Ekpe, A., 2006. Impact of local government on grassroot development: Ikot Abasi local government’s experience. In Akpanim Ekpe (Eds). Management in local government. Uyo: Asbot Graphics.
Ewelu, B., 2004. Altruism and sincerity: Indispensable ingredients for responsible governance in Africa. In Obi Oguejiofor (Eds). Philosophy, democracy and responsible governance in Africa. Enugu: Delta Publications.
Keith, P.-B., 1988. Local governments and democracy: A rejoinder in O.Oye Diran (Eds). Essay on local government administration in Nigerian. Lagos: Project Publications.
Okoro, C., 1994. Squandermania mentality: Reflections on Nigerian culture, educational philosophy for Nigerians. Nsukka: University Trust Publications.
Ross, D., 1984. Aristotle: Nichomechean ethics. Bk IX. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Udoidem, S.I., 2001. Why should a human being be moral. Lagos: African Heritage.
Yar- Adua, S. Musa and A. Ekpe, 2006. Impact of local government on grassroot development: Ikot Abasi local government’s experience. In Akpanim Ekpe (Eds). Management in local government. Uyo: Asbot Graphics.
Francis Etim (2015). Affective Humanism: Towards an Ontology for Accountability in Local Government Administration in Nigeria. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 3(1): 55-62. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73/2015.3.1/220.127.116.11
Among the myriads of problems betting the developmental strive in Nigeria, besides the problem of leadership, is the issue of corruption. The endemic nature of the problem calls for concern because of its moral implications and replying effects. Indeed, no stratum of the society is devoid of its clawing effect to such an extent that it is taken as a la mode. To redress the scenario, many measures have been taken, institutions set up to combat this menace yet to no avail. The failure could be adduced to among other reasons limiting the fight to only empirical dimension with no attention paid to the ontological dimension of the problem. This is the onus of this paper but with particular reference to the Local Government administration because of its strategic nature as a grassroot political institution and its vital role in any developmental effort and discuss in the Nigerian polity.
This study contributes in the existing literature of philosophy and public affairs.
Exploring the Link between Governance and Institutions: Theoretical and Empirical Evidence from Tanzania
African Development Bank, 2008. African development bank report 2007. Tunis: ADB Group.
Alence, R., 2004. Political institutions and developmental governance in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 42(2): 163–187.
Ayeni, V., 2002. Public sector reform in developing countries: A handbook of commonwealth experiences. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
Bello, W. and S. Guttal, 2006. The limits of reform: The Wolfensohn era at the bank. Race and Class, 47(3): 68–81.
Boeninger, E., 1991. Governance and development: Issues and constraints. In the Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1991, Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Calderisi, R., 2006. The trouble with Africa: Why foreign aid isn’t working? New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cheru, F., 2006. Building and supporting PRSPs in Africa: What has worked well so far? what needs changing? Third World Quarterly, 27(2): 355–376.
Craig, D. and D. Porter, 2006. Development beyond neoliberalism?: Governance, poverty reduction and political economy. London and New York: Routledge.
Friedman, T., 2005. The world is flat: A brief history of the 21st century. Macmillan: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
Holtom, D., 2005. Reconsidering the power of the IFIs: Tanzania & the world bank, 1978-1985. Review of African Political Economy, 32(106): 549–567.
Hope, K.R., 2005. Toward good governance and sustainable development: The African peer review mechanism. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institution, 18(2): 283–311.
Hyden, G., 1980. Beyond Ujamaa in Tanzania: Underdevelopment and an uncaptured peasantry. Nairobi: Heinemann.
Kaufmann, D., 1999. Governance matters, (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 2196). Washington, D.C.: World Bank Institute.
Kelsall, T. and M. Mmuya, 2005. Accountability in Tanzania: Historical, political, economic, sociological dimensions–A literature review for drivers of change. Dar es Salaam: Drivers of Change, DFID.
Klugman, J., 1999. Conflict and growth in Africa: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Paris: OECD, 2.
Lamy, S., 2008. Contemporary mainstream approaches: Neo-realism and neo-liberalism. In Baylis, J. et al. (Eds.). The globalization of world politics: An introduction to international relations. 4th Edn., New York: Oxford University Press. pp: 124–139.
Lawrence, P., 2003. Structural adjustment and Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kirkpatrick, C. et al. (Eds.). Handbook on development policy and management. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Lewis, P., 2007. Growing apart: Oil, politics, and economic change in Indonesia and Nigeria (Interests, Identities, and Institutions in Comparative Politics). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Mallya, E., 2000. A critical look at Tanzania’s development vision 2025. In Mukandara, R. Strategic long term planning and policy management, 2. Available from http://www.dpmf.org/published-bulletins.php [Accessed August 28, 2009].
