International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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No. 3

Factors Determining the Smallholder Milk Producers Participation in Contractual Agreements: The Case of North-West Bangladesh

Pages: 164-179
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Factors Determining the Smallholder Milk Producers Participation in Contractual Agreements: The Case of North-West Bangladesh

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.83.164.179

Onik Chandra Das , Mohammad Jahangir Alam , Mohammad Ismail Hossain , Md. Mazadul Hoque , Swarup Barua

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Onik Chandra Das , Mohammad Jahangir Alam , Mohammad Ismail Hossain , Md. Mazadul Hoque , Swarup Barua (2021). Factors Determining the Smallholder Milk Producers Participation in Contractual Agreements: The Case of North-West Bangladesh. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(3): 164-179. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.83.164.179
Contract farming plays a significant role by establishing a bridge in order to link the milk farmers to market. The study aimed to state current institutional arrangement of dairy sector in Bangladesh. By using simple random sampling, a total of 90 (45 contract and 45without contract) dairy farmers from Chatmohar Upazila of Pabna District were interviewed. For determining the factor of farmers willingness to participate into contractual system was analyzed by conducting factor analysis. The highest factor loadings for the first dimension were found for the stable milk output price and access to training on dairy farming while timely payment for output has relatively factor loading on second dimension as well as the access to good quality inputs (drugs and feeds) higher in third dimension respectively. The most important reasons for unwillingness to participate in contract farming were under weighing of fat, lower milk price than the market price, distance to the location of milk collection centers, sell at home, rules and regulations of PRAN Dairy Ltd., & availability of dairy farmers etc. The result clearly shows that contract farming has the potential of raising income of the smallholder dairy farmers. It benefited the farmers through reducing different input costs and other relative costs related to dairy farming, which may be more in the informal markets or without contract arrangement. In addition, contract farming contributes for improving the income of dairy farm and reducing production costs by providing different services and technical advice by the contract firms.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated contractual arrangement system of dairy farming in Bangladesh. This study contributes to the existing literature and provides comparison between the income of contracted and non-contracted dairy farmers.

The Effect of Continuous Grazing on Herbaceous Species Composition, Basal Cover and Production on Three Soil Types in the North West Province, South Africa

Pages: 148-163
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The Effect of Continuous Grazing on Herbaceous Species Composition, Basal Cover and Production on Three Soil Types in the North West Province, South Africa

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.83.148.163

Franci Jordaan , Jaco v Rooyen

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Franci Jordaan , Jaco v Rooyen (2021). The Effect of Continuous Grazing on Herbaceous Species Composition, Basal Cover and Production on Three Soil Types in the North West Province, South Africa. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(3): 148-163. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.83.148.163
Rangeland health is normally measured by soil condition, grass species composition as well as its acceptability to grazing herbivores. The impact of grazing on community structure and ecosystem functioning is a key issue for rangeland management in order to maximize livestock production and sustainability of the operations. Year-round continuous grazing is the management strategy used in the communal areas of the North West Province of South Africa. In this study the effect continuous grazing on herbaceous species composition, basal cover and production on different soil types was tested. It was clear from the results that the effect of continuous grazing was the biggest on the andesitic soils (high clay), then the diabase soils (medium clay), whilst the effect on the quartzite soils was limited to even positive. The end result was that the different soil types in a continuous grazing system led to serious selective grazing in this study.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that continuous grazing on different soil types has a definite influence on herbaceous species composition, basal cover, and production. The clayey soils are more negatively influenced than the sandy soils.

Households Demand for Branded Tea in Southwest, Nigeria

Pages: 134-147
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Households Demand for Branded Tea in Southwest, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.83.134.147

Fatai Abiola SOWUNMI , Funmilayo AKIN-JACOBS , Zakariyah Olayiwola AMOO

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Fatai Abiola SOWUNMI , Funmilayo AKIN-JACOBS , Zakariyah Olayiwola AMOO (2021). Households Demand for Branded Tea in Southwest, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(3): 134-147. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.83.134.147
Tea is an important food drink globally with significant health benefit. However, it consumption is low in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa generally. There is dearth of literature on branded tea demand. Hence, household demand for branded tea in southwest, Nigeria was investigated. The study revealed the dominance of Lipton tea among other brands of tea. Demand for herbal tea was higher among older respondents. The study affirmed that the monthly household expenditure share on branded tea in the study area and across the states was low. The monthly household expenditure on complements (sugar, milk and honey) was higher than that of branded teas. The study revealed the influence of price on the expenditure shares of branded teas, its substitutes and complements. Marital status and years of education of respondent influenced the decision to consume branded tea. Expectedly, branded teas exhibited complementary relationships with milk, sugar and honey. The expenditure elasticities of all the branded teas except top tea were positive (normal goods). Improvement in local production and processing of tea locally will bring about its improved consumption. It is recommended that the relevant NGOs should raise the level of awareness on the health benefit of tea which may help to raise the household expenditure on it from the present level. Also, it is imperative for government to put enabling policy in place for tea firms to source tea leaf locally to reduce the price of branded teas as well as create jobs along the tea value chain.
Contribution/ Originality
The study showed that the demand as well as expenditure on branded tea was low in the Southwest, Nigeria. The preference for herbal tea by the aged was highlighted by the study. The study has increased the existing literature on demand for branded tea in Southwest, Nigeria.

