R. Snyderman and Z. Yoediono, "Prospective care: A personalized, preventative approach to medicine," Pharmacogenomics, vol. 7, pp. 5–9, 2006.
C. Milne, "Personalized medicine is playing a growing role in development pipelines," Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development Impact Report, 2010.
G. Ginsburg, "Personalized medicine: Revolutionizing drug discovery and patient care," TRENDS in Biotechnology, vol. 19, pp. 491-96, 2001.
R. Rosenberg, "The molecular and genetic basis of Alzheimer disease: The end of the beginning," Neurology, vol. 54, pp. 2045–2054, 2000.
M. Moridani, "The significance of pharmacogenomics in pharmacy education and practice," American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, vol. 69, pp. 249-250, 2005.
V. Chavda and K. Gohil, Proteomic and advanced technique in diagnosis and therapeutics, in pharmacology: VNSGU: Maliba Pharmacy College, 2010.
N. Mehrotra and R. Soni, "Pharmacogenomics: A step towards personalized medicine," Bioinformatic India, vol. 3, pp. 11-17, 2005.
F. Report, "Commonwealth of Australia. A healthier future for all Australians," National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission, 2009.
A. Ma?yska and T. Twardowski, "Tailor-made medicine," Future of Red Biotechnology, vol. 4, pp. 12-16, 2009.
D. Slamon, "Genomic biomarkers," Science, vol. 235, pp. 177-182, 1987.
M. Kondratovich and E. Mansfield, "US FDA and personalized medicine: In vitro diagnostic regulatory perspective," Personalized Medicine, vol. 7, pp. 517-530, 2010.
J. A. Ludwig and J. N. Weinstein, "Biomarkers in cancer staging, prognosis and treatment selection," Nat. Rev. Cancer, vol. 5, pp. 845–856, 2005.
M. Verma, "Proteomic approaches within the NCI early detection research network for the discovery and identification of cancer biomarkers," Ann. NY Acad. Sci., vol. 945, pp. 103–115, 2001.
C. Guo and J. Wang, "Lyotropic liquid crystal systems in drug delivery," Drug Discov Today, vol. 15, pp. 1032-1040, 2010.
T. Furuta, "Pharmacogenomics of proton pump inhibitors," Pharmacogenomics, vol. 5, pp. 181–202, 2004.
E. Rouits, "Relevance of different UGT1A1 polymorphisms in irinotecaninduced toxicity: A molecular and clinical study of 75 patients," Clin. Cancer Res., vol. 10, pp. 5151–5159, 2004.
Y. Nishizato, "Polymorphisms of OATP-C (SLC21A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) genes: Consequences for pravastatin pharmacokinetics," Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., vol. 73, pp. 554–565, 2003.
G. Rua˜no, "Pharmacogenomic data submissions to the FDA: Clinical pharmacology case studies," Pharmacogenomics, vol. 5, pp. 513–517, 2004.
D. Dai, "Identification of variants of CYP3A4 and characterization of their abilities to metabolize testosterone and chlorpyrifos," J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., vol. 299, pp. 825–831, 2001.
V. Haufroid, "The effect of CYP3A5 and MDR1 (ABCB1) polymorphisms on cyclosporine and tacrolimus dose requirements and trough blood levels in stable renal transplant patients," Pharmacogenetics, vol. 14, pp. 147–154, 2004.
K. Tsuchiya, "Homozygous CYP2B6 (Q172H and K262R) correlates with high plasma efavirenz concentrations in HIV-1 patients treated with standard efavirenzcontaining regimens," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., vol. 319, pp. 1322–1326, 2004.
M. Niemi, "Polymorphism in CYP2C8 is associated with reduced plasma concentrations of repaglinide," Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., vol. 74, pp. 380–387, 2003.
C. Xu, "An in vivo pilot study characterizing the new CYP2A6*7, *8, and *10 alleles," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., vol. 290, pp. 318–324, 2002.
E. Lander, L. Linton, and B. Birren, "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome," Nature, vol. 409, pp. 860–921, 2001.
X. Hong-Guang and F. Felix, W., "Pharmacogenomics steps toward personalized medicine," Personalized Medicine, vol. 2, pp. 325–337, 2005.
F. Ernst and A. Grizzle, "Drug-related morbidity and mortality: Updating the costof- illness model," J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., vol. 41, pp. 192–199, 2001.
