Alene, A.D., P. Neuenschwander, V.M. Manyong, O. Coulibary and R. Hanna, 2007. The impact of IITA-led biological control of major pests in Sub-Saharan African agriculture: A synthesis of milestones and empirical results. Ibadan, Nigeria.
Bokonon-Ganta, A.H., G. De and Neuenschwander, 2002. Socio-economic impact of biological control of mango mealybug in Benin. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 93: 367-378.
Cellini, S.R. and J.E. Kee, 2010. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis. Handbook of practical program evaluation, chapter twenty-one. 493–530.
Christian, D.G., A.B. Richie and N.E. Yates, 2008. Growth, yield and mineral content of miscantus inganteus growth as a biofuel for 14 successive harvests. Industrial Crops and Products, 28: 320-327.
Dwomoh, E.A., J.V.K. Afun, J.B. Ackonor and V.N. Agene, 2009. Investigations on oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: 116 Formicidae) as a biocontrol agent in the protection of cashew plantations. Pest Management Science, 65: 41–46.
Gittinger, J.P., 1982. Economic analysis of agricultural projects. 2nd Edn., Baltimore and London: A World Bank Publication, The John Hopkins University Press.
Jacobs, J.F., 2007. Capital budgeting: NPV vs. IRR controversy, unmasking common assertions. Social Science Research Network Electronic Paper Collection. Available from http://ssrn.com/abstract=981382 [Accessed 02-10-2014].
Marketing Marker Associates, 2011. Reshfruits and vegetables sub-sector/valuechain analysis in Tanzania. Small and medium enterprises competitive facility: 33.
McConnachie, A.J., P. Hill, J. Byrne and M.P. De Wit, 2003. Economic evaluation of the successful biological control of Azolla filiculoides in South Africa. Biological Control, 28: 25-32.
Mwatawala, M.W., S. Loth Mulungu and MakalaMpinga, 2009. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Tanzania. Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(1): 114-117.
NARI, 2010. Annual cashew research Report. Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives Tanzania: pp: 23.
Norgaard, R.B., 1988. The biological control of cassava mealy bug in Africa. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 72: 366-371.
Offenberg, J., T.B. Nguyen and D. Wiwatwitaya, 2013. The effectiveness of using weaver ant biocontrol in Southern Asian citrus and mango. Journal of Asian Myrmecology, 5: 139-149.
Peng, R.K. and K. Christian, 2005. Integrated pest management in mango orchards in the Northern territory Australia, using the weaver ant, oecophylla smaragdina, (Hymenoptera Formicidae) as a key element. Journal of Pest Management, 51: 149 –155.
Peng, R.K., K. Christian and K. Gibb, 2004. Implementing weaver ant technology in commercial cashew plantations. RIRDC Publication No. W04/088.
Peng, R.K., K. Christian, L.P. Lan and N.T. Binh, 2010. Integrated cashew improvement program using weaver ants as a major component–photo book for cashew growers in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Agriculture Publisher. pp: 69.
Poudel, K.L., A.P. Nepal, B. Dhungana, Y. Sugimoto, N. Yamamoto and A. Nishiwaki, 2009. Capital budgeting analysis of organic coffee production in Gulmi district of Nepal. In International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Beijing, China, pp: 1-13.
Seguni, Z.S.K., M.J. Ways and P. Van Melle, 2011. The effect of ground vegetations on competition between the ants oecophylla longinoda and pheidole megacephala and implications for conservations biological control. Crop Protection, 30(6): 713-717.
Shively, G., 2000. An overview of benefit-cost analysis. department of agricultural economics, Purdue University: 1–10.
UNIDO, 2011. Tanzania’s cashew value chain: A diagnostic. Vienna, Austria: United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
United Republic of Tanzania (URT), 2012. Country review report. Tanzania agricultural food security investment plan (TAFSIP). Government Printer DSM: 12.
Van den Berg, E.C., 2010. Detection, quantification and monitoring prosopis spp. In the Northern Cape Province of South Africa using remote sensing and GIS. Masters Dissertation, Potchefstroom: North-West University.
Van Melle, P. and N.T.T. Cuc, 2000. Evolution and status of oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius) as a pest control agent in citrus in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. International Journal of Pest Management, 46(4): 295-301.
