M. Holick, "Vitamin D deficiency," N Eng J Med, vol. 357, pp. 266–81, 2007.
B. Hollis and C. Wagner, "Nutritional vitamin D status during pregnancy: Reasons for concern," Can Med Assoc J., vol. 174, pp. 1287-90, 2006.
M. Holick, "Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 79, pp. 362-71, 2004.
J. Lappe, D. Travers-Gustafson, K. Davies, R. Recker, and R. Heaney, "Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 85, pp. 1586–91, 2007.
R. Vieth and S. Kimball, "Vitamin D in congestive heart failure," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 83, pp. 731-2, 2006.
A. Pittas, J. Lau, F. Hu, and B. Dawson-Hughes, "The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis," J Clin Endocrinol Metab., vol. 92, pp. 2017–29, 2007.
A. Prentice, "Vitamin D Deficiency: A global perspective," Nutrition Reviews, vol. 66, pp. S153-S164, 2008.
A. Lapillonne, "Vitamin D deficiciency during pregnancy may impair maternal and fetal outcomes," Medical Hypotheses, vol. 74, pp. 71-75, 2010.
L. De-Regil, C. Palacios, A. Ansary, R. Kulier, and J. Peña-Rosas, Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy (Review). The cochrane library issue 6. England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
J. Dratva, S. Merten, and U. Ackermann-Liebrich, "Vitamin D supplementation in swiss infants," Swiss Med Weekly, vol. 136, pp. 473-81, 2006.
H. Glerup, K. Mikkelsen, and K. Poulsen, "Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited," J Intern Med., vol. 247, pp. 260–8, 2000.
G. Fuleihan, "Vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East and its health consequences for children and adults," Clinic Rev Bone Miner Metab, vol. 7, pp. 77–93, 2009.
M. Holick, "The vitamin D epidemic and its health consequences," J Nutr., vol. 35, pp. 2739S–48S, 2005.
S. Bahijri, "Serum 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol in infants and preschool children in the Western region of Saudi Arabia etiological factors," Saudi Med J., vol. 22, pp. 973–9, 2001.
M. Sadat-Ali, A. AlElg, H. Al-Turki, F. Al-Mulhim, and A. Al-Ali, "Vitamin D levels in healthy men in eastern Saudi Arabia," Ann Saudi Med., vol. 29, pp. 378–82, 2009.
J. Aloia, M. Patel, R. Dimaano, M. Li-Ng, S. Talwar, M. Mikhail, S. Pollack, and J. Yeh, "Vitamin D intake to attain a desired serum 25–hydroxy vitamin D concentration," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, pp. 1952-58, 2008.
D. Dror and L. Allen, "Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy: Biology, outcomes and interventions," Nutrition Reviews, vol. 68, pp. 465-77, 2010.
Institute of Medicine, Food and nutrition board. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2010.
C. Gratton and I. Jones, Research methods for sports studies. London: Routledge, 2004.
J. Creswell, Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: Sage, 2009.
M. Elsammak, A. AL-Wossaibi, A. AL-Howeish, and J. Alsaeed, "High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Sunny Eastern region of Saudi Arabia: A hospital-based study," East Mediterr Health J., vol. 17, pp. 317-22, 2009.
G. MacSharry, "Finally the issue of vitamin deficiency in Ireland is highlighted," Western Herbal Medicine and Nutrition, 2007.
M. Calvo, S. Whiting, and C. Barton, "Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: Current status and data needs," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 80, pp. 1710S-6S, 2004.
A. Siddiqui, "Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency rickets in adolescent school girls in Western region, Saudi Arabia," Saudi Med J., vol. 28, pp. 441–4, 2007.
F. Christie and L. Mason, "Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding vitamin D deficiency among female students in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative exploration," Int J Rheum Dis., vol. 14, pp. 1-8, 2011.
D. Elshafie, H. Al-Khashan, and A. Mishriky, "Comparison of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples," Eur J Clin Nutr., vol. 66, pp. 742-5, 2012.
W. Azhar, "A determination of vitamin D status and intake of pregnant and non-pregnant Saudi Arabian women in Mecca, Saudi Arabia," B.Sc. Unpublished Dissertation, Eastern Michigan University, Michigan,USA, 2009.