S. Gardiner, "Two cases of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) deficiency – a lucky save and a near miss with azathioprine," Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol, vol. 302, pp. 588–590, 2005.
D. Veenstra, J. You, and M. Rieder, "Association of Vitamin K epoxide reductasecomplex 1 (VKORC1) variants with warfarin dose in a Hong Kong Chinese patient population," Pharmacogenet. Genomics, vol. 15, pp. 687–691, 2005.
S. Tate, C. Depondt, and S. Sisodiya, "Genetic predictors of the maximum doses patients receive during clinical use of the anti-epileptic drugs carbamazepine and phenytoin," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., vol. 102, pp. 5507–5512, 2005.
Y. Gasche, Y. Daali, and M. Fathi, "Codeine intoxication associated with ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolism," N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 315, pp. 2827-2831, 2004.
D. Slamon, B. Leyland-Jones, and S. Shak, "Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2," N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 344, pp. 783–792, 2001.
B. Druker, M. Talpaz, and D. Resta, "Efficacy and safety of a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia," N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 344, pp. 1031–1037, 2001.
G. Bollag, "Clinical efficacy of a RAF inhibitor needs broad target blockade in BRAF-mutant melanoma," Nature, vol. 467, pp. 596–599, 2010.
V. Bansal, V. Kumar, and B. Medhi, "Future challenges of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice," JK. Science, vol. 7, pp. 176-179, 2005.
K. Lindpainter, "Pharmacogenetics and the future of medical practice," Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., vol. 54, pp. 221-230, 2002.
B. Williams-Jones and O. Carriyan, "Rheotoric and type: where’s the ethics in pharmacogenomics?," Am. J. Pharmacogenomics, vol. 3, pp. 375-383, 2003.
Hiroyuki c/o Institute for Frontier Med MATSUMURA, "Method for removing desired chromosome and tailor-made medical treatment utilizing the same, in EP 1842909 A1," 2007.
D. Subinoy and L. O. Bakaletz, "Proteomics based diagnostic detection method for chronic sinusitis, in WO 2012170422 A1," 2012.
B. Michaela, "Proteome-wide quantification of small molecule binding to cellular target proteins, in EP 2045332 A1," 2013.
G. Mike, N. Sri, and R. Rosenfeld, "Proteomic analysis of biological fluids in EP 1618388 A2 and WO2004088324A2," 2006.
R. Ron, N. Srinivasa, and M. Gravett, "Proteomic analysis of cervical-vaginal fluids for detecting intra-uterine infection or determining pre-term delivery risk in a pregnant female, in WO 2008063928 A2," 2008.
C. Trevor, "Pharmacogenomics and identification of drug targets by reconstruction of signal transduction pathways based on sequences of accessible regions, in WO 2001084148 A2," 2001.
G. R. Epler, "System and method for pharmacogenomic testing, in WO 2004091794 A1," 2004.
G. Elizabeth, J. Hidary, D., and D. Pickar, "Pharmacogenomics-based system for clinical applications, in WO 2003039234 A2," 2004.
E. Christian, "Identification of SNPs associated with hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia and defective carbohydrate metabolism, in WO 2005077974 A1," 2005.
B. Giuseppe, F. Patrizia, and F. Macciardi, "Methods and systems for pharmacogenomic treatment of cardiovascular conditions, in EP 2490694 A2," 2012.
M. E. Burczynski, "Pharmacogenomic markers for prognosis of solid tumors, in WO 2006089185 A2," 2006.
Vivek P. Chavda (2016). Personalized Medicine: Futuristic Predictive Nanomedicines for Diagnosis and Therapeutics. Genes Review, 2(1): 1-11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.103/2016.2.1/126.96.36.199
The concept of personalized medicine has got its credential due to the development of molecular techniques. It involves right drug & dose, right patient and with right time administration of a medication. By averting the knowledge of gene sequence and their functions, biomedical researches are diversified towards inter-individual variations that are expected to become an eminent part of treatment planning in terms of efficacy and toxic side effects of drugs. The clairvoyance of the future health care adjudicate a system in which patient care is consistently belay by captivating information on the individual patient’s genomes and their downstream products. By combining the credentials of various disciplines such as life sciences, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and information and communication technology ameliorated this concept. These have been well addressed by the so called ‘-omics’ technology. However, assimilation of genomic data to its risk-benefit analyses and the adaptability of the patient population with certain ethical issue becomes one pillar for this and the view of the pharmaceutical industry towards this discipline.
