Animal Review

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2409-6490
Print ISSN: 2412-3382
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No. 2

Growth and Survival Parameters and Blood IgG and Total Protein Levels of Calves Born in the First Production Year of Brown Swiss and Simmental Cows

Pages: 35-44
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Growth and Survival Parameters and Blood IgG and Total Protein Levels of Calves Born in the First Production Year of Brown Swiss and Simmental Cows

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2017.42.35.44

Zeynep KUCUK BAYKAN , Mustafa OZCAN

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Zeynep KUCUK BAYKAN , Mustafa OZCAN (2017). Growth and Survival Parameters and Blood IgG and Total Protein Levels of Calves Born in the First Production Year of Brown Swiss and Simmental Cows. Animal Review, 4(2): 35-44. DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2017.42.35.44
The objectives of this study were to determine the growth and survival parameters and blood IgG and total protein levels of calves born in the first production year of Brown Swiss and Simmental cows imported from Austria to a newly-established dairy cattle enterprise in Manisa, Turkey. The study material consisted of 62 Brown Swiss and 266 Simmental calves. Calves were separated from their mothers after birth and put into individual sections and subjected to colostrum feeding. At the end of three days, calf grower feed was given. Calves were weaned around 60-days of age unless there was an abnormality with their development. Birth weights, weaning weights on the 65th day, and daily weight gains of calves were 40.31 kg and 41.76 kg, 77.16 kg and 83.9 kg, 0.56 kg and 0.64 kg for Brown Swiss and Simmental breeds respectively. Simmental calves were born heavier and had more weight gain until weaning. We determined that breed and sex affected calves’ growth while delivery method only affected birth weight. Calves with high birth weights caused difficult birth, but this effect disappeared until weaning. Survival rates of calves until weaning were 98.39% for Brown Swiss and 95.49% for Simmental. The survival and mortality rates of Brown Swiss and Simmental calves at weaning were at normal levels, while the calves with difficult birth had losses around 10%.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the performance and adaptation levels of imported breeds in Turkey. It contributes in the existing literature by producing information on the growth, survival, immunity levels and locality adaptations of calves born in Turkey after heifers’ importation.

Helminths and Protozoa of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Ruminants in Tanzania

Pages: 21-34
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Helminths and Protozoa of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Ruminants in Tanzania

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2017.42.21.34

Emmanuel S Swai , R Trevor Wilson

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Emmanuel S Swai , R Trevor Wilson (2017). Helminths and Protozoa of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Ruminants in Tanzania. Animal Review, 4(2): 21-34. DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2017.42.21.34
Tanzania has one of the largest populations of domestic ruminants in Africa.  Their performance is less than their potential.  Health, particularly disease due to gastrointestinal parasites, is a major constraint to improved productivity.  Internal parasites also affect the country’s very diverse and huge array of wild ruminants.  This review is based on a thorough search of the formal and informal literature pertaining to gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in Tanzania.  The occurrence and geographical distribution of helminth (nematodes, trematodes and cestodes) and protozoan parasites are presented.  Cattle, goat and sheep nematodirus (roundworm) infection usually comprises mixed infections of several taxa of which 13 species in nine genera have been recorded.  A total of seven species of trematodes (flukes) in six genera have been found.  Some six species of cestodes (flatworms) have been recorded, three being in the genus Taenia.  The most prevalent species of protozoan parasites, of which seven have been identified in cattle and 18 in sheep and goats, belong to the genus Eimeria: four other species of protozoan parasites are also recorded.  A general overview of the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites is provided and the main methods of control are discussed.

Contribution/ Originality
Domestic ruminants are an important part of the Tanzania economy.  They contribute to food security, biodiversity, household income and human welfare.  This paper reviews with the aid of 74 published references the status and distribution of the main internal parasites of domestic ruminants in Tanzania.