R. Tarrant, M. Sheridan-Pereira, R. McCarthy, K. Younger, and J. Kearney, "Maternal and infant nutritional supplementation practices in Ireland: Implications for clinicians and policymakers," Irish Medical Journal, vol. 104, pp. 173-77, 2011.
Food Safety Authority of Ireland, Vitamin D – Q&A on vitamin D report recommendations for a national policy on vitamin D supplementation for infants in Ireland [Online]. Available: http://www.fsai.ie/faq/vitamin_d.html. [Accessed August 2014], 2001.
A. Elidrissy, S. Sedrani, and D. Lawson, "Vitamin D deficiency in mothers of rachitic infants," Calcif Tissue Int., vol. 36, pp. 266-68, 2006.
C. Garland, E. Gorham, S. Mohr, and F. Garland, "Vitamin D for cancer prevention: Global perspective," Ann Epidemiol, vol. 19, pp. 468-83, 2009.
S. Al Faraj and K. Al Mutairi, "Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia," Spine, vol. 28, pp. 177–9, 2003.
M. Holick Sunlight, "D’’ Ilemma: Risk of cancer or bone disease and muscle weakness," Lancet, vol. 357, pp. 4–6, 2001.
S. Reed, M. Laya, J. Melville, S. Ismail, C. Mitchell, and D. Ackerman, "Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and clinical associations among veiled East African women in Washington State," J Womens Health, vol. 16, pp. 206-13, 2007.
R. Glew, M. Crossey, J. Polanams, H. Okolie, and D. Vander Jagt, "Vitamin D status of semi-nomadic fulani men and women," Journal of the National Medical Association J Natl Med Assoc., vol. 102, pp. 485-90, 2010.
S. Pietras, B. Obayan, M. Cai, and M. Holick, "Vitamin D2 treatment for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency for up to 6 years," Arch Int Med, vol. 169, pp. 1806-8, 2009.
A. Dawodu and C. Wagner, "Mother-child vitamin D deficiency: An international perspective," Arch Dis Child., vol. 92, pp. 737–40, 2007.
C. Rosen, Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism, 7th ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2009.
M. Al-Ghamdi, S. Lanham-New, and J. Kahn, "Differences in vitamin D status and calcium metabolism in Saudi Arabian boys and girls aged 6 to 18 years: Effects of age, gender, extent of veiling and physical activity with concomitant implications for bone health," Public Health Nutr, vol. 15, pp. 1845-53, 2012.
John M Kearney , Imann Khadrawi , Rania Harastani , Mairead Stack (2015). Vitamin D Supplementation Practices in Pregnancy and During Infancy and Other Behaviors Related To Vitamin D Status among a Sample of Muslim Women in Ireland and Saudi Arabia. Journal of Nutrients, 2(1): 11-26. DOI: 10.18488/journal.87/2015.2.1/2015.1.11.26
Objectives (background): Requirement for Vitamin D is high at particular stages of the lifecycle especially during pregnancy and infancy. Severe vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may increase the risk of rickets in childhood. While policies exist in Ireland regarding supplementation of Vitamin D in either pregnancy or infancy, no policy recommendation exists in Saudi Arabia. The main aim of this study was to identify attitudes towards Vitamin D supplementation as well as its prevalence in pregnancy and infancy among Muslim mothers living in Ireland and in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey consisting of 121 Muslim mothers living in Saudi Arabia and 77 Muslim women living in Ireland. Recruitment of mothers took place in three hospitals in Makkah (Saudi Arabia Al-Noor Hospital, Hera’a Hospital and Maternity and Children’s Hospital) and a religious Centre in Ireland between June and September 2012. Results: Only 28.6% of the Irish and 7.4% of the Saudi mothers had taken vitamin D supplements during their pregnancy. While 62.3% of the Muslim mothers in Ireland and 37.2% in Saudi Arabia were aware of the recommendation to give a daily vitamin D supplements to their infants until they were one year of age just 49.4% living in Ireland and 13.2% from Saudi Arabia did so. While a majority of mothers living in Ireland and Saudi Arabia were spending > 30 minutes a day outside, clothing that completely cover the body was worn by the entire sample, sunscreen was used by 44.2% in Ireland and 53.7% in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: Poor vitamin D supplementation practices are evident among Muslim mothers and infants both in Ireland and Saudi Arabia. To improve this situation, mothers should be educated about the importance of vitamin D during pregnancy and infancy.
