Saffron (Crocus sativus) has been one of the most important spices in the world since ancient times. Though there is a variety of information about its origin, it is believed to have emerged in Iran, Turkey, or Greece and have spread across the world. Saffron, which is commonly produced in the Mediterranean and Southwest Asian countries, is used in many different fields such as painting, medicine, perfumery, and food. Climate and soil conditions also play an important role in saffron production. Saffron, which shows a flexible characteristic in terms of temperature demand, shows resistance to cold temperatures down to -18 degrees and to summer temperatures up to 45 degrees. The type of soil suggested for the development of the plant is clay loam soil. Although saffron growing in Turkey has lost its former significance today, it is still carried out on a small scale in Safranbolu city. This study intends to show the positive effects of climatic elements prevailing in the region on the production of saffron, the world's most expensive plant, and to reestablish its former importance in the region. The climate data used in the present study were taken from the General Directorate of Meteorology of Turkey. The climatic conditions required by the Thornthwaite climate classification method. Systematic approach was used as a research method. The maps used in the study were prepared on ArcGIS 10.3 GIS (Geography Information System) package. According to the Thornthwaite method, Safranbolu is arid-low humidity in terms of rainfall activity, has a 2nd level mesothermal climate, has no water excess, and is closed to sea effect. Considering the climate demands of saffron, it can be said that the climate of Safranbolu city is suitable for saffron growing. In Safranbolu, saffron plants are currently cultivated only in few villages. However, more effort should be made to enhance the production of saffron, which is as precious as gold.
This study describes the historical growth, present status and future prospect of Saffron in Turkey that has already been grown for years in different countries of world. This research evaluates production, ecology and farming of Saffron in Turkey and world thus making it different from other related researches.
Saffron, Climate, Cultivation, Safranbolu, Turkey
Allahvediev, S., H. Vurdu, E. Zeynalova, N. Vurdu and D. Rasulova, 1997. The culture of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L) in Vitro. First Balkan Botanical Congress, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Arseven, A.D., 2001. Field research methods (Principles Techniques Examples). Ankara: Gündüz Eğitim Yayıncılık.
Ceylan, Ö., 2005. Provincial Golden Flower Safran the Journal of Ottoman Studies XXVI İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi.
Davis, P.H., A. Güner, N. Özhatay, T. Ekim and K.H.C. Başer, 2000. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, 11.
Davis, P.H., R.R. Mill and T. Kit, 1988. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, 10.
Erinç, S., 1996. Climatology and metodology. İstanbul: Alfa Pub.
Fernandez, J.A., 2004. Biology, biotechnology and biomedicine of Saffron. Recent Research Development Plant Science, 2: 127–159.
Gresta, F., G.M. Lombardo, L. Siracusa and G. Ruberto, 2008. Saffron, an alternative crop for sustainable agricultural systems. A Review Agronomy for Sustainable Development, Springer Verlag/EDP Sciences/INRA, 28(1): 95-112. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
Jan, S., A.A. Wani, A.N. Kamili and M. Kashtwari, 2014. Distribution, chemical composition and maedicinal importance of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.). African Journal of Plant Science, 8(12): 537-545. View at Google Scholar
Mathew, B., 1982. The crocus. Portland OR, USA: Timber Press.
McGimpsey, J.A., M.H. Douglas and A.R. Wallace, 1997. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) production in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 25(2): 159-168.
Negbi, M., B. Dagan, A. Dror and D. Basker, 1989. Growth, flowering, vegetative reproduction and dormancy in the Saffron crocus (Crocus Sativus L.). Israel Journal of Botany, 38(2-3): 95–113. View at Google Scholar
Özdemir, Ü., 2001. Safranbolu ve Safran Tarımı/Safranbolu and Agriculture of Safran. Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi, 7(5). View at Google Scholar
Parviz, E., A. Abbas, A. Yaddolahi and M.M. Maibodi, 2004. Productivity, growth and quality attributes of 10 Iranian saffron accessions under climatic conditions of Chahar-Mahal Bakhtiari, Central Iran. Acta Horticulturae, 650: 183-188. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
Sampathu, S.R., S. Shivashankar and Y.S. Lewis, 1984. Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) cultivation, processing, chemistry and standardisation. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 20(2): 123-157.
Skrubis, B., 1990. The cultivation in Greece of crocus sativus L. In: Tammaro F., Marra L. (Eds.). Proceedings of the İnternational Conference on Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.), L’Aquila. pp: 171–182.
Tammaro, F., 1990. Crocus sativus L. – cv. Piano di Navelli (L’Aquila Saffron): Environment, cultivation, morphometric characteristics, active principles, uses, in: Tammaro F., Marra L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.), L’Aquila. pp: 47–57.
Ünaldı, Ü.E., 2007. Tehdit Ve Tehlike Altında Bir Kültür Bitkisi: Safran (Crocus Sativus L.) Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 17(2): 53-67. View at Google Scholar
This study received no specific financial support.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.