International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

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High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds

Pages: 1-6
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High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.106.2020.51.1.6

Godfrey M. Petgrave , Usman Zakka , Luke C. Nwosu , Owolabi M. Azeez , Victor C. Okereke , Uwaoma O. Aguwa

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[1]          C. Adedire and O. E. Ajayi, "Potential of sandbox, Hura crepitans L. seed oil for protection of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation," Journal of Plant Diseases and Plant Protection (1970), vol. 110, pp. 602-610, 2003.

[2]          A. Onekutu, L. C. Nwosu, and N. C. Nnolim, "Effect of seed powder of three pepper species on the bionomics of cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius," International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 5, pp. 1-5, 2015.

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[5]          N. E. S. Lale, Stored-product entomology and acarology in tropical Africa. Maiduguri, Nigeria: Mole Publications Ltd, 2002.

[6]          K. D. Ileke, O. O. Odeyemi, and M. O. Ashamo, "Insecticidal activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild powder against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.)[Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored cowpea seeds," International Journal of Biology, vol. 4, pp. 125-131, 2012. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijb.v4n2p125.

[7]          M. O. Ashamo, "Evaluation of contact toxicity and fumigant effect of some plant powders against Sitophilus zeamais (Mots)," in Proceedings of the Akure - Humboldt Kellong (3rd SAAT Annual Conference: Medicinal plants in Agriculture, the Nigeria Experience), 2007, pp. 64 - 67.

[8]          V. Lienard, D. Seck, G. Lognay, C. Gaspar, and M. Severin, "Biological activity of Cassia occidentalis L. against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae)," Journal of Stored Products Research, vol. 29, pp. 311-318, 1993. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474x(93)90046-7.

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[17]        L. C. Nwosu, "Impact of age on the biological activities of Sitophilus zeamais adults on stored maize: Implications for food security and pest management," Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 111, pp. 2454-2460, 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy187.

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Godfrey M. Petgrave , Usman Zakka , Luke C. Nwosu , Owolabi M. Azeez , Victor C. Okereke , Uwaoma O. Aguwa (2020). High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds. International Research Journal of Insect Sciences, 5(1): 1-6. DOI: 10.18488/journal.106.2020.51.1.6
Traditional control tactics are commonly employed against stored-product insects and mites in developing countries. Therefore, at economically justified dose of 1.0% (w/w), the biological activities of dry peel powders of three citrus species were evaluated in laboratory conditions (30oC, 77.8% r.h.) against Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infesting cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp seeds in storage. The dry peel powder of the three citrus fruit species (the lemon, Citrus limon; the common grape vine, Vitis vinifera; sweet orange, Citrus sinensis) had contact toxicity on the C. maculatus insect pest and affected its biological traits in a trial that used ten varieties of cowpea. Citrus limon caused the highest adult mortality at 24 h high-sensitivity exposure time and this differed significantly from mortalities caused by the other citrus species. The same results were obtained for oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage. The pooled mean toxic effect of C. limon on the store-product pest was comparable to cypermethrin standard insecticide in 24 h. Trials using pure compounds have shown that limonene is responsible for C. limon toxicity. Powders of the citrus materials were effective in this order lemon > grape vine > sweet orange; the effect reduced by 50% across the test materials. Citrus limon dry peel powder should be used solely to protect seeds of cowpea in stores against infestation and damage by C. maculatus. It should also be incorporated into the integrated pest management system for the control of C. maculatus infestation in stored cowpea.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the toxic effect of Citrus limon on C. maculatus infesting cowpea seeds in storage was comparable to cypermethrin standard insecticide under high-sensitivity test condition.

Two Stubborn Storage Insect Pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais: Biology, Food Security Problems and Control Strategies

Pages: 7-13
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Two Stubborn Storage Insect Pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais: Biology, Food Security Problems and Control Strategies

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.106.2020.51.7.13

Luke C. Nwosu , Owolabi M. Azeez , Akubuike N. Eluwa , Godfrey M. Petgrave

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[1]          C. Adedire and O. Ajayi, "Potential of sandbox, Hura crepitans L. seed oil for protection of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation," Journal of Plant Diseases and Plant Protection (1970), vol. 110, pp. 602-610, 2003.

[2]          L. C. Nwosu, "Impact of age on the biological activities of Sitophilus zeamais adults on stored maize: Implications for food security and pest management," Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 111, pp. 2454-2460, 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy187.

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Luke C. Nwosu , Owolabi M. Azeez , Akubuike N. Eluwa , Godfrey M. Petgrave (2020). Two Stubborn Storage Insect Pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais: Biology, Food Security Problems and Control Strategies. International Research Journal of Insect Sciences, 5(1): 7-13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.106.2020.51.7.13
This review work contributes to the biology, food security problems and control strategies of two stubborn storage insect pests, the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius) and the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky). The beetles have high destructive capacity and therefore require control tactics that are rapidly effective and at the same time safe for man and his environment. The biology will evoke inspirations to devise efficient control tactics. The C. maculatus adult is small and measures 2.5 to 3.5 mm in length, compact, brownish, possesses serrated and un-clubbed antennae, relatively long legs, a pair of distinct and toothed ridges on the ventral side of each hind femur. Whereas, S. zeamais adult measures between 3.0 to 3.5 mm long and it is easily identified by its prominent protruded snout or rostrum. Cowpea varieties most common for C. maculatus to lay their eggs are black eyed peas, mung beans and adzuki bean and when more than one host is available; the insect chooses its host depending on the variety- size of the bean and texture of the seed coat. It was revealed that under certain storage conditions, S. zeamais shows preference to products which are not maize. Application of the efficient control tactics will ensure food security of cowpea seeds and maize grains in storage.
Contribution/ Originality
This review work discusses the biology, food security problems and control strategies of two stubborn storage insect pests, the cowpea bruchid and the maize weevil.

Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria

Pages: 14-22
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Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.106.2020.51.14.22

Bob-Manuel, R.B , Egbecho, E , Zakka, U

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Bob-Manuel, R.B , Egbecho, E , Zakka, U (2020). Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria. International Research Journal of Insect Sciences, 5(1): 14-22. DOI: 10.18488/journal.106.2020.51.14.22
Pesticide residues in cured fish from selected markets in Rivers State, Nigeria were determined to compare their residues content with FAO/WHO MRLs. The research was carried out at Ignatius Ajuru University of Education and Austino Research Laboratories, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples of cured fish were collected from different major markets in Rivers State, Nigeria. Each product was purchased from three different traders and kept in an air tight Ziploc envelope containing general information. Some of the samples were kept in 250 g plastic containers and kept on a laboratory bench for a period of 45 days to observe insect emergence while the other lots were taken to Austino Research Laboratory for pesticide residue analysis. The result shows varying degrees of damage ranging from slightly to undamaged and mean number of D. maculatus emergence was higher in smoked fish samples obtained at Rumuokwuta. The result also shows that in all the cured fish sampled, DDT, Captan, Hexazinone, and Tecnazene were found above the FAO/WHO MRLs and few compounds were below the MRLs. Conclusively, relevant authorities and agencies needs to increase surveillance and monitoring to check and control the illegal importation, sale and use of such compounds especially in controlling stored pests of cured fish. This could reduce cases of pesticide toxicity and food poisoning and other health implications due to its ingestion in such contaminated cured fish.
Contribution/ Originality
The objective of this research therefore was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in cured fish sold in selected markets in Rivers State Nigeria and to compare their residues content with FAO/WHO MRLs.