This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the supplementation practices of vitamin D during pregnancy and infancy among Muslim women in two countries with differing guidelines regarding Vitamin D supplementation as well as different latitudes, climatic conditions and cultures. This study is unique in this respect.
Contribution of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices for Sustainable Crop Productivity, Nutrient Uptake and Soil Nutrient Status in Maize Based Cropping Systems
K. Goulding, S. Jarvis, and A. Whitmore, "Optimizing nutrient management for farm systems," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B., vol. 363, pp. 667-680. [Accessed 12 February 2008], 2008.
A. Sathish, V. Govinda Gowda, H. Chandrappa, and K. Nagaraja, "Long term effect of integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers on productivity, soil fertility and uptake of nutrients in rice & maize cropping system," I. J. S. N., vol. 2, pp. 84-88 2011.
S. Milkha and A. Aulakh, "Integrated nutrient management for sustainable crop production, improving crop quality and soil health, and minimizing environmental pollution," presented at the 2010 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World 1– 6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia, 2010.
R. K. Naresh, Purushottam, and S. P. Singh, "Effects of integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) practices on the sustainability of maize-based farming systems in Western Uttar Pradesh," International Journal of Research in Biomedicine and Biotechnology. Universal Research Publications, vol. 3, pp. 5-10. Available: http://www.urpjournals.com, 2013.
R. S. Antil, Integrated plant nutrient supply for sustainable soil health and crop productivity. A. Kumar (Eds) vol. 3. Focus Global Reporter, 2012.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), A guide for integrated nutrient management. Fertilizer and plant nutrition bulletin No. 16 vol. 16. ISBN 92-5-105490-8. Rome, 2006.
A. Singh, J. S. Kang, R. K. Hundal, and H. Singh, "Research need and direction for sustainability for rice based cropping system. Published online 01 November; printed 16 November 2012," 2012.
M. L. Jat, C. M. Parihar, S. L. Jat, J. P. Tetarwal, R. K. Jat, and Y. S. Saharawat, "Fertilizer best management practices for maize systems," Indian Journal of Fertilizers, vol. 9, pp. 80-94, 2013.
R. N. Roy, A. Finck, G. J. Blair, and H. L. S. Tandon, Plant nutrition for food security: A guide for integrated nutrient management. Fertilizer and plant nutrition bulletin 16. Food and agriculture organization of the United nations, Rome. Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Available: http://www.fao.org, 2006.
V. G. S. Dasog, H. B. Babalad, N. S. Hebsur, S. K. Gali, S. G. Patil, and A. R. Alagawadi, "Nutrient status of soil under different nutrient and crop management practices," Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., vol. 25, pp. 193-198, 2012.
J. Dutta, N. K. Sankhyan, S. P. Sharma, and S. K. Sharma, "Long-term effect of chemical fertilizers and soil amendments on sustainable productivity and sulphur nutrition of crops under maize-wheat cropping system in an acid alfisol," Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR), vol. 2, pp. 412-416, 2013.
M. Sarwar, J. Ghulam, R. Ejaz, A. Muhammad Ehsan, and C. Arshad Nawaz, "Impact of itegrated ntrient mnagement on yeld and ntrient utake by mize under rn-fd cnditions," Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 11, pp. 27-33, 2012.
K. Ali, S. K. Khali, F. Munsif Abdurrab, K. Nawab, A. Z. Khan, A. Kamal, and Z. H. Khan, "Response of maize to various nitrogen sources and tillage practices," Sarhad J. Agric., vol. 28, pp. 9-14, 2012.
W. Ahmad, Z. Shah, F. Khan, S. Ali, and W. Malik, "Maize yield and soil properties as influenced by integrated use of organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizers in a low fertility soil," Soil Environ., vol. 32, pp. 121-129. Available: www.se.org.pk, 2013.
J. Mugwe, D. Mugendi, J. Kungu, and M. Mucheru-Muna, "Effect of plant biomass, manure and inorganic fertiliser on maize yield in the central highlands of Kenya," African Crop Science Journal, vol. 15, pp. 111 - 126. ISSN 1021-9730, 2007.
