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International Journal of Geography and Geology

March 2017, Volume 6, 3, pp 58-69

Climate Characteristics of Safranbolu (Karabuk) and Saffron Cultivation

Mucahit COSKUN


Mesut GOK



Mucahit COSKUN 1

Mesut GOK 2 Sevda COSKUN 2 

  1. Assoc. Prof. Karabuk University, Geography Department, Turkey 1

  2. Research Assistant, Karabuk University, Geography Department, Turkey 2

Pages: 58-69

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10/2017.6.3/

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Article History:

Received: 28 November, 2016
Revised: 29 December, 2016
Accepted: 08 February, 2017
Published: 07 March, 2017


Saffron (Crocus sativus) has been one of the most important spices in the world since ancient times. Though there is a variety of information about its origin, it is believed to have emerged in Iran, Turkey, or Greece and have spread across the world. Saffron, which is commonly produced in the Mediterranean and Southwest Asian countries, is used in many different fields such as painting, medicine, perfumery, and food. Climate and soil conditions also play an important role in saffron production. Saffron, which shows a flexible characteristic in terms of temperature demand, shows resistance to cold temperatures down to -18 degrees and to summer temperatures up to 45 degrees. The type of soil suggested for the development of the plant is clay loam soil. Although saffron growing in Turkey has lost its former significance today, it is still carried out on a small scale in Safranbolu city. This study intends to show the positive effects of climatic elements prevailing in the region on the production of saffron, the world's most expensive plant, and to reestablish its former importance in the region. The climate data used in the present study were taken from the General Directorate of Meteorology of Turkey. The climatic conditions required by the Thornthwaite climate classification method. Systematic approach was used as a research method. The maps used in the study were prepared on ArcGIS 10.3 GIS (Geography Information System) package. According to the Thornthwaite method, Safranbolu is arid-low humidity in terms of rainfall activity, has a 2nd level mesothermal climate, has no water excess, and is closed to sea effect. Considering the climate demands of saffron, it can be said that the climate of Safranbolu city is suitable for saffron growing. In Safranbolu, saffron plants are currently cultivated only in few villages. However, more effort should be made to enhance the production of saffron, which is as precious as gold.

Contribution/ Originality
This study describes the historical growth, present status and future prospect of Saffron in Turkey that has already been grown for years in different countries of world. This research evaluates production, ecology and farming of Saffron in Turkey and world thus making it different from other related researches.


Saffron, Climate, Cultivation, Safranbolu, Turkey


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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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