Mhina, A., 2000. Good governance and development in Tanzania: Some ethical issues. Journal of Social Philosophy, 31(4): 429–438.
Miller, K., 2005. Public sector reform: Governance in South Africa. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Moss, T.J., 2007. African development: Making sense of the issues and actors. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
Mugerwa, S., 2003. Reforming Africa’s institutions: Ownership, incentives and capabilities. Tokyo: The United Nations University.
Ndulu, B. and C. Mutalemwa, 2002. Tanzania at the turn of the century: Background papers and statistics. Washington, D.C: World Bank and Dar es Salaam: Government of United Republic of Tanzania.
New Internationalist Magazine, 1999. Julius Nyerere's interview. The heart of Africa. Issue 309, January to February, 1999.
Nyerere, J.K., 1962. Freedom and unit/Uhuru na umoja. London: Oxford University Press.
Nyerere, J.K., 1966. Freedom and unit/Uhuru na umoja. Dar es Salaam: Oxford University Press.
Nyerere, J.K., 1967. Socialism and rural development. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.
Nyerere, J.K., 1968. Freedom and socialism. London: Oxford University Press.
OECD and ADB, 2004. African economic outlook 2003/2004. Tunis: African Development Bank.
Pierre, J., 1999. Models of urban governance: The institutional dimension of urban politics. Urban Affairs Review, 34: 372–396.
Stein, H., 2008. Beyond the world bank agenda: An institutional approach to development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Stiglitz, J.E., 2002. Globalization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Summers, L., 1991. Knowledge for effective action. In the Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1991. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. pp: 7–14.
Thomas, C., 2008. Globalization and development in the South. In Ravenhill, J. Global political economy. 2nd Edn., New York: Oxford University Press.
Tsikata, Y., 2003. Owning economic reforms: A comparative study of Ghana and Tanzania. In Mugerwa, S. (Ed.). Reforming Africa’s institutions: Ownership, incentives and capabilities. Tokyo: The United Nations University.
UNESCAP, 1990. Integrating environmental considerations into economic policy making: Institutional issues, (Development Papers, No. 21(ST/ESCAP/1990)). Available from http://www.unescap.org/drpad/index.htm [Accessed September 8, 2009].
United Republic of Tanzania, 1999. The national framework on good governance. Dar es Salaam: Planning Commission.
United Republic of Tanzania, 2000. The Tanzania development vision 2025. Dar es Salaam: Planning Commission.
United Republic of Tanzania, 2005. National strategy for growth and poverty reduction (NSGRP). Dar es Salaam: Vice President’s Office.
United Republic of Tanzania, 2008. Report of the controller and auditor general on the financial statements of public authorities and other bodies for the financial year ended 30 June 2007. Dar es Salaam: The National Audit Office.
Werlin, H., 1991. Ghana and South Korea: Lessons from world bank case studies. Public Administration and Development, 11(3): 245–255.
Williamson, J., 1990. What Washington means by policy reform. In Williamson, J. (Ed.). Latin American adjustment: How much has happened?. Washington: Institute for International Economics. pp: 5–20.
World Bank, 1984. World development report 1984: Recovery or relapse in the world economy?: Population change and development population data supplement. Washington, D.C: Word Bank.
World Bank, 1989. From crisis to sustainable growth: A long-term perspective study. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank, 1992. Governance and development. Washington, D.C: World Bank.
World Bank, 2000. Can Africa claim the 21st century? Washington, D.C.: Word Bank.
Boniface E.S. Mgonja , Alphonce W. Dossa (2015). Exploring the Link between Governance and Institutions: Theoretical and Empirical Evidence from Tanzania. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 3(1): 37-54. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73/2015.3.1/18.104.22.168
The potential link between governance and institutions is increasingly becoming a central concern in social science. In political science, the approach taken to explore this link involves examining the role structure plays in determining political behaviours, the overall patterns of governance, and the outcomes of political processes. Therefore, the quality of institutions has long been recognized as an important component of a well-functioning system of governance. This paper investigates and reflects on the relationship between institutions and governance in local political settings and analyzes the impacts of institutional factors on good governance. Very specifically, the paper explores different theoretical and empirical debates about governance in general and good governance in particular. Drawing upon “historical institutionalism”, the paper offers a satisfactory analytical framework for studying the ability of the institutions of governance in Tanzania, from their inception through their development over time, to meet the needs of the local community.
