International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2312-6477
Print ISSN: 2313-0393
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

No. 4

Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon

Pages: 213-223
Find References

Finding References


Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.213.223

Lawrence Tatanah Nanganoa , Jetro Nkengafac Njukeng , Christopher Ngosong , Sone Kone Edigar Atache , Godwin Sendze Yinda , Jeremiah Ndande Ebonlo , Juliana Namein Ngong , Francis Ajebesone Ngome

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS


No any video found for this article.
Lawrence Tatanah Nanganoa , Jetro Nkengafac Njukeng , Christopher Ngosong , Sone Kone Edigar Atache , Godwin Sendze Yinda , Jeremiah Ndande Ebonlo , Juliana Namein Ngong , Francis Ajebesone Ngome (2019). Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(4): 213-223. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.213.223
Soil fertility management of smallholder farms in the humid tropics is a major issue as a result of inherently low fertility with nitrogen being the most limiting plant nutrient. Use of grain legume fallows could improve soil quality through nitrogen fixation and ensure food and nutritional security in developing countries. This field trial was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) to evaluate the short-term benefits of grain legume fallows (common bean, groundnut, cowpea, and soybean) on soil fertility improvement and income generation in relation to a natural weed fallow system. The results showed that total soil nitrogen content ranged from 0.19–0.24%, and differed (P < 0.001) significantly with the highest in common bean plots as compared to the others. The soil organic carbon (SOC) content was highest in cowpea plots (3.36 %) and lowest in the natural weed fallow (2.77 %). However, the SOC were not significantly different among the fallow systems but were higher than the SOC of the soil before sowing (2.41 %). Grain yield ranged from 1.0–1.9 t/ha and differed (P < 0.001) significantly. The highest profitability of integrating grain legumes in farming systems was recorded in the groundnut fallow, followed by soybean, and bean. Cowpea generated a negative return, while the natural fallow system had no effect. Integrating grain legumes fallow into agricultural systems in the humid tropics enhance the value of the fallow lands and may serve as viable short-term economic incentives for smallholder farmers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature that reports the benefits of grain legumes on soil fertility improvement and also showed that the integration of grain legume fallows into agricultural systems in the humid tropics generate income for smallholder farmers and could serve as motivation for their adoption.

Socioeconomic Impact of Bagging Technology for Value Addition in Mango in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

Pages: 203-212
Find References

Finding References


Socioeconomic Impact of Bagging Technology for Value Addition in Mango in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.203.212

M. Jamal Uddin , Md. Sami Ur Rashid

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS


No any video found for this article.
M. Jamal Uddin , Md. Sami Ur Rashid (2019). Socioeconomic Impact of Bagging Technology for Value Addition in Mango in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(4): 203-212. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.203.212
The study was conducted in eight selected villages in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh aiming to perceive the socio-economic impact of bagging technology on farmer’s income and livelihood and to know the factors affecting adaption of pre-harvest mango bagging technology. Findings of the study revealed that a few varieties in particular BARI Mango 4, BARI Mango 8, BARI Mango 3, Mallika and Arshina were reported to be the most preferred varieties for bagging because of less pest attacks, attractive color and higher market prices. The average market price received from bagged mango was 74% higher than non-bagged mango. The difference of average gross margin of bagged and non-bagged mango was recorded Tk.22790 per ton which implies that bagged mango was more profitable than non-bagged mango. According to the survey report on an average 15.7% of the annual gross income was increased due to adoption of bagging technology whereas this technology contributed 25.13% increment in income from mango selling. About 96% of the respondents admitted that they were able to control fruit flies and 92% of them confirmed that they were able to produce safe and toxicity free fruits utilizing pre-harvest bagging technology. The price of bagged mangos, training, research contacts, extension contacts, risk taking behavior and willingness of farmers influenced the adoption process significantly. This technology should be disseminated for the welfare of the hilly areas with maintaining proper time and methods.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the socioeconomic impact of pre-harvest bagging technology on livelihoods of CHT mango growers of Bangladesh through value addition and the factors influencing the rate of adoption of bagging. As a new concept in the CHT, this study is original.

