International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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No. 4

Exogenous Application of Antioxidants on Leaf Chlorophyll, Yield Dynamics and Berry Quality of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

Pages: 316-324
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Exogenous Application of Antioxidants on Leaf Chlorophyll, Yield Dynamics and Berry Quality of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.316.324

Md. Saidur Rahman , Mahmoda Akter , Md. Shah Newaz Chowdhury , Md. Mofizur Rahman , Mostarak Hossain Munshi

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Md. Saidur Rahman , Mahmoda Akter , Md. Shah Newaz Chowdhury , Md. Mofizur Rahman , Mostarak Hossain Munshi (2020). Exogenous Application of Antioxidants on Leaf Chlorophyll, Yield Dynamics and Berry Quality of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(4): 316-324. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.316.324
An experiment was carried out to investigate the influences of seven levels of antioxidants on BARI Mistimorich-1 and BARI Mistimorich-2 varieties of sweet pepper at the Central Research Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Antioxidants were applied to sweet pepper varieties which had a significant effect on physiology, yield and quality of sweet pepper. Among those treatments, ascorbic acid (AA) at 200 ppm with salicylic acid (SA) at 200 ppm was more potential to enhance chlorophyll a (30%), chlorophyll b (39.39%), total chlorophyll (33.73%), number of flower plant-1 (17.63%), number of fruits plants-1 (56.73%), fruit yield plant-1 (43.61%), total soluble sugar (28.67%) and vitamin C (22.75%) compare to control. The variety of BARI Mistimorich-2 produces 4.55% higher fruit yield than BARI Mistimorich-1. Among those antioxidants, AA at 200 ppm with SA at 200 ppm demonstrate the best potentiality to solved flower and fruit dropping problems and ultimately lead to higher production of sweet pepper.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the sweet pepper responses to antioxidants in robi season and their role in mitigating the possible constrain during the production.

Insect Activities and their Impact on the Yield of Abelmoschus esculentus L ( Malvaceae) in Bambili ( Mezam - Cameroon)

Pages: 304-315
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Insect Activities and their Impact on the Yield of Abelmoschus esculentus L ( Malvaceae) in Bambili ( Mezam - Cameroon)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.304.315

Otiobo Atibita Esther Nadine , Lukong Anmarie Wirmai , Fotso . , Tita Margaret Awah , Theresia Nkuo-Akenji

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Otiobo Atibita Esther Nadine , Lukong Anmarie Wirmai , Fotso . , Tita Margaret Awah , Theresia Nkuo-Akenji (2020). Insect Activities and their Impact on the Yield of Abelmoschus esculentus L ( Malvaceae) in Bambili ( Mezam - Cameroon). International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(4): 304-315. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.304.315
Experiments were made to evaluate the impact of the flowering insect activity on Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) pod and seed yields. Their foraging and pollination activities were examined in Bambili from September 2019 to February 2020. Treatments included open ?oral access to all visitors (treatment 1) and bagging of ?owers to avoid all visits (treatment 2). Observations were made on 30 ?owers per treatment. The Insect foraging behavior, their rhythm of activity, the fruiting rate and the mean number of seeds per pod were recorded. The results show that three insect species visited A. esculentus flowers. Lipotriches collaris was the most common species with 76.40 %, followed by Apis mellifera (19.10%) and Musca domestica (4.49%). Insects foraged throughout the day light period. Their activity was highest between 9 am and 12 pm Insect species foraged the flowers for pollen and nectar. Comparing the yields of the two treatments, it appeared that insect visits increase the number of fruits per plant, the average number of seeds per fruit and the percentage of normal seeds by 42.27%, 17.39% and 22.88%. The maintenance of insect nest close to A. esculentus field is recommended to improve the seed production of okra.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that the insect associated with A. esculentus flowers can be exploited in Cameroon agricultural program to increase the agricultural outputs especially in bambili area.