This paper has primarily indicated that analyzing local governance in Tanzania and other developing nations brings strongly into focus the nature of the relationship between institutions and the quality of service provision at the local level. This analytical approach not only helps to provide objectives and meaning for good governance, but also offers a path to understanding the fundamental shortcomings of the institutions of governance. The paper concludes by arguing that, the problems of governance in Tanzania and likely in other developing nations of Africa is not a lack of sound development policies, but rather the institutional mechanisms necessary to implement or translate those policies into desirable results.
The Socio-Ecological and Health Implication of Meeting the Challenges of Food Insecurity in the 21st Century in the Agrarian Society of Cross River, Nigeria
Belik, W. and D.G. Mauro, 2003. Brazil’s zero hunger program in the context of social policy. This Paper was Prepared for the 25th International Conference of Agricultural Economists in Durban, South Africa.
Bell, E.M., I. Hertz-Picciotto and J.J. Beaumont, 2001. A case-control study of pesticide and fetal death due to congenital anomalies. Epidemiology, 12(3): 148-156.
Braun, J., 2008. The impact of rising food prices and climate change on the poor. The International Journal for Rural Development. Available from http://www.rural21.com/387.html [Accessed May 2008 on 29Th September 2010].
Chen, S. and R. Martin, 2004. Household welfare impacts of WTO accession in China. World Bank Economic Review, 18(1): 29-58.
Chugh, S., 2010. A study of best practices in the implementation of mid-day meal programme in Maharashtra. National University of Educational Planning and Administration. Available from http://www.educationforallinindia.com/best-practices-mid-day-meal-by-sunita-chugh-maharashtra.pdf [Accessed 26th, September 2010].
Dahlgren, R.B., R.L. Linder and C.W. Carlson, 1972. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Their effects on penned pheasants. Environ. Health Perspective, Exp, (1): 89-101.
Gittens, C., 2001. No easy pickings in farmer's weekly. 18-19. Available from http//pcbfood,effects/bestpractices.edu.pdf [Accessed 18 May].
Heeren, G.A., J. Tyler and A. Mandeya, 2003. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa A case - control study. Environmental Health, 7(1): 39-47. [Accessed 2009, 2:11]. DOI 10.1186/1476-069X-2-11.
Klaas, E.E., 1982. Effects of pesticides on non-target organisms. In: Proceedings of the Midwest Agricultural Interfaces with Fish and Wildlife Resources Workshop, R. B. Dahlgren (compiler), Iowa Coop. Wildl. Research Unit, lowa State University, Ames. pp: 7-9.
Robert, I.P., F.E. Lloyd and B.D. Robert, 1986. Environmental consequences of modern production agriculture: How can alternative agriculture address these issues and concerns. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 3(4): 214-228.
Stern, N., 2009. A blueprint for a safer planet: How to manage climate change and create a new Era of progress and prosperity. London: The Bodley Head.
World Food Program Report, 2007. Food for education improves girls education: The Pakistan girls education program. Available from http://www.disabled-world.com/foodprograms/nutrition/foodsecurity/”>Food [Accessed 3rd September].
World Food Security, 2012. Security Definition and Information. Available from http://www.disabled-world.com/fitness/nutrition/foodsecurity/">Food.
Eneji, C.V.O , Asuquo, I. , Ray, H.H , Eneji, J.E.O. , Ekpo, C. (2015). The Socio-Ecological and Health Implication of Meeting the Challenges of Food Insecurity in the 21st Century in the Agrarian Society of Cross River, Nigeria. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 3(1): 25-36. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73/2015.3.1/22.214.171.124
The struggle to save humankind from hunger and starvation through the improvement of agricultural productivity using agrochemicals has gone a long way to settle an aspect of these challenges, but its social, health and ecological implication has always almost been forgotten. Due to man’s indiscriminate land use/farming activities and the use of agrochemicals without adhering strictly to the user instructions included in the agrochemical package, this has affected man in no small way. This is so because of man’s unregulated agricultural activities coupled with his faulty land use pattern. This has affected both the natural ecosystem and the agricultural farm produce thereby turning round to affect the health of man, his environment and his finances too. This paper therefore investigated the effect of these agrochemicals on health, environment and the social aspects. This research is therefore located within the northern senatorial district of Cross River State, which covers Ogoja, Yala, Bekwarra, Obudu and Obanliku local government areas. A total of 638 respondents including farmers, nurses, medical doctors and other laboratory scientists within the study area were randomly selected for the study using multistage random sampling technique. The instruments for the study include a structured questionnaire, personal interview and client case file, using independent t-test and simple percentage for data analysis, it was found that within the period the rural farmers started using these agrochemicals especially herbicides and those for crop storage, there has been an increase in the incidence of cancer growth, gastro-intestinal disorder and other health and birth complications within the study zone. These effects did not only affect the health of humans, it also affected the ecosystem and the finances of man. The authors are aware that a baseline data was needed to do a comparison between what was and what is in order to make a valid judgment, but unfortunately, not baseline data exist for the study, hence such comparison was not done. The authors therefore concluded that the use of agrochemicals has been done indiscriminately in the five local government areas under study. It was discovered that these chemicals are used without safety kits and are used for other purpose and not the function for which it was manufactured. The paper therefore proffered some recommendations and concluded that the current agrochemical usage in the study area is very faulty and contributes to some health, social and ecological implications.
