International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2312-6515
Print ISSN: 2313-0423
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No. 2

Compliance Behaviour in State-Run Fisheries: Situating Lake Chivero in a Policy Perspective

Pages: 40-59
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Compliance Behaviour in State-Run Fisheries: Situating Lake Chivero in a Policy Perspective

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.74/2015.2.2/74.2.40.59

Tom Tom , Emmanuel Munemo

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Tom Tom , Emmanuel Munemo (2015). Compliance Behaviour in State-Run Fisheries: Situating Lake Chivero in a Policy Perspective. International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 2(2): 40-59. DOI: 10.18488/journal.74/2015.2.2/74.2.40.59
Parks and wildlife facilities are intended to contribute people’s wellbeing socially and economically. This aim puts parks and wildlife management in policy. Appropriate management of parks and wildlife for wider social wellbeing is essential. This paper brings out the issues in compliance behaviour of fishers in Zimbabwe’s state-run lakes. The underlying aim of the study is to create policy options that sustain both the fish resources and the wellbeing of the fishers. Zimbabwe’s Parks and Wild Life Management Authority (ZPWMA) administers all state-run lakes in Zimbabwe in order to prevent their over-exploitation. Despite its strict management regulations, the following rather disturbing developments continue to be observed:
a) An increase in disregard for the regulations among licensed fishers and an influx of unregistered fishers (poachers).
b) A growing incapacity on the part of ZPWMA to contain the worsening non-compliance with management regulations among fishers.
c) An increase in the number of illegal fishers entering the fishery. 
d) An increase in the amount of fish being sold illegally on open markets in Harare and neighbouring towns.
The growing non-compliance with regulations could be a result of many factors. Firstly, the worsening economic problems, the rising unemployment as well as the ever-spiralling prices of beef mean that some people are finding fish to be the next cheaper substitute. Secondly, the rather narrow and state centrist approach to fisheries management little considers the practical concerns of fishers giving them no incentive to comply with the regulations. Thirdly, because of the above, the regulations are low in legitimacy, making them less self-enforcing and costly to enforce. At a policy level, the study attempts to find ways of making the existing fisheries management structures, policies and practices at the fishery command more respect and acceptance among fisheries, whilst creating a conducive environment for the fishers to enhance their wellbeing through fishing. The following main recommendations were made:
a) Greater attention be paid to the legitimacy aspects of the regulatory institutions as well as the regulations;
b) The interests of and concerns of the fishers be more fully incorporated into the management regulations to enhance their acceptance by fishers; and 
c) The job conditions of ZPWMA employees should be improved to curb corruption and to improve how they interact with fishers.

Contribution/ Originality
This article is a result of a unique study on compliance behaviour of fishers at Lake Chivero in Zimbabwe as a policy issue.  The study contributes to the limited empirical knowledge and literature on creating policy options that sustain both the fish resources and the wellbeing of the fishers in state-run fisheries.

The Life-Time of Tomorrow Party of Japan and Its Negative Impacts on the Anti-Nuclear Movements in Japan’s Politics

Pages: 29-39
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The Life-Time of Tomorrow Party of Japan and Its Negative Impacts on the Anti-Nuclear Movements in Japan’s Politics

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.74/2015.2.2/74.2.29.39

Citation: 1

Takashi Sagara

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Takashi Sagara (2015). The Life-Time of Tomorrow Party of Japan and Its Negative Impacts on the Anti-Nuclear Movements in Japan’s Politics. International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 2(2): 29-39. DOI: 10.18488/journal.74/2015.2.2/74.2.29.39
The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in Japan on 11th March 2011 was unimaginably scary for the Japanese people and it was easily expected that Japan was going to abandon nuclear power with anti-nuclear political parties. Contrarily, Japan decided to maintain nuclear power with pro-nuclear political parties. This decision of Japan was influenced by the negative impacts brought by the Tomorrow Party of Japan (TPJ), the largest political party in the history of Japan which was established primarily to abandon nuclear power. The purpose of this paper is to look at the life-time of TPJ from 28th November to 27th December in 2012 and examine the negative impacts by TPJ on the anti-nuclear movements in Japan’s politics. The paper then discovers that the Japanese people came to lose trust in anti-nuclear political parties because they recognized, due to TPJ, that ‘anti-nuclear’ can be abused by politicians for elections, the characteristics of the ‘anti-nuclear’ village are not so different from those of the nuclear power village and the anti-nuclear party is an amateur without leaders. The paper finally concludes that it will take much time and efforts to regain a lost trust in anti-nuclear political parties. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the negative impacts on the anti nuclear movements in Japan’s politics, made by the largest anti-nuclear political party in the history of Japan, the Tomorrow Party of Japan (TPJ), which has prevented Japan from moving towards deneutralization.