Exploring the Climate Change Impact on Major Food Crops of Bangladesh - A Time Series Analysis

Pages: 287-303
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Exploring the Climate Change Impact on Major Food Crops of Bangladesh - A Time Series Analysis

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.287.303

Md. Mursalin Hossain Rabbi , Nazia Tabassum

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Md. Mursalin Hossain Rabbi , Nazia Tabassum (2020). Exploring the Climate Change Impact on Major Food Crops of Bangladesh - A Time Series Analysis. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(4): 287-303. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.287.303
This paper tries to explore the dynamic relationship between the yield of major crops in Bangladesh (aus, amas, boro, wheat and potato) and climate change (average rainfall, average maximum temperature and average minimum temperature). Graphical visualization shows that, there is increasing trend in average annual minimum temperature and average annual minimum rainfall, while there is decreasing trend of average annual maximum temperature. We applied autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) cointegration method in order to study the dynamic relationship. The paper finds long run dynamic link between yield of aus rice and average rainfall and average minimum temperature. We have found short run dynamic relationship for yield of aman rice, boro rice and potato. However, we do not find any dynamic relationship has been found for yield of wheat with the variables of climate change. After estimation the dynamic relationship, we ensure there is no serial correlation among residuals using Breusch-Godfrey test and models are normally distributed using histogram and Jarque-Bera test. Finally, we ensure the stability of the models applying CUSUM test.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literatures of climate change and its impact on yield of major food crops in Bangladesh with more recent and extended dataset and more logical statistical analysis based on global literatures. This is our original work.

The Effect of Land-Use on Herbaceous Production and Grazing Capacity in the Molopo District of the North West Province, South Africa

Pages: 275-286
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The Effect of Land-Use on Herbaceous Production and Grazing Capacity in the Molopo District of the North West Province, South Africa

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.275.286

Franci Jordaan , Jaco Van Rooyen

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Franci Jordaan , Jaco Van Rooyen (2020). The Effect of Land-Use on Herbaceous Production and Grazing Capacity in the Molopo District of the North West Province, South Africa. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(4): 275-286. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.275.286
There are three main types of rangeland management systems in South Africa, namely commercial livestock farming, communal livestock farming and game farming. In commercial farming you normally find one manager/owner with a specific management plan, whilst communal farming is characterized by numerous land users with no specific management plan. The communal areas are also normally overstocked and this overstocking leads to rangeland degradation. In this study the effect of two land-uses (commercial and communal) on herbaceous production and grazing capacity were studied. It was clear from the results that the herbaceous production of the communal rangelands was lower than that of the commercial rangelands. The grazing capacity figures showed that sustainable farming practices were also not possible if the communal rangeland is in a poor condition – this was not even possible in good rainfall years.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated herbaceous production and grazing capacity in the Molopo district of the North West Province of South Africa. The paper's primary contribution is finding that broad extrapolations between commercial and communal farming is scientifically incorrect.

Contributing Factors of Boro-Rice Production in Hakaluki Haor of Bangladesh

Pages: 267-274
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Contributing Factors of Boro-Rice Production in Hakaluki Haor of Bangladesh

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.267.274

Masud Alam , Bishwajit Sarker , Islam Uddin , Ashfaq Ahmed

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Masud Alam , Bishwajit Sarker , Islam Uddin , Ashfaq Ahmed (2020). Contributing Factors of Boro-Rice Production in Hakaluki Haor of Bangladesh. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(4): 267-274. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.267.274
Bangladesh is a riverside country and Hakaluki haor is one of the major wetlands. This research aims to identify the key factors affecting Boro-rice production and also to discover the optimum farming system. Information was collected from 150 respondents through a structured questionnaire and also focus group discussion. Descriptive analysis and factor analysis was applied to identify the key factors of Boro-rice production. Among the problems of Boro-rice production, more than two-thirds of the farmer tackled irrigation-related problems whereas insect and disease problems affect all farmland. The price of inorganic fertilizer is high but two-third of them applies inorganic fertilizer. The rate of applying high yield variety (HYV) was found very low. A remarkable portion of the farmer practices mass media so information should be strengthening for increasing production. The rate of adoption method of modern technology (i.e., crop rotation and practice intercropping) is very poor. The agricultural extension service was not sufficient. More than half of the farmers sell their production in the crisis period. Flash flood was the major natural disaster and most of the farmers claimed that heavy rain and an unexpected misplaced dam was the prime reason for flashflood. In factor analysis, seed plant cost, plow cost, irrigation cost, as well as family size and cultivable lands (last year), were found as significant factors for Boro-rice production. So, the government may give more support to the farmers so that they increase cultivable land as well as sustain their livelihood.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated to identify the key factors affecting Boro-rice production in Hakaluki haor and also discover the optimum farming system.