Response of Intraspecific Crosses in F1 and their Deterioration in F2 Generation of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Pages: 198-202
Find References

Finding References


Response of Intraspecific Crosses in F1 and their Deterioration in F2 Generation of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.198.202

Soomro Z.A. , M. Khalid , T.F. Abro , G.S. Mangrio , S.A. Channa , U.A. Kasi , P.A. Shar , M.D. Hassni , R.A. Shah

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS


No any video found for this article.
Soomro Z.A. , M. Khalid , T.F. Abro , G.S. Mangrio , S.A. Channa , U.A. Kasi , P.A. Shar , M.D. Hassni , R.A. Shah (2019). Response of Intraspecific Crosses in F1 and their Deterioration in F2 Generation of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(4): 198-202. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.198.202
The experimental trail was conducted at Wheat and barley Research Institute, Tandojam. The seed of nine parents along with their six F1 and F2 generations were sown in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The varieties used in the experiment were Sassui, Abadgar, Maxipak, Soghat, Marvi, Noori, Moomal, Anmol-91 and Mehran. The mean squares regarding the grains spike-1, grain yield plant-1, and seed index exhibited that parents, crosses, F1 and F2 hybrids were highly significant at 0.01 level of probability. Among the parents, Mehran gave highest value for grain yield plant-1, while F1 hybrid Moomal × Anmol-91 displayed maximum grain yield plant-1. The results for grain yield plant-1, displayed that highest heterosis (87.22%) and heterobeltiosis (86.80%) was exhibited by the cross Maxipak × Soghat. The maximum inbreeding depression (16.23%) for the said trait was shown by the cross Sassui × Abadgar. The cross Maxipak × Soghat could be selected for further evaluation in advanced segregating generations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature regarding the plant breeding especially in the field of hybrid vigour in bread wheat. The material selected observed for performance in F1 and its percentage of deterioration in F2 generation.

Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia

Pages: 183-197
Find References

Finding References


Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.183.197

Tulu Kusse , Tesfaye Balemi , Tolera Abera

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Awodun, M., 2007. Effect of poultry manure on the growth, yield and nutrient content of fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis Hook F). Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(2): 67-73.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3923/ajar.2007.67.73.

Ayeni, L.S. and M.T. Adetunji, 2010. Integrated application of poultry manure and mineral fertilizer on soil chemical properties, nutrient uptake, yield and growth components of maize. Nature and Science, 8(1): 60-76.

Ayoola, O. and E. Makinde, 2009. Maize growth, yield and soil nutrient changes with n-enriched organic fertilizers. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 9(1): 580-592.Available at: https://doi.org/10.4314/ajfand.v9i1.19214.

Belay, Y., 2015. Integrated soil fertility management for better crop production in Ethiopia. International Journal of Soil Science, 10(1): 1-16.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijss.2015.1.16.

Biru, A., 1979. Agricultural field experiment management manual part iii. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Institute of Agricultural Research.

Boateng, S., J. Zickermann and M. Kornahrens, 2006. Poultry manure effect on growth and yield of maize. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 9(1): 61-71.

Central Statistical Agency (CSA), 2017. Agricultural sample survey report on area and production for major crops (private peasant holdings meher season) for 2016/17. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Statistical Bulletin. No. 584. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Crawford, T.W., V.V. Rendig and F.E. Broadbent, 1982. Sources, fluxes, and sinks of nitrogen during early reproductive growth of maize (zea mays l.). Plant Physiology, 70(6): 1654-1660.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.70.6.1654.

CSA, 2017. Agricultural sample survey report on area and production for major crops (private peasant holdings meher season) for 2016/17. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Statistical Bulletin. No. 584. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Dikinya, O. and N. Mufwanzala, 2010. Chicken manure-enhanced soil fertility and productivity: Effects of application rates. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 1(3): 46-54.

Donand, C.M., 1962. In search of yield. Journal of Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 28: 171-178.

Enujeke, E., 2013. Response of watermelon to five different rates of poultry manure in asaba area of delta state, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 5(2): 45-50.Available at: https://doi.org/10.9790/2380-0524550.

