Animal Review

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No. 1

Effect of Pre-Storage Heating and Period of Storage on Hatchability Traits of Dokki-4 Eggs

Pages: 20-29
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2021.81.20.29

Sherif, Kh. El , El-Gogary, M. R. , Hasan, R.A. , Ismail, F. Radwa

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Sherif, Kh. El , El-Gogary, M. R. , Hasan, R.A. , Ismail, F. Radwa (2021). Effect of Pre-Storage Heating and Period of Storage on Hatchability Traits of Dokki-4 Eggs. Animal Review, 8(1): 20-29. DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2021.81.20.29
This study investigated the effects of pre-storage heating and storage period of hatching eggs on hatchability traits and chick quality of Dokki-4 (Egyptian local strain of chickens) laying hens. A total of 3600 eggs were collected from 46-week-old laying hens. Eggs were distributed in a 3x4 factorial arrangement, with three storage times (4, 8 and 12 days at 18°C and 75% RH) and four heat treatments prior to storage (0, 3, 6 and 9 hours at 37.5°C and 56% RH). Eggs were distributed to twelve treatments of 20 replicates. After storage, eggs were incubated under the normal conditions of incubation at the same time. The results showed that the long storage period increased egg weight loss. Hatchability and chick quality results from 8-12 days stored eggs were lower than eggs stored for 4 days. The 6-hour pre-storage heating system substantially improved egg hatchability and chick quality relative to non-heated or 9-hour heating. Important interactions were observed during pre-storage heating × egg storage time for loss in egg weight, hatchability of total and fertile eggs, embryonic mortality and chick quality. When eggs were stored for more than four days, pre-storage heating of hatching eggs for six hours improved hatchability and chick quality compared to unheated eggs or heated for 9 hours. Conclusively, pre-storage heat treatment beneficially affects hatchability traits and chick quality, especially when hatching eggs are stored for long periods.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by investigating the effects of pre-storage heating and storage period of hatching eggs on hatchability traits and chick quality of Dokki-4 (Egyptian local strain of chickens) laying hens.

Dietary Inclusion of Scent Leaf Meal (Ocimum Gratissimum) Affects Immune Genes Expression in Chicken Spleen at 28 and 56 Days

Pages: 10-19
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Dietary Inclusion of Scent Leaf Meal (Ocimum Gratissimum) Affects Immune Genes Expression in Chicken Spleen at 28 and 56 Days

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2021.81.10.19

Ufuoma G. Sorhue , Emenim R. Onainor , Adimabua M. Moemeka , Irikefe-Ekeke E. Peterson

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Ufuoma G. Sorhue , Emenim R. Onainor , Adimabua M. Moemeka , Irikefe-Ekeke E. Peterson (2021). Dietary Inclusion of Scent Leaf Meal (Ocimum Gratissimum) Affects Immune Genes Expression in Chicken Spleen at 28 and 56 Days. Animal Review, 8(1): 10-19. DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2021.81.10.19
This study was conducted to examine the effects of scent leaf meal (Ocimum gratissimum) on expression of inflammatory cytokines in the spleen of two chicken strains. A total of 150birds (75 of each strain) were randomly allotted into five dietary treatments at fifteen birds per treatment. Birds were fed diet containing varying levels of Ocimum gratissimum leaf meal. Treatment one (T1) had 0% OG, while treatment two (T2), treatment three (T3), treatment four (T4) and treatment five (T5) had 0.5% OG, 1.00% OG, 1.5% OG and 2% OG respectively. Feed and water was provided adlibitum throughout the feeding trial. Three birds were slaughtered from each treatment at day 28 and day 56, spleen samples were collected and stored using RNALater in a -20oc freezer prior to RNA extraction. Real-time qPCR was performed in 40cycles using the PowerUp SYBR Green reagent and analyzed with the 2-??Ct method. Gene expression data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance. Strain effect was significantly different (P<0.05) at both time points. All the genes studied significantly differed (P<0.05) in their expression patterns at 28 and 56days of age. Increased inclusion rate of the test ingredients significantly (P<0.05) reduced IL1? and NF-KB1, while increasing IL10 and NF-KB2. Ocimim gratissimum leaf meal shows promise in the regulation of inflammation in chickens and can be used to efficiently replace antibiotics in broiler production.
Contribution/ Originality
This work is one of very few studies that have unraveled expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines in chickens subjected to dietary inclusion of scent leaf meal as replacement for in-feed antibiotic, and contributes to existing literature on the role of phytochemical containing plants in immunomodulation in chickens.

Effect of Time of Feeding on Body Temperature of Wad Bucks and Pregnant Does in Tropical Environment

Pages: 1-9
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Effect of Time of Feeding on Body Temperature of Wad Bucks and Pregnant Does in Tropical Environment

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2021.81.1.9

M.J. Adegbeye , S.O. Aro , A.N. Fajemisin , P. Ravi Kanth Reddy

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M.J. Adegbeye , S.O. Aro , A.N. Fajemisin , P. Ravi Kanth Reddy (2021). Effect of Time of Feeding on Body Temperature of Wad Bucks and Pregnant Does in Tropical Environment. Animal Review, 8(1): 1-9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2021.81.1.9
This study aims to assess the impact of time of feeding on the body temperature of West African dwarf (WAD) goats. Twenty-seven goats (15 buck and 12 pregnant does) were used in this experiment. The bucks and gravid does were fed same experimental diet once daily at either, 06:00h, 12:00h or 18:00h in the morning, afternoon or evening, respectively. Rectal temperature (P<0.001) of bucks fed at 18:00h was higher than 12:00h fed bucks which was higher than 06:00h fed bucks. In contrast, pregnant does fed in the evening had lowest (P=0.009) axillary and rectal temperature while afternoon-fed does had the highest. Time of feeding induced increase (P<0.001) in axillary and rectal temperature of the bucks and pregnant does. The excursion ranges of temperature of morning, afternoon and evening-fed bucks was 0.42-0.79, 1.11-1.25, 1.15-1.19oC, respectively, while the excursion range of temperature of morning, afternoon and evening fed bucks was 0.17-0.19, 0.55-0.72, 0.45-0.47oC respectively. This study shows that time of feeding can entrain body temperature and animal physiological state can affect the temperature rhythm of animals. In conclusion, feeding bucks or pregnant does in the morning or evening may be an effective strategy to manage heat stress in the tropics. Feeding livestock in the afternoon should be avoided. Feeding in the evening may be adopted in the future due to the changing climate that will be accomplished by increased ambient temperature.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies that has investigated the impact of time of feeding on the body temperature of livestock specie fed once daily. Feeding in the evening is a good management strategy to reduce body temperature in bucks and pregnant does.