Breeding for Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky) Resistance in Maize (Zea mays L)

Pages: 255-266
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Breeding for Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky) Resistance in Maize (Zea mays L)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.255.266

Stephen Taulu , Davis M. Lungu , Philemon H. Sohati

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Stephen Taulu , Davis M. Lungu , Philemon H. Sohati (2020). Breeding for Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky) Resistance in Maize (Zea mays L). International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(4): 255-266. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.255.266
A study was conducted with an overall objective of establishing the determinants of weevil resistance in maize. Field experiments were done at GART using a North Carolina Design II with three replications and also at Nanga research in Mazabuka. Laboratory experiments were conducted at Zambia Agriculture Research Institute (ZARI) Entomology laboratory and University of Zambia, Food Science Department where insect bioassay and the biochemical tests were done respectively. In the insect bioassay grain hardness, grain weight loss, median development period, F1 progeny emergence and the Dobie index of susceptibility indices were measured. Protein and the Phenolic content were determined under the biochemical tests among genotypes. They were highly significant differences in all the twenty seven genotypes evaluated. Results showed that Parental survival accounted for 78.5 % of the total variation, Phenolic content was strongly and positively correlated (r = 0.423***) with grain hardness providing a good measure of resistance accounting for the 10.9 % of the total variation. The study showed the possibility of breeding maize genotypes with an increased resistance and also susceptible lines had a decreasing Phenolic content but increasing Phenolic content resulted in increased resistance. It was therefore concluded that Phenolic content and parental survival can be used as an indirect selection criteria for weevil resistance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the development of the Host-plant resistance as a pest control method is environmentally safe, economically cheaper method to farmers and most compatible with other components in the Integrated Pest Management initiatives.

A Survey of Farmers Knowledge and Practice on the Management of Watermelon Diseases in Horticultural Belt of Mt. Kenya Slopes

Pages: 244-254
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A Survey of Farmers Knowledge and Practice on the Management of Watermelon Diseases in Horticultural Belt of Mt. Kenya Slopes

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.244.254

Salome W. Kiarie , Susan S. Imbahale , Sheila Okoth , Mary Gikungu

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Salome W. Kiarie , Susan S. Imbahale , Sheila Okoth , Mary Gikungu (2020). A Survey of Farmers Knowledge and Practice on the Management of Watermelon Diseases in Horticultural Belt of Mt. Kenya Slopes. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(4): 244-254. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.244.254
Horticulture is the largest sub-sector of agriculture, in Kenya, contributing 33% of the Agricultural GDP. Watermelon is the sixth among eight listed fruits which are economically important horticultural produce in Kenya. The fruit is grown mostly in dry areas of Kenya, however due to high demand, large acreage of land on the slopes of Mt. Kenya are now being cultivated with this crop. A study was carried out in July 2018 to examine watermelon farmers’ knowledge and practice in the management of watermelon diseases on the slopes of Mt. Kenya. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 80 watermelon farmer’s selected using Snowball technique from Karurumo, Gachoka, Kiritiri and Ishiara locations. The survey revealed that majority of farmers grew watermelon on 1-2 acres. Watermelon diseases were reported to attack the plant at all stages of growth. Among the diseases, blight was reported by most respondents at 63.8%, followed by fusarium wilt (41.3%) and powdery mildew (38.8%). Farmers experience of various diseases was not significantly different in the four locations except for Fusarium wilt (p=0.046) and powdery mildew (p=0.020). Cold weather was reported by 60% of respondents as most conducive condition for disease occurrence, followed by rainy conditions (17.5%). Most farmers in all the locations applied pesticides (97.6%) as the major method of disease control, with a few (27.5%) practicing crop rotation. This was attributed to agronomic support by extension workers in the area. The slopes of Mt. Kenya, have potential of increased production only if farmers receive support in disease management.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated and documented the challenges faced by watermelon farmers in managing watermelon diseases, if support is provided in disease and pest management, production will increase and farmer livelihood improved in Mt. Kenya region.

Production and Value Chain Analysis of Lentil in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh

Pages: 234-243
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Production and Value Chain Analysis of Lentil in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.234.243

Pradip Hajong , Md. Hafijur Rahman , Md. Shahriar Kobir , Suchana Paul

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Azad, A. K., Miaruddin, M., Ohab, M. A., Sheikh, M. H. R., Nag, B. L., & Rahman, M. H. H. (2020). Agricultural technology hatboy (9th ed.). Gazipur-1801, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute.

