "Associations between udder health and reproductive performance in United Kingdom dairy cows," Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 95, pp. 3683-3697, 2012.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4629.

[53]        M. O. Dahl, F. P. Maunsell, A. De Vries, K. N. Galvao, C. A. Risco, and J. A. Hernandez, "Evidence that mastitis can cause pregnancy loss in dairy cows: A systematic review of observational studies," Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 100, pp. 8322-8329, 2017.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-12711.

Muhammad Waseem Ghani , Liu Bin , Muhammad Waseem Birmani , Aamir Nawab , Lang Guan Cun , Li Ye , Xiao Mei (2019). Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Animals. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 5(2): 48-57. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110.2019.52.48.57
According to the international dairy federation, the dairy sector provides up to one billion livelihoods around the globe. Albeit, it faces many challenges including the two potentially threatening diseases which are mastitis and infertility. Both are complex multifactorial diseases, and mastitis is associated with causing infertility. Mastitis is an intramammary infection (IMI) and it occurs in two forms, clinical and subclinical. Mastitis being the infection of mammary glands, directly affects milk production to reduce its quality and quantity and indirectly hinders the reproductive performance of dairy animals. It negatively affects the reproduction parameters of dairy animals including, an increase in days open, a decrease in pregnancy rates, and increases chances of early embryonic losses and abortion. The chronic cases of mastitis lead toward the infertility of dairy animals and both of these diseases are responsible for increasing the culling rate and decreasing the profitability of a dairy farm. The objective of this study is to illustrate the influence of subclinical mastitis on reproduction parameters of dairy animals including, days open, days to the first service after calving, pregnancy rates, abortion, and embryonic losses. The relation between mastitis and infertility will be explained mechanistically.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the literature related to the field of animal science and particularly it discusses the issues related to subclinical mastitis in dairy animals. The primary purpose of this study is to bring this issue under the attention of animal science researchers and veterinarians to understand the gravity of situation and to work for treatment and cure of intramammary infections.