This study is one of very few studies that have studied the effects of the use of agrochemicals on both the environment and human health in man’s quest to meet the food requirement for his teeming population. Trying to meet the food requirement has compelled man to exploit all avenues including the use of agrochemicals and this has been found to contribute to water pollution at both point and non point locations, this has also infected the crops so produced and in some situation the storage of these agrochemicals have leaked into the environment and all points to have a deleterious effects on all biological species and the environment as a whole.
Bipolar Confrontation in Global Politics: History, Philosophy And Challenges: As Witnessed Above And Beyond September 11th 2001 Attacks On the Us and Typified In the Current Boko Haram Saga in Nigeria
Abiola, A., 2006. Transformation in international relations since 1945. Lagos; A-Triad Associates. “NATO”, BY Knuid Bartel, Available from: www.nato.intl. [Accessed June22nd, 2014].
Daniel, F.J., 1996. Emergence and selective enforcement of international minority rights protection policy in Europe after the cold war. Available from Cisac.stanford.edu/publications/news [Accessed June 20th 2014].
History Doctor (Online), Cold war and the formation of A bipolar world. A free online article by an internet site designated simply as 'History Doctor', and has been made. Available from www.historydoctor.net/advanced%2520 [Accessed 24th 2014].
History Doctor (Online), Cold war and the formation of a bipolar world. Available from hisroerydoctornet/advanced%2520 [Accessed June 24th 2014].
Javis Robert, 2009. Unpolarity; a structural perspective. Journal of World Politics, 1(61): 188-231,190. Available from 101353/wp.0.0031 [Accessed June 24th 2014].
Kroynak, T., 2012. Diffusing conflicts with “I” statements. Available from blogpsychocentral.com/bipolar/2012 [Accessed June 2014].
Leonids, K., 1996. New dimensions in international system after cold war, an online article of an FSI standford foundation for international security and cooperation. Available from cisac.fsi.standford.edu/publications [Accessed June 20th, 2014].
Marcus Tullies Cicero (ADI), Cicero, the wikipedia, free encyclopedia online. Available from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cicero “History Dictionary” (online dictionary.com) [Accessed 21st June 2014].
Moises Saman, 2011. Post Sept 11th attacks on the US” in “The New York times” (Online). Available from www.Newyorktimes.com/ [Accessed June 21st, 2014].
Montairo Numo, 2012. Polarity and power. US hegamony and China’s challenges. Published in International Security, 10(36): 9-40. DOI 101162/ISEC-900064.
Morgenthau, H.J., 1948. The politics of nations. In William H, Wright M. and Evans T. (Eds) (1993). A reader in international relations and political theory. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Obi Emeka, A., 2006. Basic concepts and theories of international relations. Onitsha: Book Point Press.
The Punch (Daily Publication) Newspaper Nigeria Ltd, Boko Haram Insurgency, Febuary 29th, 2012 (Online). Available from www.punchng.com>home>opinion>letters. [Accessed June 23rd, 2014].
Waltz Kennedy, 1964. The stability of bipolar world. Published in The Daedalies (2002); A Journal of Science, Technology and Organizational Researches (JSTOR), Published June 2002; (p.887), 20026863, 3(93): 881-909.
William Dartmorth, 2010. In the wikipedia article, bipolar confrontation and the formation of the cold war. Available from historydoctor.net [Accessed June 24th 2014].
William, H., M. Wright and T. Evans, 1993. Reading in international relations and political theories. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Wohlforth, W., 1999. The stability of unipolar world. Published in International Security, 1(24): 5-41, 23. DOI 101162/016228899560031.