Enujeke, E., 2013. Effects of poultry manure on growth and yield of improved maize in Asaba area of delta state, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 4: 24-30.Available at: https://doi.org/10.9790/2380-0452430.

Farhad, W., M. Saleem, M. Cheema and H. Hammad, 2009. Effect of poultry manure levels on the productivity of spring maize (zea mays l.). Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 19(3): 122-125.

Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT), 2016. Online database. Available from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data [Accessed Dec., 2018].

Gudeta, N., S. Twumasi-Afriyie, A.K. Demisew, A. Bayisa, N. Demoz, Y. Kassa, Z. Habtamu, T. Leta, J. Habte, F. Wondim, A. Solomon, A. Abiy, A. Jemal, K. Abrha, G. Hintsa and T. Habtamu, 2011. Development of improved maize germplasm for Highland agro-ecologies of ethiopia in: Mosisa et al (Eds), Meeting the Challenges of Global Climate Change and Food Security through Innovative Maize Research. Proceedings of the Third National Maize Workshop of Ethiopia, April 18–20, 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Hashim, M., S. Dhar, A. Vyas, V. Ramesh and B. Kumar, 2015. Integrated nutrient management in maize (Zea mays L)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 60(3): 352-359.

Hay, R., 1995. Harvest index: A review of its use in plant breeding and crop physiology. Annals of Applied Biology, 126(1): 197-216.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1995.tb05015.x.

Jackson, M., 1958. Soil chemical analysis; prentice hall inc. New Jersey: Engle Wood Cliffs.

Khaliq, T., T. Mahmood and A. Masood, 2004. Effectiveness of farmyard manure, poultry manure and nitrogen for corn (zea mays l.) productivity. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 6(2): 260-263.

Khan, H., M. Malik and M. Saleem, 2008. Effect of rate and source of organic material on the production potential of spring maize (zea mays l.). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 45(1): 40-43.

Landon, J.R., 1991. Booker tropical soil manual: A handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics. New York: Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex. pp: 474.

Makinde, E., 2007. Effects of an organo-mineral fertilizer application on the growth and yield of maize. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3(10): 1152-1155.

Murphy, H.F., 1968. A report on the fertility status and other data on some soils of Ethiopia. College of agriculture Haile Sellassie I University. Experiment Station Bulletin No. 44, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

Nelson, L.A., R.D. Voss and J. Pesek, 1985. Agronomic and statistical evaluation of fertilizer response. In: O.P. Engelstad (ed.), Fertilizer technology and use. 3rd. ed. Madison, WI: SSSA. pp: 89.

Olsen, S.R., C.Y. Cole, F.S. Watanabe and L.A. Dean, 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circular, 939: 1-19.

Rajeshwari, R.S., N.S. Hebsur, H.M. Pradeep and T.D. Bharamagoudar, 2007. Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of maize. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(2): 399-400.

Saleem, A.R., U. Saleem and G.M. Subhani, 2007. Correlation and path coefficient analysis in maize (zea mays l.). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 45(3): 177- 183.

Saxena, M. and Y. Singh, 1965. A note on leaf area estimation of intact maize leaves. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 10(3): 437-439.

Sestak, Z., J. Castky and P.G. Jarvis, 1971. Plant photosynthetic production: Manual of methods. Published by Dr. W. Junk N.V., The Hague. pp: 343-381.

Shah, P. and A. Muhammad, 2000. Management of organic farming: Effectiveness of farm yard manure (fym) and nitrogen for maize productivity. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 16(5): 461-465.

Sharif, M., M. Ahmed, M.S. Sharir and R.A. Khattak, 2004. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the yield and yield components of maize. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Science, 20(1): 11-15.

Singh, L., S. Kumar, K. Singh and D. Singh, 2017. Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield attributes of maize under winter season (Zea mays L.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 6(5): 1625-1628.

Singh, R.B., P. Kumar and T. Woodhead, 2002. Smallholder farmers in India: Food security and agricultural policy. RAP Publication.