Zeddies, J., R.P. Schaab, P. Neuenschwander and H.R. Herren, 2000. Economics of biological control of cassava mealybug in Africa. Agricultural Economics, 24: 209-219.
J.G. William , J. Hella , E. Lars , J. Offenberg , M. Mwatawala , G. Rwegasira (2015). Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Insect Pests Management in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania. Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research, 1(2): 32-44. DOI: 10.18488/journal.88/2015.1.2/22.214.171.124
This study was conducted to determine the financial feasibility of African weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) as biological control agents in cashew and mango orchards. It was compared to chemical insecticides and control based on the experimental data in 2012/13 and 2013/14 cropping seasons. Three important discounted financial indicators were used in the study; they are the Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). Three scenarios concerning the increase of costs and benefits were used. The results of the study showed that all indicators for financial feasibility analysis were positive and accepted in each treatment. In cashew, African weaver ant without feeding indicated highest NPV (TZS 32 640), BCR (2.5:1) and IRR (57%). In mango, conflicting results were observed in feasibility ranking. But African weaver ants without feeding gave highest acceptable NPV of TZS 66 926. The three scenarios showed that setting much higher costs and benefits at five percent the NPV for African weaver ant was highest than other treatments. The findings of this study suggest that African weaver ant without feeding are financially feasible to be adopted and was recommended.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the financial feasibility of using African weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) to provide information that help smallholder farmers making decision on appropriate alternative insect pest management in Tanzanian cashew and mango.
Role of Foreign Investment and External Debt in Determination of Exchange Rate
Agene, C.E., 1991. Foreign exchange and international trade in Nigeria. Lagos Gene Publications.
Asma, A., 2011. The impact of exchange rate, fiscal deficit and terms of trade on external debt of Pakistan. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(3): 10-24.
Bilquees, F., 2003. An analysis of budget deficits, debt accumulation, and debt instability. The Pakistan Development Review, 42(3): 177-195.
Bruce, A.B., 1997. Firm-specific assets and the link between exchange rates and foreign direct investment. The American Economic Review, 87(3): 447- 465.
Chinedu, B.E. and I.M. Michael, 2006. Exchange rate determination, foreign investment burden and external debt crisis in less-developed countries. International Journal of Business and Economics Perspectives, 1(1): 1-15.
Donneil, C., 2010. Exchange rate movements and the stock of foreign currency denominated government debt. 2nd Annual Monetary Studies Conference Financial Stability, Crisis Preparedness and Risk Management in the Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago, 9th -12th November 2010.
Flood, P.R. and A.K. Rose, 1995. Fixing exchange rates, a virtual quest for fundamentals. Journal of Monetary Economics, 36(1): 3-37.
Hasan, P., 1999. Pakistans debt problemIts changing nature and growing gravity. The Pakistan Development Review, 38(4): 435-447.
Ishfaq, M. and M.A. Chaudhary, 1999. Fiscal deficit and debt dimensions of Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, 384(2): 1067-1108.
Kemal, A.R., 2001. Debt accumulation and its implications for growth and poverty. The Pakistan Development Review, 40(4): 263-281.
Mohey-ud-Din, G., 2005. Impact of foreign aid on economic development in Pakistan (1960-2000). Munich Personal RePEC Archive (MPRA)
Ndikumana, L. and K.B. James, 2003. Public debts and public assets: Explaining capital flight from Sub-Saharan African countries. World Development, 31(1): 107-130.
Shabana, P., 2012. Analysis of the factors affecting exchange rate variability in Pakistan. Academic Research International, 2(3): 670-674.
Shamshad, B., 2009. Impact of foreign direct investment in Pakistan. Conference Publication, Information and Financial Engineering. ICIFE 2009. Singapore.
Zahang, K.H., 2001. Does foreign direct investment promote economic growth? Evidence from East Asia and Latin America. Contemporary Economic Policy, 19(2): 175-185.
Abdul Basit , Ishaque Ahmed Ansari (2015). Role of Foreign Investment and External Debt in Determination of Exchange Rate. Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research, 1(2): 23-31. DOI: 10.18488/journal.88/2015.1.2/126.96.36.199
The purpose of study is to observe importance and impact of the external debt and foreign investment in exchange rate of Pakistan. Ordinary Least Square and Exact Maximum Likelihood methods have been used for estimating the models. Cost of foreign debt ha
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the relationship between the inflow/outflow of foreign currencies and the exchange rate.