Ugwu, Ude , Moko, Finian (2015). Bipolar Confrontation in Global Politics: History, Philosophy And Challenges: As Witnessed Above And Beyond September 11th 2001 Attacks On the Us and Typified In the Current Boko Haram Saga in Nigeria. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 3(1): 10-24. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73/2015.3.1/126.96.36.199
The current study is a contribution to existing literatures in search of international peace and global stability. The study adopts a new estimation methodology adopted every non-empirical, philosophical and theoretical researches. The study originates a new formula showing a deepening concern over US’ over-activated denial of genuine sovereignty to nations of the Arab Spring in our Post-September 11, 2011 Global Response to Sept. 11th 2011 Attacks on the US by Osama-Led Al-Qaida Groups. The study is therefore one of the few studies which have investigated into the rights of ‘underdog nations’, such as Iraq and Nigeria, under the current bipolar confrontation between the US and a seeming Arab Hegemony. The paper is a contribution to the first logical analysis of the history, the philosophy, and the challenges of the realists power-drunk approach to international politics around which the present bipolar politics between the US and an emerging Arab Hegemony seems to have been built. The main finding of the paper is its discovery that the power-based realists philosophy of bipolarity is to be rejected if the international community must move beyond the Sept. 11, 2011 event. The research documents and sources are materials which include books, internet articles, paper publications and input from journals.
The study contributes to research by raising a new question, not about the merits or demerits ofbipolar politics as in existing literature, but a new question about the philosophy behind the politics, namely, realists emphasis on domination, highlighted in the philosophy, history, and challenges of bipolar politics
Andaya, B.W., 1979. Perak, the abode of grace. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Andaya, B.W., 1998. Early muslim traders. In. Nik Hassan Shuhaimi (Ed.). Early history. London: Archipelago Press. pp: 84-85.
Andaya, L.Y., 2002. Orang asli and the melayu in the history of the Malay Peninsula. Journal of Malayan Bureau of Royal Asiatic Society, 75(1): 23-48.
Banks, D.J., 1976. Islam and inheritance in Malaya: Culture conflict or islamic revolution? American Ethnologist, 3(4): 573-586.
Brown, C.C., 1952. Malay annals. Journal of Malaysian Bureau of Royal Asiatic Society, 25(2): 2-3.
Crouch, H., 1993. Malaysia: Neither authoritarian nor democratic. In. Hewison, K., Robison, R., & Rodan, G. (Eds.). Southeast Asia in the 1990s: Authoritarianism, democracy and capitalism. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
De Casparis, J.G., 1956. Prasasti Indonesia: Selected inscriptions from the 7th to the 9th centuries A.D. Bandung: Masa Baru.
Economic Planning Unit, 2013. New economic policy. Available from http://www.epu.gov.my/en/dasar-ekonomi-baru;jsessionid=A111358B690727026409DFF18B3DDB5C?p_p_id=56_INSTANCE_Ia0Q&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_state=normal&p_p_mode=view&p_p_col_id=column-4&p_p_col_count=1&page=2 [Accessed September 29, 2013].
Farish, N.M., 2010. Being muslims and more besides. The Other Malaysia. Available from http://www.othermalaysia.org/2010/04/21/being-muslims-and-more-besides-muslim-identities-as-complex-and-cosmopolitan/ [Accessed 8 May, 2013].
Gomez, E.T., 2013. The new economic policy in Malaysia: Affirmative action, ethic inequalities and social justice. Singapore: The National University of Singapore Press.
Gomez, E.T. and K.S. Jomo, 1999. Malaysia’s political economy: Politics, patronage, and profits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hooker, V.M., 2003. A short history of Malaysia: Linking East and West. Crows Nest: Allen and Unwin.
Idrus, R., 2013. Left behind: The orang asli under the new economic policy. In. Gomez, T. E. and Saravanamuttu, J. (Eds.). The new economic policy in Malaysia: Affirmative action, ethnic inequalities and social justice. Singapore: The National University of Singapore.
Karim, W.J., 1992. Women and culture: Between Malay adat and islam. Boulder: Westview Press.
Khoo, G.C., 2007. Reclaiming adat: Contemporary Malaysian film and literature. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Kulke, H., 1993a. Kings and cults: State formation and legitimation in India and Southeast Asia. New Delhi: Manohar.
Kulke, H., 1993b. Kedatuan Srivijaya: Empire or Kraton of Srivijaya? A reassessment of the epigraphical evidence. Bulletin de l’Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient, 80(1): 159-180.