Tolessa, D. and D.K. Friesen, 2001. Effect of enriching farm yard manure with mineral fertilizer on grain yield of maize at Bako, Western Ethiopia. Seventh Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference. 11-15th February, pp: 335-337.

Tsedeke, A., B. Shiferaw, A. Menkir, D. Wegary, Y. Kebede, K. Tesfaye, M. Kassie, G. Bogale, B. Tadesse and T. Keno, 2015. Factors that transformed maize productivity in Ethiopia. Food Security, 7(5): 965-981.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0488-z.

Wakene, N., G. Heluf, D. Abdena and E. Geremew, 2005. Effect of integrated use of FYM, N and P fertilizer on maize in Western Oromiya of  Ethiopia. Indian Journal of Fertilisers, 1(8): 47-53.

Wakene, N., N. Kefyalew, D.K. Friesen, J. Ransom and Y. Abebe, 2002a. Determination of optimum farmyard manure and NP fertilizer for maize under the farmers’ conditions. In: Proceeding of 7th East and South African Regional Maize Conference, 11-15th February 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. pp: 387-393.

Walkley, A. and I.A. Black, 1934. An examination of the degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37(1): 29-38.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-193401000-00003.

No any video found for this article.
Tulu Kusse , Tesfaye Balemi , Tolera Abera (2019). Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(4): 183-197. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.183.197
A decline in soil nutrient and organic matter content as a consequence of removal of crop residues from crop fields, repeated suboptimal fertilization resulting in periodic nutrient mining, is a major constraint to increasing maize productivity in a sustainable manner in tropical soils. A field experiment was conducted at Ambo University research farm, Ethiopia with the objectives to investigate: the effect of combining different levels of poultry manure (PM) and NP chemical fertilizer rates on growth, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment consisted of eight treatments: control, 15 t ha-1 PM alone, 30 t ha-1 PM alone, 15 t ha-1 PM + 25% rec. NP, 15 t ha-1 PM + 50% rec. NP, 30 t ha-1 PM + 25% rec.NP, 30 t ha-1 PM + 50% rec.NP and 100% recommended dose of NP fertilizer rates, which were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Results showed that plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, leaf area index, number of cobs per plant, cob girth, cob length, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biomass yield, harvest index and grain yield were significantly higher for the treatment in which 30 t ha-1 PM plus 50% recommended NP fertilizer was applied compared to both the absolute and standard controls. The highest maize grain yield (132.7q ha-1) was recorded for the treatment in which 30 t ha-1 PM along with 50% recommended NP fertilizer was applied. The lowest values of growth, yield and yield components parameters were recorded for the negative control where no PM and chemical NP fertilizer were applied. Results of the correlation analysis revealed the presence of significant positive relationship between grain yields and all growth and yield component parameters. Integrating poultry manure with chemical fertilizers can considerable reduce the quantity of the later required for optimum maize production.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature that reports the positive contribution of co-application of poultry manure and inorganic fertilizer as part of integrated nutrient management in enhancing growth, yields and yield components in crop plants in general and in maize in particular.

Breeding Objective, Breeding Practices and Selection Criteria of Indigenous Sheep in Western Amhara, Ethiopia

Pages: 172-182
Find References

Finding References


Breeding Objective, Breeding Practices and Selection Criteria of Indigenous Sheep in Western Amhara, Ethiopia

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.172.182

Esubalew Adimasu , Kefyalew Almayehu , Tesfaye Getachew

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Abegaz, S., G. Duguma, U. Galmessa, B. Soboqa and F. Terefe, 2005. Small ruminant production system in east wollegga and west shoa zones. Research Report, Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Bako Agricultural Research Center, Bako, Ethiopia.

Abera, B., K. Kebede and S. Gizaw, 2014a. Indigenous breeding practices and selection criteria of sheep breed in Selale area, Central Ethiopia. International Journal of Livestock Research, 4(7): 49-56.Available at: https://doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20140423043726.

Abera, B., K. Kefelegn and G. Solomon, 2014b. Traditional husbandry practices of indigenous sheep types in Selale Area, Central Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 2(10): 188-195.