Effect of Land Use and Slope Position on Infiltration Characteristics on Sandstone-Derived Soils of Southern Nigeria

Pages: 122-133
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Effect of Land Use and Slope Position on Infiltration Characteristics on Sandstone-Derived Soils of Southern Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.83.122.133

Utin, U. E.

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Utin, U. E. (2021). Effect of Land Use and Slope Position on Infiltration Characteristics on Sandstone-Derived Soils of Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(3): 122-133. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.83.122.133
A study of some soil properties that influence infiltration under different land use types and slope positions in sandstone-derived soils was carried out in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria. Soil samples were collected in triplicate for laboratory analyses and infiltration tests were conducted using the double ring infiltrometer method. Analysis of variance, correlation and regression analyses were used to assess the data Oil Palm Plantation and Fallow Land increased the organic matter content of the soil, reduced bulk density, increased the soil porosity and aggregate stability over Continuously Cultivated Land. Downslope soil movement caused the upper slopes to lose their clay and organic matter to the middle and lower slope soils. Initial infiltration rate, final infiltration rate, cumulative infiltration, sorptivity and transmissivity varied highly across the studied locations but were not significantly (P ? 0.05) affected by land use, slope position and their interactions. Apparently higher infiltration rates were observed in all slope positions under Oil Palm Plantation and Fallow Land as a result of their apparently higher clay contents, total porosity, mean weight diameter, saturated hydraulic conductivity and organic matter contents over those of Continuously Cultivated Land. Heavier organic matter input will help to modify the upper slope soils for increased infiltration rates. Plantation agriculture should be adopted and continuous cultivation discouraged to increase water infiltration on sloppy terrains of the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the combined effect of land use and slope position on infiltration characteristics and has demonstrated that infiltration tend to increase towards the lower slope position of vegetated lands compared to upper slopes rendered bare by continuous cultivation.

Management of Fusarium Wilt Disease of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Using Selected Plant Extracts

Pages: 114-121
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Management of Fusarium Wilt Disease of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Using Selected Plant Extracts

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.83.114.121

Aduramigba- Modupe, A. O. , Alawiye, T. T. , Adedire, O. M.

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Aduramigba- Modupe, A. O. , Alawiye, T. T. , Adedire, O. M. (2021). Management of Fusarium Wilt Disease of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Using Selected Plant Extracts. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(3): 114-121. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.83.114.121
Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyder and Hansen, is considered the most widespread, prevalent and economically damaging fungal disease of tomato in Nigeria. This study was conducted to isolate and identify fungal pathogens associated with tomato wilt disease, and also evaluate the efficacy of four plant extracts in the management of wilt disease in vitro and in vivo. Two varieties of tomato, Roma VF and UC 80 were used for the biocontrol assay. Four plant extracts, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides roots, Distemonanthus benthamianus stems, Azadirachta indica seeds and oryza sativa husk were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Three concentrations (0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 g/mL) of each extract were investigated using the agar dilution method for radial growth inhibition assay. Of the four plant extracts evaluated, Oryza sativa husk extract was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of Fusarium oxysporum, both in vitro and in vivo. Rice husk extract (0.05 g/mL) had the highest inhibition rate (100%), followed by A. indica extract (80.32%) at 0.05 g/mL level of concentration, while Z. zanthoxyloides and D. benthamianus had the inhibition rates of 71.83% and 61.41% respectively, at 0.04 g/mL. Tomato plants treated with rice husk extract (0.05 g/mL) had the least wilt severity scores of 1.25 and 1.50 for both UC 80 and Roma VF varieties, respectively. Rice husk extract was the most effective against Fusarium wilt for both varieties and could serve as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.
Contribution/ Originality
The primary contribution of this research investigation is establishing the retention of significant antifungal activities in the aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides roots, Distemonanthus benthamianus stems, Azadirachta indica seeds and oryza sativa husk, for the biocontrol of tomato-wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.