This study contributes in the existing literature with a view to provide the reader the potential avenues that can be grafted using gene delivery particularly by “-omics” technology. It can be studied under two subheadings 1. Biomarker and 2. Therapeutics; which were cogently cited with example in this manuscript.
Scedosporium Prolificans, An Unusual Cause of Frontal Abscess
J. Perfect and W. Schell, "The new fungal opportunists are coming," Clin. Infect Dis., vol. 22, pp. 112-118, 1996.
A. Kesson, M. Bellemore, T. O’Mara, D. Ellis, and T. Sorrell, "Scedosporium prolificans osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent child treated with a novel agent, hexadecylphospocholine (Miltefosine) in combination with terbinafine and voriconazole: A case report," Clin. Infect Dis., vol. 48, pp. 1257–1261, 2009.
J. Berenguer, J. Rodriguez-Tudela, C. Richard, and M. Alvarez, "Deep infections caused by scedosporium prolificans, a report on 16 cases in Spain and review of the literature. Scedosporium prolificans Spanish study group," Medicine, vol. 76, pp. 256-65, 1997.
G. S. De Hoog, F. Marvin Sikkema, and G. Lahpoor, "Ecology and physiology of the emerging opportunistic fungi pseudoallescharia boydii and scedosporium prolificans," Mycoses, vol. 37, pp. 71-78, 1994.
M. Monika, K. Ravinder, and A. Shweta, "A case of scedosporium prolificans osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent child misdiagnosed as tubercular osteomyelitis," Indian J. Dermatol., vol. 58, pp. 80–81, 2013.
C. Louise, S. Denis, T. Karin, and S. Monica, "Infection with Scedosporium apiospermum and S. Prolificans, Australia," Emerg. Infect Dis., vol. 13, pp. 1170- 1177, 2007.
M. Patricia, M. Marin, P. Tornero, R. P. Martin, M. Rodriguez, and E. Bouza, "Successful outcome of scedosporium apiospermum disseminated infection treated with voriconazole in a patient receiving corticosteroid therapy," Clin. Infect Dis., vol. 31, pp. 1499-1501, 2000.
J. Rodriguez-Tudela, J. Berenguer, J. Guarro, A. Kantarcioglu, R. Horre, and G. De Hoog, "Epidemiology and outcome of scedosporium prolificans infection, a review of 162 cases," Med. Mycol., vol. 47, pp. 359-370, 2009.
S. Gluckman, K. Ries, and E. Abrutynm, "Allescheria (Petriellidium) boydii sinusitis in a compromised host," J. Clin. Microbiol., vol. 5, pp. 481-484, 1977.
F. H. Andrew, R. C. Jose, A. B. Michelle, and C. N. Aran, "Combination antifungal therapy in the treatment of scedosporium apiospermum central nervous system infections," Case Reports in Infectious Diseases, 2013.
Beena . , Sridhar Honappa , Naik Shalini Ashok (2016). Scedosporium Prolificans, An Unusual Cause of Frontal Abscess. Genes Review, 2(1): 12-15. DOI: 10.18488/journal.103/2016.2.1/188.8.131.52
Scedosporium infections have become one of the most common cause of deep mold infections. It has also become a potentially dangerous causative agent of local and invasive infections in immunocompromised and occasionally in immunocompetent patients. It exhibits intrinsic resistance to many antifungals making the treatment difficult, thereby increasing the mortality. We present a case of an immunocompetent patient who came with a swelling on the left upper eyelid with a discharging sinus. A diagnosis of frontal lobe abscess was made and the mucopurulent discharge from the sinus was sent to the microbiology laboratory to know the etiology. The KOH wet mount of this discharge showed the presence of septate hyphal elements and the fungal culture yielded the growth of Scedosporium prolificans.The patient was treated with intravenous voriconazole to which he showed a favourable response.
This study contributes in the existing literature with various clinical manifestations of Scedosporium like osteomyelitis, lung infection and infection in the transplant patients. This study is one of very few studies as scedosporium causing frontal lobe abscess…is rare. The paper's primary contribution is finding out the various causes of infections manifesting as a central venous system infection. This study documents that Scedosporium can enter the CNS through nasal septum and can be treated with voriconazole.