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Pradip Hajong , Md. Hafijur Rahman , Md. Shahriar Kobir , Suchana Paul (2020). Production and Value Chain Analysis of Lentil in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(4): 234-243. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.234.243
The study assessed the value chain analysis of lentil in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Data were collected from 96 randomly selected lentil farmer, local trader, arathder, retailer and dal miller from Jashore, Jhenaidah and Kushtia district. The results indicated that most of the farmer of the study areas were cultivated BARI masur-8, BARI masur-7 and BARI masur-6 which were popular and prominent variety release from BARI. On an average, total production cost of lentil was Tk. 66373.83/ha, whereas variable cost was Tk. 35404.16/ha and fixed cost was Tk. 30969.68/ha. Average yield of lentil was 1.632 ton/ha in the study areas. Gross return was Tk. 115863.29/ha and net return was Tk. 49489.46/ha. Benefit cost ratio was 1.75 that means the lentil cultivation was profitable. Milling of 1 MT lentil at dal mill then it get 725 kg pulse (lentil) and 200 kg was husk (bran). Marketing cost of faria, bepari, wholesaler and retailer was Tk. 855/mt, Tk. 750/mt, Tk.5295/mt and Tk. 1580/mt respectfully. Retailer net margin was highest (Tk. 4945/mt) but they sold daily average 9.28 kg lentil only. Retailer was the highest value added Tk.6525/mt (44.85%) followed by wholesaler Tk.5525/mt (37.97%), faria (10.31%) and bepari Tk. 1000/mt (6.87%) respectfully. Total value added at different actors was Tk. 14550/mt. Bad weather and disease infestation were the major problems in the lentil cultivation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the value chain, value addition and intermediaries involved in lentil value chain system of Bangladesh. This study also document about which variety of lentil was cultivated and profitability of lentil cultivation in Bangladesh.

Broiler and Indigenous Chickens: A Comparison through Biochemical Parameters

Pages: 228-233
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Broiler and Indigenous Chickens: A Comparison through Biochemical Parameters

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.228.233

Masud Alam , Mohammad Ohid Ullah , Syeda Umme Fahmida Malik , Mohammad Shahidul Islam

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Masud Alam , Mohammad Ohid Ullah , Syeda Umme Fahmida Malik , Mohammad Shahidul Islam (2020). Broiler and Indigenous Chickens: A Comparison through Biochemical Parameters. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(4): 228-233. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.228.233
In recent years, broiler farming has expanded much rapidly than that of indigenous chickens all over the world to meet the demand of animal protein. Serum biochemical parameters of chickens provide valuable information for the evaluation of their health status which might ultimately affect the consumers. In this study, we have compared these parameters for indigenous and broiler chickens. MANOVA, ANOVA and t-test were performed to compare the clustered and individual blood parameters according to two species of chickens. This experiment revealed that the serum lipid profile and liver functioning parameters are significantly different for the two species of chickens. The average level of these parameters was found significantly lower for indigenous chickens as compared to those of broiler chickens. This might have been brought about by the food habit of two species. Moreover, only AST was found greater for indigenous chicken. It might be suggested that indigenous (local) chicken is more suitable to the consumers due to a comparatively healthier levels of biochemical parameters.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is the finding that average levels of all biochemical parameters except AST are significantly lower for indigenous chicken as compared to broiler chicken. This can be considered as a guideline to the consumers in deciding which species of chickens are to be consumed. We confirm that this work is original and no part of the work has been published before.

Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium on Growth and Nutrient Content of Arachis hypogaea

Pages: 211-227
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Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium on Growth and Nutrient Content of Arachis hypogaea

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.211.227

Surinder Kaur , Priyanka Singla , Shruti . , Muskaan .

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Surinder Kaur , Priyanka Singla , Shruti . , Muskaan . (2020). Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium on Growth and Nutrient Content of Arachis hypogaea. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(4): 211-227. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.211.227
The present study was intended to investigate individual and interactive effects of Funneliformis mosseae (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) and Rhizobium (a root nodulating bacterium) on growth and yield of groundnut growing under natural conditions. Plants growing in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and/or Rhizobium inoculated soil exhibited superior growth, fitness and yield. Improvement in plant growth due to microbial inoculations had a significant correlation with their response to mycorrhization, relative water content, chlorophyll content, nutrient uptake, and antioxidant activity. The increase in all parameters except N acquisition and protein concentration was significantly higher on the formation of AM than rhizobial inoculation, albeit their combination displayed synergism to uplift metabolism and yield of host legume. Thus, the study indicated that synergistic behavior among microorganisms (AM and Rhizobium) had the most affirmative effects on the growth and harvest index of groundnut variety - TG37A and helped plants to thrive better in soils without chemical fertilizers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature of tolerance aptitude of groundnut variety - TG37A against existing adverse environment. This study also documents the importance of AM and Rhizobium in improving the growth and metabolism of this variety.