Mahathir, M., 1970. The Malay dilemma. Singapore: Times Book International.
Mat Saad, B., 1993. Malay behavior. In. Abdul Halim Othman (Ed.). Psikologi Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka. pp: 344-386.
Maznah, M., 2011. Malaysia: Contending imaginations of Malayness. In. Maznah, M. & Aljunied, S. M. K. (Eds.). Melayu: The politics, poetics and paradoxes of Malayness. Singapore: National University Press. pp: 34-67.
Maznah, M., 2013. The new economic policy and poverty at the margins: Family dislocation, dispossession and dystopia in Kelantan. In. Gomez, E. T., & Saravanamuttu, J. (Eds.). The new economic policy in Malaysia: Affirmative action, ethnic inequalities and social justice. Singapore: The National Singapore University Press.
Milner, A., 2008. The malays. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
Mohamad Aris, O., 1977. Ethnic identity in a Malay community in Malaysia. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. University of Michigan.
Mutalib, H., 1993. Islam in Malaysia: From revivalism to islamic state? Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Nagata, J.A., 1974. What is a Malay? Situational selection of ethnic identity in a plural society. American Ethnologist, 1(2): 331-350.
Peletz, M.G., 1997. Ordinary muslims and muslim resurgents in contemporary Malaysia. In. Hefner, R. W. and Horvatich, P. (Eds.). Islam in an ear of Nation-States. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Provencher, R., 1972. Comparison of social interaction styles: Urban and rural Malay culture. The society for applied anthropology monograph series: Washington: Society for Applied Anthropology, (11).
Raihanah, M.M., 2008. Constructs of identity in multiculturalism: Personhood, ethnicity, and nationhood in Malaysian literature. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Malaya.
Raihanah, M.M., 2009. Malaysia and the author: Face-to-face with the challenges of multiculturalism. International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies, 5(2): 43-63.
Reid, A., 1997. The last stand of Asian autonomies: Responses to modernity in the diverse states of Southeast Asia and Korea. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Shamsul, A.B., 2004. History of identity, an identity of a history: The idea and practice of Malayness in Malaysia reconsidered. In. Barnard, T. (Ed.). Contesting Malayness: Malay identity across boundaries. Singapore: Singapore University Press. pp: 135-148.
Taib, A., 1974. Modernization in a Malay society peasant society. Akademika, 3(1): 15-24.
Taylor, C., 1992. Multiculturalism and the politics of recognition: An essay with commentary. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Tham, S.C., 1977. Malays and modernization. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Thimm, V., 2013. Gender and the body in transnational space. Female Educational Migrants from Malaysia in Singapore. Available from http://www.inter-disciplinary.net/probing-the-boundaries/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/vthimm_wpaper.pdf [Accessed 12 October, 2013].
Ungku Maimunah, U.T., 1987. Modern Malay literary culture: A historical perspective. Singapore: Institute of East Asian Studies.
Wilder, W.D., 1982. Communication, social structure and development in rural Malaysia: A study of Kampung Kuala Bera. London: Athlone Press.
Winstedt, R.O., 1928. Straits settlements annual report of the education department for the year 1927. Singapore: Government Printing Office.
Zainal, K., 1989/1990. The socio-cultural unity of the Malay world. In. Abdul Latiff (Ed.). Melayu Sri Lanka: Simposium dunia Melayu kedua. Kuala Lumpur: Gapena.
Zainal Kling, 1995. Malay family: Beliefs and reality. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 26(1): 43-66.
Zawawi, I., 2013. The new economic policy and the identity question of the indigenous peoples of Sabah and Sarawak. In. Gomez, E. T. and Saravanamuttu, J. (Eds.). The new economic policy in Malaysia: Affirmative action, ethnic inequalities and social justice. Singapore: The National University of Singapore Press.
Mohd Muzhafar Idrus , Ruzy Suliza Hashim , Raihanah, M. M. (2015). Malay Cultural Identities: A Review. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 3(1): 1-9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73/2015.3.1/188.8.131.52
This paper traverses readings on Malay cultural identities. While previous research on Malay cultural identities has presented a broad overview, this paper attempts to frame this discussion based on elite constructions and socio-cultural worldviews of the Malay world. It proposes to be a start to exploring what is distinctive and worthwhile about Malay cultural identities.
This article revisits readings that renew and strengthen Malay cultural identities by making connections of the past and present, in the midst of globalization, pressing economical changes, and changing cultural realities.