Alemayehu, A., 2011. Phenotypic characterization of indigenous sheep types of dawuro zone and konta special woreda of snnpr, Ethiopia. M.Sc.Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

Awgichew, K., 2000. Comparative performance evaluation of horro and menz sheep of Ethiopia under grazing and intensive feeding conditions. PhD Dissertation. Animal Science, University of Wales, UK. pp: 173.

CSA, 2017. Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia central statistics agency, agricultural sample survey 2016/19 [2009 e.C.] volume ii report on livestock and livestock characteristics (private peasant holdings) statistical bulletin 583 addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Duguma, G., T. Mirkena, A. Haile, L. Iñiguez, A. Okeyo, M. Tibbo, B. Rischkowsky, J. Sölkner and M. Wurzinger, 2010. A participatory approach to investigate the breeding goals of livestock keepers. Participatory definitions of the purpose of breeding and implementation of community-based sheep breeding programs in Ethiopia, 7.

Getachew, T., 2008. Characterization of menz and afar indigenous sheep breeds of smallholders and pastoralists for designing community-based breeding strategies in Ethiopia. MSc Thesis in Agriculture (Animal Genetics And Breeding). Haramaya, Ethiopia: Haramaya University.

Getachew, T., S. Gizaw, S. Lemma and M. Taye, 2011. Breeding practices, growth, and carcass potential of fat-tailed Washera sheep breed in Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 43(7): 1443-1448.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9874-5.

Getachew, T., A. Haile, M. Tibbo, A. Sharma, J. Souml and M. Wurzinger, 2010. Herd management and breeding practices of sheep owners in a mixed crop-livestock and a pastoral system of Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(8): 685-691.

Getie, B., K. Alemayehu and A.Z. Mekuriaw, 2017. Production system and husbandry practices of sheep under farmers’ management condition in North Western Highlands of Amhara region, Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 7(5): 88-94.

Gizaw, S., 2008. Sheep resources of Ethiopia: Genetic diversity and breeding strategy. Phd Thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

Gizaw, S., H. Komen and J.A. van Arendonk, 2010. Participatory definition of breeding objectives and selection indexes for sheep breeding in traditional systems. Livestock Science, 128(1-3): 67-74.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.10.016.

Gizaw, T., Z. Getachew, T. Edea, T.M. Mirkena, D. G., R. B., M. O., D. T., M. Wurzinger, J. Solkner and A. Haile, 2013. Characterization of indigenous breeding strategies of the sheep farming communities of Ethiopia: A basis for designing community-based breeding programs. ICARDA Working Paper, Aleppo, Syria. pp: 47.

Hagos, H., A. Banerjee and Y. Mummed, 2018. Indigenous breeding practices and selection criteria of sheep breed in central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. International Journal of Livestock Production, 9(6): 151-159.Available at: https://doi.org/10.5897/ijlp2017.0425.

Haile, D., S. Gizaw and K. Kefelegn, 2015. Selection criteria and breeding practice of sheep in mixed crop livestock farming system of North Shoa, Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 5(21): 168-174.

Hirpa, A. and G. Abebe, 2008. Economic significance of sheep and goats. In: Yami, A., merkel, R.C. (Eds.), Sheep and goat production handbook for Ethiopia. Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program (esgpip). pp: 1-4.

Jaitner, J., J. Sowe, E. Secka-Njie and L. Dempfle, 2001. Ownership pattern and management practices of small ruminants in The Gambia—implications for a breeding programme. Small Ruminant Research, 40(2): 101-108.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0921-4488(00)00221-2.

Kosgey, I., G. Rowlands, J.A. van Arendonk and R. Baker, 2008. Small ruminant production in smallholder and pastoral/extensive farming systems in Kenya. Small Ruminant Research, 77(1): 11-24.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2008.02.005.

Kosgey, I.S., 2004. Breeding objectives and breeding strategies for small ruminants in the tropics. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University.

Menbere, S., 2005. Characterization of livestock production system; A case study of yerer water shed, adaa liben district of East showa, Ethiopia. An M. Sc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. pp: 184.

