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This paper examines the relationship between intra-product trade and regional income distribution by empirical tests of co-integration and Granger causality with time series data from 1994 to 2013. The conclusion shows that intra-product trade and regional income distribution have a long-term equilibrium relationship. The exports of intra-product trade can significantly reduce the income gap between urban and rural residents, while the imports have a negative influence. At the meantime, the intra-product exports and imports are the one-way causal of income distribution. In addition, the capital contribution can enlarge the urban and rural income gap significantly. Education also has a negative influence, but it is non-significant.
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The Effect of Selected Financial Ratios on Profitability: An Empirical Analysis of Listed Firms of Cement Sector in Saudi Arabia
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Muhammad Nauman Khan , Imran Khokhar (2015). The Effect of Selected Financial Ratios on Profitability: An Empirical Analysis of Listed Firms of Cement Sector in Saudi Arabia. Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research, 1(1): 1-12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.88/2015.1.1/220.127.116.11
The plinth emergence of infrastructures sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia cardinally hinges upon the growth and development of the Cement industry. The Saudi cement industry is most cost competitive in the world due to availability of raw material and Fuel at very low prices by the government. This has encouraged the researchers to analyze the relationship between profitability and selected financial ratios of cement industry in Saudi Arabia. The research paper makes an endeavor to determine the profitability of listed cement companies in Saudi Arabia with five years accounting period from 2008 to 2012. The paper encompasses six variables, namely, Debt to Equity Ratio (DER), Inventory Turnover Ratio (ITR), Debtors’ Turnover Ratio (DTR), Creditors’ Velocity (CRSV), Total Assets Turnover Ratio (TATR) and Net profit Margin (NPM). Profitability as a dependent variable is exhibited by Net profit Margin (NPM) while the selected ratios DER, ITR, DTR, CRSV, TATR and CRSV are expressed as independent variables. Based on the findings of the study, it is cogently revealed that there is a significant relationship between the three selected ratios and Net Profit Margin (NPM) of cement companies in Saudi Arabia.
This study is one of very few studies conducted on the relationship among different financial ratios and profitability of the companies in Saudi Arabia. The present research investigated the effect of determinants on profitability of cement sector listed companies in Saudi Arabia. Current study concluded that DER, ITR and CRSV have positive effect on the NPM of cement companies.