G. W. Quansah, "Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers and their combinations on the growth and yield of maize in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana," MSc Thesis Submitted to the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 2010.
N. Hossain, M. G. Kibria, and K. T. Osman, "Effects of poultry manure, household waste compost and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of maize (Zea Mays L.)," IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS) ISSN: 2278-3008, vol. 3, pp. 38-43. Available: www.iosrjournals.org [Accessed Sep-Oct. 2012], 2012.
M. A. Cheema, W. Farhad, M. F. Saleem, H. Z. Khan, A. Munir, M. A. Wahid, F. Rasul, and H. M. Hammad, "Nitrogen management strategies for sustainable maize production," Crop Environ.,1: 49-52. Crop Prod., vol. 2, pp. 23-27, 2010.
K. Ogundare, A. Samuel, and A. Peter, "Organic amendment of an ultisol: Effects on soil properties, growth, and yield of maize in Southern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria," International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, vol. 1, p. 11, 2012.
S. M. Alam, S. Syed Azam, A. Sikander, and M. Mohsin Iqbal, "Yield and phosphorus-uptake by crops as influenced by chemical fertilizer and integrated use of industrial by-products," Songklanakarin J. Sci., vol. 27, pp. 10-16, 2005.
R. L. Kannan, M. Dhivya, D. Abinaya, R. Lekshmi Krishna, and S. Krishnakumar, "Effect of integrated nutrient management on soil fertility and productivity jn maize," Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., vol. 2, pp. 61-67, 2013.
L. Fanuel and G. Gifole, "Response of maize (Zea Mays L.) to integrated fertilizer application in wolaita," South Ethiopia Advances in Life Science and Technology. ISSN 2224-7181 (Paper) ISSN 2225-062X, vol. 5. Availble: www.iiste.org, 2012.
A. H. Kalhapure, B. T. Shete, and M. B. Dhonde, "Integrated nutrient management in maize (Zea Mays L.) for increasing production with sustainability," International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Technology. ISSN 2249-3050. Research India Publications, vol. 4, pp. 195-206, 2013.
Wakene Negassa, Fite Getaneh, Abdena Deressa, and Berhanu Dins, "Sustainable and organic approaches to meet human needs," Integrated use of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers for Maize Production, pp. 9 - 11, 2007.
M. Mohsin Zafar, M. K. Abbasi, A. Khaliq, and Z. Rehman, "Effect of combining organic materials with inorganic phosphorus sources on growth, yield, energy content and phosphorus uptake in maize at Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan," Arch. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 3, pp. 199-212, 2011.
Yenus Osman Kemal , Merkuz Abera (2015). Contribution of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices for Sustainable Crop Productivity, Nutrient Uptake and Soil Nutrient Status in Maize Based Cropping Systems. Journal of Nutrients, 2(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.87/2015.2.1/18.104.22.168
Over applications of inorganic fertilizers lead nutrient imbalances, inefficiency and environmental contamination while insufficient application of nutrients causes soil fertility depletion. This problem drives the use of organic manures, which supply balanced micro and macro nutrients to the current crop and also leave a substantial residual effect on the succeeding crops in different cropping systems. But it is required in bulk as it contains nutrients in small proportion. Hence its availability is scarce for large farms. Therefore, to eliminate both excessive and inadequate applications, judicious use of integrated nutrient management is best alternative for sustainable crop productivity while maintaining soil fertility status in maize and other cereal based cropping systems. Such integrated applications have complementary and synergistic effects. Various research results have confirmed that INM improves sustainable crop productivity and soil fertility status rather than organic or mineral fertilizers alone. Most of research findings reviewed in this paper indicated that among the alternative integrated nutrient management combinations, application of chemical fertilizers integrated with organic manures in equal proportion significantly improved sustainable crop productivity, nutrient uptake and soil nutrient status in maize based cropping systems. In general, combined application of inorganic fertilizers with different sources of organic manures in different proportions has significant role to boost crop productivity, improve nutrient uptake by plants and maintain soil nutrient status in maize based cropping systems.
This study contributes in the existing literature to give recent information on the importance of judicious use of integrated nutrient management that improve sustainable productivity of maize based cropping system using nutrients efficiently and ecologically friendly while keeping the soil healthy in the long run.