Roessler, R., A.G. Drucker, R. Scarpa, A. Markemann, U. Lemke, L.T. Thuy and A.V. Zarate, 2008. Using choice experiments to assess smallholder farmers' preferences for pig breeding traits in different production systems in North–West Vietnam. Ecological Economics, 66(1): 184-192.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.08.023.

SAS, 2008. Sas/stat ® 9.2 user's guid. Cary, Nc, USA: Sas Institute Inc.

Solomon, B., S. Melaku and A. Yami, 2008. Potential use of crop residues as livestock feed resources under smallholder farmers conditions in Bale highlands of Ethiopia. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 8(1): 107-114.

Tefera, B. and A.S. Jabarin, 2006. Sheep price patterns and factors affecting price variations in the highland markets of North Shewa, Ethiopia. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2(1): 65-79.

Thiruvenkadan, A., K. Karunanithi, M. Murugan, K. Arunachalam and R. Babu, 2009. A comparative study on growth performance of crossbred and purebred mecheri sheep raised under dry land farming conditions. South African Journal of Animal Science, 39(1): 121-125.Available at: https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v39i1.61325.

Tibbo, M., 2006. Productivity and health of indigenous sheep breeds and crossbreds in central Ethiopian Highlands. PhD Dissertation. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Wuletaw, Z., W. Ayalew and J. Sölkner, 2006. Breeding scheme based on analysis of community breeding objectives for cattle in North-Western Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Animal Production, 6(2): 53-66.

Yeheyis, L., A. Sebsibe and G. Anteneh, 2004. On-farm evaluation of the effect of supplementing grazing menz sheep during the dry season in gerakeya woreda, North Shewa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia In Proceedings of the 12 Annual Conference, August 12-14. pp: 371-375.

Zewdu, E., 2008. Characterization of bonga and horro indigenous sheep breeds of smallholders for designing community based breeding strategies in Ethiopia. An MSc Thesis Presented to Shool of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University, Ethiopia. pp: 81-125.

Zewudu, E., A. Haile, M. Tibbo, A. Sharma, J. Sölkner and M. Wurzinger, 2012. Sheep production systems and breeding practices of smallholders in Western and South-Western Ethiopia: Implications for designing community-based breeding strategies. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 24(7): 2012.

No any video found for this article.
Esubalew Adimasu , Kefyalew Almayehu , Tesfaye Getachew (2019). Breeding Objective, Breeding Practices and Selection Criteria of Indigenous Sheep in Western Amhara, Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(4): 172-182. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.172.182
The purpose of this research was to generate organized information on breeding objectives, breeding practices and choice criteria of farmers in Farta, Lay Gayint and Sekela districts. A sum of 180 households was selected to survey questionnaires in selected districts, Semi structured questioner and group discussions were used as information sources. The average separation of the Statistical Analysis System was used to analyze the flock size and structure in the three districts. An index was calculated to supply an overall ranking of categorical variables. The average flock per house holding the study districts was 8.8±0.05 heads. For source of income (0.45), home use (0.28), saving (0.20), and manure (0.04) were the reasons of sheep keeping. The uncontrolled mating system was practiced by most (72.6 %) of households. In the study districts 37.7 % of farmers received their own breeding rams while the rest farmers shared with their neighbors. Appearance (0.38), growth rate (0.34), color (0.13), pedigree (0.10) and tail type and size (0.10) were the sheep owner’s standards for breeding ram, while the appearance (0.29), coat color (0.18), lamb growth (0.17), lambing interval (0.12), age at first lambing (0.09) and lamb survival (0.08) where the farmers' selection criteria for breeding ewes. Going through a breed improvement program considering the farmers’ production objectives and existing breeding practices is important. Nevertheless, designing alternative breeding strategies to key out the optimal number of traits to be considered and size of flocks to be mixed is crucial before setting up a breeding plan.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few works which have investigated to evaluate the existing breeding practice and choice criteria of sheep farmers’ in Ethiopia. This inquiry is important to design breeding strategies for improvement breeding practices and choice of traits chosen by farmers in the study districts.