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Bin Tang , Nachum Dafny (2015). Locus Coeruleus Neuronal and Behavioral Activity Following Acute and Chronic Methylphenidate. Journal of Brain Sciences, 1(1): 24-42. DOI: 10.18488/journal.83/2015.1.1/22.214.171.124
Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the choices to treat attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and its mechanism of action is not clear. Concomitant behavioral and locus coeruleus (LC) neuronal activity were recorded following acute and chronic (0.6, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg) MPD in freely moving rats. The experiment last for 10 days. (1) The behavioral recording showed that acute MPD increases in locomotor activity in a dose dependent manner. (2) The same dose of chronic MPD administration elicits in some animals behavioral sensitization and in others behavioral tolerance. (3) The majority of the LC unit responded to acute MPD exposure by increase their firing rate. (4) The baseline activity on experimental day 10 (ED 10) after six daily repetitive MPD exposure was modulated in most of the LC units. (5) More than 90% of the LC unit respond to chronic MPD exposure and the majority of them by decrease their firing rate compared to the initial MPD effect. (6) The neuronal response to acute and chronic MPD recorded from animals expressing behavioral sensitization was significant difference from the LC units recorded from animals that expressed behavioral tolerance. Results indicated that the LC neuronal activities may contribute to the expression of behavioral sensitization and tolerance induced by chronic MPD administration and suggested that it is essential to record the animal’s behavioral responses concomitantly with the LC neuronal activity events.
This paper is the first study which reported the acute and chronic dose response property of MPD on LC neuronal activity recorded concomitant with animal behavior. The study show neuronal activity recorded from behavioral sensitized animal response to MPD differently compare to those LC units recorded from behavioral tolerance animals.
Interventions for Reducing Coercion in Mental Health for Adults: A Systematic Review and the Impact of Updating
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Kristin Thuve Dahm , Jan Odgaard-Jensen , Tonje Lossius Husum , Kari Ann Leiknes (2015). Interventions for Reducing Coercion in Mental Health for Adults: A Systematic Review and the Impact of Updating. Journal of Brain Sciences, 1(1): 1-23. DOI: 10.18488/journal.83/2015.1.1/126.96.36.199
Background: Reduction of use of coercive measures in Mental Health Care has been of increasing concern for patient organizations, governmental agents and health policy makers. Aim: To examine the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions intended to reduce coercion in mental health for adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review in 2012 and update in 2013. Studies with control groups were included. Assessment of risk of bias and meta-analyses of randomized controlled studies was undertaken. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) tool for evaluating the overall quality of evidence was used and expressed in four categories: high, moderate, low and very low. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. For the intervention Joint crisis plan, a reduction in the number of patients admitted involuntarily could not be verified by meta-analyses (RR 0.71 (95% CI 0.38–1.33), P=0.28). Quality of evidence was assessed as low by GRADE and the results should be interpreted with caution. Risk assessment of aggressive behaviour in acute psychiatric wards and counselling towards staff in high security wards seemed to reduce seclusion and restraint, but for these interventions meta-analyses was not feasible. Conclusion: Joint crisis plans for reducing coercion is unclear. Risk assessment and counselling towards staff may reduce coercion.
Declaration of interest None
This paper highlights the importance of updating previous systematic literature reviews. Newer studies added on made meta-analyses feasible, modifying earlier conclusions.