H. Sheer and A. Ketley, "Estimation of daily total and diffuse insolation from weather data," Solar Energy Journal, vol. 22, pp. 407 – 411, 2002.
M. Yazdani, M. Salan, and Q. Rahman, "Investigation on the weather conditions on solar Radiation in Brunei Darussalam," International Journal of Sustainable Energy, vol. 35, pp. 982 - 995, 2014.
A. Trabea and S. Mosalam, "Correlation of global solar radiation with meteorological parameter over Egypt," Renewable Energy, vol. 21, pp. 297 - 308, 2000.
V. Omubo-Pepple, I. Tamunobereton-Ari, and M. Briggs-Kamara, "Influence of meteorological parameters on the efficiency of photovoltaic module in some cities in the Niger Delta of Nigeria," Journal of Asian Scientific Research, vol. 3, pp. 107 - 113, 2013.
G. Ibeh, G. Agbo, J. Ekpe, and B. Isikwue, "Estimation of global solar radiation at Calabar using two models," Journal of Natural Sciences Research, vol. 2, pp. 18 - 24, 2012.
E. Uko and I. Tamunobereton-Ari, "Variability of climatic parameters in port harcourt, Nigeria," Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 727-730, 2013.
NDES, "Niger Delta environmental survey phase 1 Report," Environmental and Socioeconomic Characteristics by Environmental Resources Managers, Lagos, 1979.
R. Sheriff, Encyclopaedic dictionary of exploration geophysics, 3rd ed. USA: Society of Exploration Geophysicist, 1991.
A. Ite, U. Ibok, M. Ite, and S. Petters, "Petroleum exploration and production: Past and present environmental issues in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta," American Journal of Environmental Protection, vol. 1, pp. 78-90, 2013.
G. Olatona and C. Adegoke, "Analysis of solar radiation availability for deployment in solar photovoltaic technology over a tropical city," Journal of Environment and Earth, vol. 5, pp. 133 - 137, 2015.
E. Ettah, P. Ushie, V. Omubo-pepple, N. Egbe, and F. Opara, "Comparative study of solar radiation availability as it affects solar panel power efficiency in uyo and port-harcourt, Nigeria," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 6, pp. 47 - 51, 2014.
Etim D. Uko , Vivian N. Otugo , Friday B. Sigalo , Udombakuku E. Udonam-Inyang (2016). Investigation of the Effect of Weather Conditions on Solar Energy in Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Atmosphere, 2(1): 9-16. DOI: 10.18488/journal.94/2016.2.1/220.127.116.11
This study presents the effect of temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and evaporation on solar energy in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria. The data was recorded every 5 minutes daily and monthly, covering 2008 – 2014, in The Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Meteorological Logging Unit. The MATLAB software used in the analysis of the data reveal a direct relationship between solar radiation and temperature and evaporation, and an inverse relationship with rainfall and relative humidity. The mean atmospheric temperature is 26.02oC, while solar energy varies between 47.07 mJm-2 month-1 and 113.99 mJm-2month-1 with a mean of 87.87 mJm-2month-1. During the rainy season (April – September), the mean monthly solar energy is 86.69mJm-2month-1, while in the dry season (October – March), the mean is 89.05mJm-2month-1. The amount of evaporation per temperature ranges from 2.92 mm/oC to 4.47 mm/oC with a mean annual of 3.57 mm/oC. In the rainy season, this value varies from 2.79 mm/oC to 3.79 mm/oC. In the dry season months, the variation is from 3.12 mm/oC to 4.47 mm/oC. The rainfall-to-evaporation ratio of 5.71 in rainy month demonstrates that about the amount of rainfall is recorded for the amount of water evaporated. This correlates with the fact that humidity is high. The results of this work could be used in the design and construction of solar energy technologies to provide energy. Moreover, the results could also provide input for climate risk information, local and national planning and decision-making for sustainable development in the areas of agriculture, aviation, health, and weather forecasting.
Theoretical Solution of the Diffusion Equation in Unstable Case
C. Demuth, "A contribution to the analytical steady solution of the diffusion equation," Atoms. Environ., vol. 12, pp. 1255-1258, 1978.
S. M. E. Khaled, "Studying the effect of vertical eddy diffusivity on the solution of diffusion equation," Physical Science International Journal, vol. 4, pp. 355-365, 2014.
G. I. Taylor, "Diffusion by continuous movements," Proc. London Math. Soc., vol. 20, pp. 196-211, 1921.
M. S. John, "The mathematics of atmospheric dispersion modeling," Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, vol. 53, pp. 349-372, 2011.
T. Tirabassi, M. M. Davidson, T. V. Marco, and P. D. C. Camila, "Comparison between non- Gaussian puff model and a model based on a time–dependent solution of advection equation," Journal of Environment, Protection, vol. 1, pp. 172-178, 2010.
W. P. Elliot, "The vertical diffusion of gas from continuous source," Int. J. Air Water Pollut., vol. 4, pp. 33-46, 1961.
R. C. Malhorta and J. E. Cermak, "Mass diffusion in neutral and unstably stratified boundary–layer flouss," J. Heat Mass Trans., vol. 7, pp. 169-186, 1964.
A. A. Marrouf, S. M. Adel, I. Galal, and S. M. E. Khaled, "An analytical solution of two dimensional atmospheric diffusion equation in a finite boundary layer," International Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 1, pp. 356-365, 2013.
S. P. Arya, "Modeling and parameterization of near –source diffusion in weak wind," J. Appl. Met., vol. 34, pp. 1112-1122, 1995.
S. R. Hanna, "Confidence limit for air quality models as estimated by bootstrap and Jackknife resembling methods," Atom. Environ., vol. 23, pp. 1385-1395, 1989.
Khaled S.M. Essa , Aziz N. Mina , Hany S. Hamdy , Ayman A. khalifa (2016). Theoretical Solution of the Diffusion Equation in Unstable Case. Journal of Atmosphere, 2(1): 1-8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.94/2016.2.1/18.104.22.168
The diffusion equation is solved in two dimensions to obtain the concentration by using separation of variables under the variation of eddy diffusivity which depend on the vertical height in unstable case. Comparing between the predicted and the observed concentrations data of Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) taken on the Copenhagen in Denmark is done. The statistical method is used to know the best model. One finds that there is agreement between the present, Laplace and separation predicted normalized crosswind integrated concentrations with the observed normalized crosswind integrated concentrations than the predicted Gaussian model.